Rebellion in the Canadas Rebellion •A rebellion is when the people turn against the government of a country in a violent way. Louis-Joseph Papineau • Leader of the reform party in Lower Canada called Parti Patriote. Issues in Lower Canada •An increase in British immigration to the colony worried the reformers. •Farmers worried that these new settlers would take all the remaining land, leaving no land for their children. •French Canadians worried about losing their language and culture because of British control. •There were poor harvests due to crop failure, and many farmers faced starvation. •There was a cholera epidemic brought by recent immigrants. • Cholera- a fatal disease of the stomach and intestines. Cholera • The people of Lower Canada felt the government was not doing enough to help them during this difficult time. William Lyon Mackenzie • Leader of a group of reformers in Upper Canada • He owned a newspaper that criticized the elite. Issues in Upper Canada •The biggest complaint was how government was spending money. Ex// Canals Rideau Canal, Ottawa • Another issue was that the elite and the Church of England usually got the best areas of land which they did not use for farming. Instead, the elite would sell the land when prices went up. • This bothered new immigrants who had to move far away from towns for land. • Farmers like those in Lower Canada were also facing starvation. Trigger for Trouble Lower Canada • 1834 the reformers gave a list of complaints to the British Government • Two years later the government responded by increasing the power of the governor! Trigger for Trouble cont… Upper Canada • The governor used threats and bribes to get the Reformers voted out of the Legislative Assembly. • This pushed them to take action. • Rebellion first began in Lower Canada in 1837. • The rebels had few weapons and no military training so they were easily defeated. • There were not enough people willing to fight. • King thought British soldiers were busy in Lower Canada so decided it was time to act in Upper Canada. • He led a group of rebels toward Toronto. • Government officials organized a militia to protect the city. They easily defeated the rebels. • Militia- a group of citizens who are not professional soldiers but act as soldiers in times of trouble. The Durham Report • The British Government sent Lord Durham to investigate the situation in the colonies after the rebellions. Main Points of the Report 1. Join the two colonies of Upper and Lower Canada into one colony called the Province of Canada. •He thought this would lead the French to become more like the British. 2. Give the Province of Canada responsible government Response to the Report • The British Government created the Province of Canada in 1841. • However, it did not grant responsible government yet.