Journal At the end of the first chapter, Paul says, “Youth! We are none of us more than twenty years old. But young? Youth? That is long ago. We are old folk’ (Remarque 16).” What does Paul mean by this? In what ways might you consider yourself ‘old?’” Journal When you hear or think about the word “WAR,” what kinds of things come to mind? If you are having trouble writing, talk about this poster: All Quiet on the Western Front By Erich Maria Remarque Erich Maria Remarque Born in 1898 Served in World War One Fought on the side of the Germans Sustained injuries and spent time in the hospital His German citizenship was revoked in 1938 as a result of his “anti-war” novel. Died in 1970 All Quiet on the Western Front The novel is fictional, but it is based upon Remarque’s personal experiences during the war. It was first published in 1929. More than one million copies were sold, and it was translated into twenty-three languages. The Nazis banned and burned All Quiet on the Western Front in 1933 because it was considered an anti-war novel. World War One Lasted from 1914-1918 The “war to end all wars” Allies: United States (joined in 1917), Britain, France, and Russia Axis Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Turkey Total Number Killed: 8.5 – 10 million The Western Front ran approximately 300 miles across the face of Western Europe, from Belgium to Switzerland. The front consisted of opposing trenches, sometimes only yards apart. The trench warfare of World War I lasted for three years and took several million lives. The Battle of the Somme, an attack by the Allies trying to break through the German lines, took more than four months. The allies gained only six miles. British and French casualties were 95,675 Britons killed and 60,729 Frenchmen killed. The defense cost the Germans 164,055 soldiers killed. Trenches Battle of the Somme, France, 1916, 7 day bombardment, 57, 000 dead. • The trenches were muddy and often flooded with water. The bodies of dead and wounded men and animals fouled them. • Corpses lay in the “no man's land” between the trenches. Enemy snipers, rats, lice, and stench from the decaying bodies contributed to the misery of the trenches. • Toward the end of the war the German soldiers had little food. Passchendaele, Belgium, 1917 Before and After • An attack was preceded by bombardments, some lasting for days. • In order to mount an attack, soldiers carrying rifles and packs had to go "over the top” of the trenches. • Once in the no man's land, they faced barbed wire entanglements, machine guns, bombardment (often by their own misdirected guns), grenades, poison gas, and fire from the opposing trenches. • For many historical scholars, WWI is interesting to study because it a moment in military technology when fire power doesn’t match with mobility. • At the beginning of the twentieth century, automatic weapons and new modes of transportation were combining with traditional military routine. • This, on top of the rural locations where many soldiers fought, lead to a dangerous and difficult life on the front. • The Western Front was in stalemate until the United States entered the war. • Fresh troops, along with abundant hardware and supplies, tipped the scales decisively in favor of the Allies. • An armistice was signed on November 11, 1918 and the Treaty of Versailles was imposed on Germany in June 1919. • The conflict was one of the bloodiest in history; ten million soldiers were killed along with an estimated ten million civilians. Take five minutes to freewrite about your impressions of an older generation and your younger generation. In general, do you respect the opinions of persons older than you? Do you think older people have the same values or perspectives that younger people do? Do you think all young people have the same values and points of view? Explain. Chapter 1 Review 1. Why do the men receive double rations? 2. What makes the men happy and satisfied? (in the story) 3. How do Kropp, Paul and Muller enjoy the afternoon? 4. Why did the boys enlist in the army? 5. Who was Joseph Behm and what happened to him? 6. What do the men now think of Kantorek and others who hold his same beliefs? 7. Describe Kemmerich. 8. What is shown in the scene with the orderly? Chapter 1 Review 1. Why do the men receive double rations? They receive double rations because there was 150 men the day before, so the food guy made food for 150 men, but after the battle there was only 80 men left. 2. What makes the men happy and satisfied? (in the story) When they all get letters, and they stroll over to the meadow, and food 3. How do Kropp, Paul and Muller enjoy the afternoon? They play cards, read letters, and take a nap. 4. Why did the boys enlist in the army? So they would not be called cowards, and there school master told them too. Chapter 1 Review 5. Who was Joseph Behm and what happened to him? During the first battle he got shot in the eye, and they thought he was dead so they left him in the field, but he was only unconscious, so he was walking back yelling, and he got shot again and died. 6. What do the men now think of Kantorek and others who hold his same beliefs? They think that they are stupid for calling them youth, and they hate them, and him told them they would be heros, but there not. 7. Describe Kemmerich. He is feverish, and dies from his leg getting amputated. 8. What is shown in the scene with the orderly? It shows how the soldiers become desensitized to one another and their surroundings, especially when it comes to death. Ch 2 Review Questions: 1. What did Paul often do in the evenings before the war? 2. How do Paul and the other young men differ from the older soldiers? 