Empires of the World/ Medieval Europe Regents Review #2 Ancient Greece • Located in the Balkan Peninsula ______________. Many different islands situated in the Mediterranean Sea _________________. • Main form of government: Democracy ________________ where citizens have a say in the government. However, citizenship was limited to males over the age of 25 who owned land. This form of government is found in Athens _________________. Pillars • Greek _____________ became the dominant architectural idea. This was used in the Parthenon _________________, and influenced buildings in the West (Lincoln Memorial, White House, etc) • Greece was not unified __________________ due to the mountains in the area. There were many city-states different ____________, but the two prominent ones Athens were _______________ Sparta and ________________. Athens was the democracy and thrived on trade due to their location on the coast. Sparta was militaristic ___________________. They conquered land and fought against Athens. • Athens and Sparta eventually beat each other up to the point where other city-states became powerful. One such citystate was Macedonia who was led by Alexander the Great ___________________. Alexander conquered the Middle East and Egypt, uniting it under his rule. In doing so, he created Hellenistic Culture ___________________ a blending of Persian, Greek, and Middle Eastern cultures. The Roman Empire • Rome was located on the Italian Peninsula _________________, and the peninsula is centrally located in the Mediterranean Sea _________________. This allowed Rome to create an empire based around the sea and allowed them to control trade across Europe. • There were two dominant forms of government in Rome. For the first half of its existence, Rome was a republic _________________. Here, citizens elect representatives to the Senate ____________ to make decisions for them. For the second half, Rome was ruled under a dictatorship ________________, led by the Caesars _________________. • Rome created a large empire on the European continent and Northern Africa. In order to maintain control, they broke it into sections controlled by different men. In order to help unify these areas, the roads Roman’s built _______ which linked these areas. It allowed for trade to flourish across these areas, and allowed the government to put down rebellions in its provinces by quickly moving troops throughout. architecture • Rome is also remembered for its _______________. Building upon the Greek pillars, the Romans used arches domes _______________, __________________, and aqueducts ______________________ to help move water to their major cities. The best remembered Roman building Colosseum is the ________________________, where Romans were entertained. Maurya Empire India’s • ______________ first empire, and last from about 325 BC to 200 AD. It’s greatest leader was Asoka ________________, who unified the empire. He built roads to help unite the empire. The Maurya helped math and science establish India’s first _______________________, where they made advances in math and science. Gupta Empire India’s • ________________ second empire, and lasted from 300 AD to 535 AD. It’s greatest leader was Chandra Gupta ____________________, who helped unify the empire. It also helped lead India into its greatest Golden Age __________________, where advances were again math and science made in _____________________. The Gupta were the ones who created the modern numeral system. The Han Dynasty China’s • _____________ first great empire. Most influential of the Chinese dynasties. They ruled using a centralized government _______________________________, where one authority runs the government. In order to unite the road system empire, the Han used a major __________________. To help maintain a centralized government and a highly structured society, the Han encouraged people to follow Confucius the ideas of _______________________. The Han Silk Road are the first to trade along the __________________ to Europe and the Middle East. They developed gunpowder ____________________ and were among the first to develop paper to use with books. Medieval Europe • When Rome fell, Western Europe splintered apart. Groups of people stopped having contact with other groups. Europeans needed to form new ways of feudalism government. To compensate, _________________ developed, where a lord or monarch exchanged land for loyalty and military service. Men and women lived and manor worked on a ____________, a large plantation owned by their feudal lord. Here, everything anyone needed was grown and built. Essentially, manors were small towns. • Another result of the collapse of Rome is the development of the Romance Languages __________________. These are languages who’s root language is Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. These languages are Spanish, French, Portuguese, Romanian, and Italian. • Because Western Europe was not unified under one leader, a unifying power for Europe was the Roman Catholic Church ___________________. The Church became the dominant power in Europe. If you did not belong to your local parish, you were ostracized from society. In order for a monarch to rule, he or she needed the support of the Church and Pope. • One way the Church exhibited their power was through the Crusades ____________. These were sets of ______________ Holy Wars for approximately 200 years with the goal of retaking the Holy Muslims Land from the __________. Ultimately, these wars failed to retake the Holy Land, but did result in an increase in trade between Europe and The Middle East _____________________. From this increase in trade, new ideas in math and science _____________________ were reintroduced to Europe. • However, the Church began losing power when the Black Plague __________________ struck Europe in the 1340’s. As trade increased due to the Crusades, contact with other cultures increased. With this, the Plague arrived from China, and wiped out 1/3rd of Europe’s population. • Another result of this renewal of trade was the Commercial Revolution _____________________. More and more goods are traded, not only between Europe and the Middle East, but also amongst townsfolk. Job Specialization ________________________________ resulted as different people specialized in different jobs. New businesses ______________________ formed, and banking began. From this, ____________, and then cities nation-states _______________________ formed.