Rebellion in the Canadas
Rebellion
•A rebellion is when the
people turn against the
government of a
country in a violent
way.
Louis-Joseph Papineau
• Leader of the
reform party
in Lower
Canada called
Parti Patriote.
Issues in Lower Canada
•An increase in British
immigration to the
colony worried the
reformers.
•Farmers worried that
these new settlers
would take all the
remaining land,
leaving no land for
their children.
•French Canadians
worried about losing
their language and
culture because of
British control.
•There were poor
harvests due to crop
failure, and many
farmers faced
starvation.
•There was a cholera
epidemic brought by
recent immigrants.
• Cholera- a fatal disease
of the stomach and
intestines.
Cholera
• The people of Lower
Canada felt the
government was not
doing enough to help
them during this
difficult time.
William Lyon Mackenzie
• Leader of a group
of reformers in
Upper Canada
• He owned a
newspaper that
criticized the
elite.
Issues in Upper Canada
•The biggest complaint
was how government
was spending money.
Ex// Canals
Rideau Canal, Ottawa
• Another issue was that
the elite and the Church
of England usually got
the best areas of land
which they did not use
for farming. Instead, the
elite would sell the land
when prices went up.
• This bothered new
immigrants who had to
move far away from
towns for land.
• Farmers like those in
Lower Canada were also
facing starvation.
Trigger for Trouble
Lower Canada
• 1834 the reformers gave a list
of complaints to the British
Government
• Two years later the
government responded by
increasing the power of the
governor!
Trigger for Trouble cont…
Upper Canada
• The governor used threats and
bribes to get the Reformers
voted out of the Legislative
Assembly.
• This pushed them to take
action.
• Rebellion first began in
Lower Canada in 1837.
• The rebels had few
weapons and no military
training so they were
easily defeated.
• There were not enough
people willing to fight.
• King thought British
soldiers were busy in
Lower Canada so
decided it was time to act
in Upper Canada.
• He led a group of rebels
toward Toronto.
• Government officials
organized a militia to
protect the city. They
easily defeated the rebels.
• Militia- a group of citizens
who are not professional
soldiers but act as soldiers in
times of trouble.
The Durham Report
• The British Government
sent Lord Durham to
investigate the situation
in the colonies after the
rebellions.
Main Points of the Report
1. Join the two colonies of
Upper and Lower
Canada into one colony
called the Province of
Canada.
•He thought this would
lead the French to
become more like the
British.
2. Give the Province of
Canada responsible
government
Response to the Report
• The British Government
created the Province of
Canada in 1841.
• However, it did not grant
responsible government yet.
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Rebellion in the Canadas