3. What did the men learn as new recruits? 4. What were they forced to do in the training camp? 5. What does death “look like” in Franz Kemmerich? 6. What is the doctor’s and the orderly’s attitude toward Kemmerich’s death? 7. Why does Paul run away from the hospital? Chapter 3 Review Questions 1. Kropp calls the new reinforcements __________. 2. What is Katczinsky’s talent? 3. What type of food does Kat find in this chapter? 4. What is Kropp’s idea of how wars should be fought? 5. Why does Tjaden hate Himmelstoss? 6. Describe the way that the soldiers "jump" Himmelstoss. 7. "________ is black pudding." (pg 49) Iron Youth Or a “lost generation?” Causes of World War One Although it was the assassination of the Austrian archduke, Franz Ferdinand that led to the outbreak of World War I in August 1914, the actual causes of the war were more complicated and not confined to a single cause. Alliances An alliance is an agreement made between two or more countries to give each other help if it is needed. When an alliance is signed, those countries become known as allies. These connections were important at the time because they meant that some countries had no choice but to declare war if one of their allies declared war first. Imperialism Imperialism is when a country takes over new lands or countries and makes them subject to their rule. By 1900 the British Empire extended over five continents and France had control of large areas of Africa. The amount of lands 'owned' by Britain and France increased the rivalry with Germany who had entered the scramble to acquire colonies late and only had small areas of Africa. Militarism Militarism means that the army and military forces are given a high profile by the government. The growing European divide had led to an arms race between the main countries. The armies of both France and Germany had more than doubled between 1870 and 1914 and there was fierce competition between Britain and Germany for mastery of the seas. Nationalism Nationalism means being a strong supporter of the rights and interests of one's country. Large areas of both Austria-Hungary and Serbia were home to differing nationalist groups, all of whom wanted freedom from the states in which they lived. This caused radical tension that would lead to violence. OVER BY CHRISTMAS Propaganda Information, possibly of a misleading nature, used to promote or publicize a particular political cause or point of view. Directions: As we review some of these pieces of propaganda, write down things you notice that make them convincing. Excerpt from the text (pp.87-88) for class analysis We agree that it’s the same for everyone; not only for us here, but everywhere, for everyone who is of our age; to some more, and to others less. It is the common fate of our generation. Albert [Kropp] expresses it: “The war has ruined us for everything.” He is right. We are not youth any longer. We don’t want to take the world by storm. We are fleeing. We fly from ourselves. From our life. We were eighteen and had begun to love life and the world; and we had to shoot it to pieces. The first bomb, the first explosion, burst in our hearts. We are cut off from activity, from striving, from progress. We believe in such things no longer, we believe in the war. Where is the Love (song lyrics excerpt) by Black Eyed Peas, featuring Justin Timberlake What's wrong with the world, mama People livin' like they ain't got no mamas I think the whole world addicted to the drama Only attracted to things that'll bring you trauma Overseas, yeah, we try to stop terrorism But we still got terrorists here livin' In the USA, the big CIA The Bloods and The Crips and the KKK But if you only have love for your own race Then you only leave space to discriminate And to discriminate only generates hate And when you hate then you're bound to get irate, yeah Badness is what you demonstrate And that's exactly how anger works and operates You gotta have love just to set it straight Take control of your mind and meditate Let your soul gravitate to the love, y'all, y'all Sig Bang Schmidt, “Trench Patrol”, 2002 By Steve Dalachinsky Seattle Anti-War Protest Photos - 15 Feb 2003 Approximately 50,000 (estimates range from 30,000 to 80,000) Seattle protesters marched in opposition to war with Iraq. Propaganda is information or ideas used to promote or injure a cause, movement, nation, etc… Your assignment is to create a propaganda poster or pamphlet related to World War I, the war against terrorism, an aspect of life at Athens, or some other (approved) topic. Think of an appropriate slogan or quote. You will then need to create an illustration for your slogan. Finally, write a paragraph that describes the slogan/quote and the significance/purpose of your poster or pamphlet. You may be asked to share these with the class. Have fun and be creative! Getting started: Brainstorm your cause. Ask yourself, “What do I want to convince people to see or do?” Ex: Student Council elections for freshmen just occurred. Imagine you’re trying to convince someone to vote for you Now think of a strategy to do so: What will your slogan be? What images will you use to persuade others? Are you going to try to appeal to people’s emotions or their logic? What other strategies will you use: colors, language, design? Or…. Imagine you have been commissioned to design a propaganda poster to help your country enlist young men for World War I. Design a poster that is appropriate for your country (keeping in mind specific colors, symbols, slogans and values), and that you feel will persuade young men to join the war. You may choose which country you want to represent, so long as that country participated in WWI. RUBRIC: Presentation (artwork and text) Content (School/WWI related) Written analysis TOTAL /10 /5 /10 /25 Chapter 4 Review Questions 1. How does the arrival at the front affect the soldier’s physical appearance? 