Empires of the World/
Medieval Europe
Regents Review #2
Ancient Greece
• Located in the
Many different islands
situated in the
Mediterranean Sea
• Main form of
where citizens have a say
in the government.
However, citizenship was
limited to males over the
age of 25 who owned
land. This form of
government is found in
• Greek _____________
became the dominant
architectural idea. This
was used in the
and influenced buildings
in the West (Lincoln
Memorial, White House,
• Greece was not
due to the mountains in the
area. There were many
different ____________,
but the two prominent ones
were _______________
and ________________.
Athens was the democracy
and thrived on trade due to
their location on the coast.
Sparta was
They conquered land and
fought against Athens.
• Athens and Sparta
eventually beat each other
up to the point where other
city-states became
powerful. One such citystate was Macedonia who
was led by
Alexander the Great
Alexander conquered the
Middle East and Egypt,
uniting it under his rule. In
doing so, he created
Hellenistic Culture
a blending of Persian,
Greek, and Middle Eastern
The Roman Empire
• Rome was located on the
Italian Peninsula
and the peninsula is
centrally located in the
Mediterranean Sea
This allowed Rome to
create an empire based
around the sea and
allowed them to control
trade across Europe.
• There were two dominant
forms of government in
Rome. For the first half of
its existence, Rome was a
Here, citizens elect
representatives to the
make decisions for them.
For the second half,
Rome was ruled under a
led by the
• Rome created a large
empire on the European
continent and Northern
Africa. In order to maintain
control, they broke it into
sections controlled by
different men. In order to
help unify these areas, the
Roman’s built _______
which linked these areas. It
allowed for trade to
flourish across these areas,
and allowed the
government to put down
rebellions in its provinces
by quickly moving troops
• Rome is also remembered for its _______________.
Building upon the Greek pillars, the Romans used
to help move water to
their major cities. The best remembered Roman building
is the ________________________,
where Romans
were entertained.
Maurya Empire
• ______________
first empire, and last from about
325 BC to 200 AD. It’s greatest leader was
who unified the empire. He built
roads to help unite the empire. The Maurya helped
math and science
establish India’s first _______________________,
where they made advances in math and science.
Gupta Empire
• ________________
second empire, and lasted from
300 AD to 535 AD. It’s greatest leader was
Chandra Gupta
who helped unify the
empire. It also helped lead India into its greatest
Golden Age
where advances were again
math and science
made in _____________________.
The Gupta were
the ones who created the modern numeral system.
The Han Dynasty
• _____________
first great empire. Most influential of
the Chinese dynasties. They ruled using a
centralized government
where one
authority runs the government. In order to unite the
road system
empire, the Han used a major __________________.
To help maintain a centralized government and a highly
structured society, the Han encouraged people to follow
the ideas of _______________________.
The Han
Silk Road
are the first to trade along the __________________
to Europe and the Middle East. They developed
and were among the first to
develop paper to use with books.
Medieval Europe
• When Rome fell, Western Europe splintered apart.
Groups of people stopped having contact with other
groups. Europeans needed to form new ways of
government. To compensate, _________________
developed, where a lord or monarch exchanged land for
loyalty and military service. Men and women lived and
worked on a ____________,
a large plantation owned
by their feudal lord. Here, everything anyone needed was
grown and built. Essentially, manors were small towns.
• Another result of the
collapse of Rome is the
development of the
Romance Languages
These are languages who’s
root language is Latin, the
language of the Roman
Empire. These languages
are Spanish, French,
Portuguese, Romanian,
and Italian.
• Because Western Europe
was not unified under one
leader, a unifying power for
Europe was the
Catholic Church
The Church became the
dominant power in Europe.
If you did not belong to
your local parish, you were
ostracized from society. In
order for a monarch to rule,
he or she needed the
support of the Church and
• One way the Church exhibited
their power was through the
These were
sets of ______________
Holy Wars for
approximately 200 years with
the goal of retaking the Holy
Land from the __________.
Ultimately, these wars failed to
retake the Holy Land, but did
result in an increase in trade
between Europe and
The Middle East
From this increase in trade,
new ideas in
math and science
were reintroduced to Europe.
• However, the Church began
losing power when the
Black Plague
struck Europe in the 1340’s.
As trade increased due to the
Crusades, contact with other
cultures increased. With this,
the Plague arrived from
China, and wiped out 1/3rd of
Europe’s population.
• Another result of this renewal of trade was the
Commercial Revolution
More and more goods
are traded, not only between Europe and the Middle
East, but also amongst townsfolk.
Job Specialization
as different people specialized in different jobs. New
formed, and banking
began. From this, ____________,
and then

Empires of the World/ Medieval Europe