2. What does Paul say about the Earth? What does it offer the soldiers and why is this ironic? 3. An _________ instinct allows the men to survive on the front. 4. What must be done on a wiring fatigue? 5. Why do you think Remarque includes the scene with the horses? 6. What is ironic about using the cemetery for cover? 7. What do Kat and Paul nearly do to the recruit with the hip wound? Why? 8. Why does Paul say the rain falls in their hearts? The men have become like what at the end of the chapter? Chapter 5 Review Questions 1. How do the men kill lice? 2. Who is rumored to arrive and what does he expect from the group of men? 3. Why does Himmelstoss want to have Tjaden court-martialed? 4. What does Kropp say has happened to Paul’s classmates so far? 5. What does school have to do with the boys’ lives now? 6. How does Muller’s questioning show how the men’s lives be like when they return to society? 7. What happens during the goose escapade? What do Paul and Kat decide to do with the extras? Chapter 6 Review Questions 1. What are the soldiers astonished about as they go towards the trenches to begin the offensive? 2. What does Paul sah “hovers over” their lives? (p 101) 3. What animal do the soldiers have trouble with? What do they do about it? 4. What happens to one of the new recruits? Why are the veterans so worried about it? 5. What does Paul daydream about while they are waiting to attack? How does he feel about these daydreams? 6. What happens to one of the soldiers that bothers Paul and his comrades? (p 124) 7. What occurs between Paul and Himmelstoss during battle? 8. How many men in Paul’s company survived the offensive? Close Reading Practice “The air becomes acrid with the smoke of the guns and the fog. The fumes of powder taste bitter on the tongue. The roar of the guns makes our lorry stagger, the reverberation rolls raging away to the rear, everything quakes. Our faces change imperceptibly. We are not, indeed, in the front-line, but only in the reserves, yet in every face can be read: this is the front, now we are within its embrace.” (p 52-53) What is TONE? The writer's attitude toward the material and/or readers. 1. What would you say the overall tone of this paragraph is? (Remember: tone is how the author feels about his/ her subject). 2. What three words in the passage are most important to leading you to that tone? 3. Which word would change the paragraph the most if you took it out? 4. What images do you see? How does the diction contribute to this imagery? 5. Find another passage that you think shows a very clear tone. Write down a paragraph that explains how it uses diction, details and imagery to create this tone. Be ready to share if asked. Jump in Reading “Summer of 1918” Directions: On your own, read the passage silently. Once you are finished, look for words/phrases/sentences that you believe express Remarque’s tone, portray a vivid image, and/or serve as powerful diction in this passage. Choose one word/phrase/sentence you find powerful, is important to the meaning, that stands out, or that you think doesn’t fit and write it at the top of a sheet of paper. Free write using that word/phrase/sentence as a jumping off point. Now I will read the passage aloud. Whenever I come across the word/phrase/sentence you chose, READ WITH ME. The effect is what they call a choral reading. Jump in Reading “Summer of 1918” What was the effect of the Jump-In reading? What things were highlighted by the class? Are there examples of any of the terms below in the passage? Evaluate each of the terms and write down any specific lines that show the term. •Irony •Figurative language •Symbolism •Imagery •Theme •Foreshadowing •Mood •Tone “The Idea of Authority” They write. We saw the wounded and dying. They talk. We knew the death-throes. They teach. We saw there was nothing left. We trusted them. We went courageously, Then we learned to see. We learned false from true. Lads of eighteen, A shattered generation, All at once terribly alone. They let us down so badly. We trusted them. No mutineers, no deserters, no cowards. We trusted them. The first death, The first bombardment. We trusted them—Our mistake. Found Poetry Directions: •Use only the words in the specified passage. •You may use whole phrases or single words. •You may change word order—so long as the words remain the same. •There is no set form—you may decide to make your poem rhyme, have a certain rhythm, repeat words or phrases, etc. •There is no length requirement (but keep in mind that short poems must be powerful!) •Be creative! Found Poetry Directions: Group 1: page 26 beginning with “So we were put through…” through “…comradeship” on 27. Group 2: page 33 – “Outside the door…” through “…belly alone. HONORS: Group 1: pg 286 beginning with “There are so many airmen here” through “Must Paul.” Group 2: pg 293 through pg 295 (Ch 12) Found Poetry Directions: •Read your poems aloud in your group and note differences and similarities. Write these down! •As a group, review which phrases or words were most commonly used. Why do these terms seem significant? Be prepared to share. •What message or theme does your group think is represented by your passage? Remember: a theme is generally not just one word! •How does your poem relate to the novel or the larger issue of war? Do you think poetry is better able to express abstract ideas more so than fiction? Why or why not?