Mood, Tone, Imagery, Symbolism, and Inference Not everything is as it seems… Standard • ELACC8RL4: Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including analogies or allusions to other texts. Tone and Mood …to support the author’s purpose TONE TONE is simply the author’s attitude toward the subject. You can recognize the tone/attitude by the language/word choices the author uses. His language will reveal his perspective/opinion (that is, whether it is positive/negative) about the subject. Tone must be inferred through the use of descriptive words. Tone Example The girls were playing in the pond, splashing each other and trying to catch fish with their hands. They were having fun, but kept looking over their shoulders at the looming forest. The long grass of the field kept moving and they sort of felt like they were being watched… About a half hour passed and still the girls kept checking the field for movements. It seemed like a pair of dark eyes was on them. They even considered going back inside, but that would mean homework time. So they continued splashing, but with caution now. Their eyes hardly left the field. The tone of this passage is ominous, suggesting a little bit of fear or foreboding. Words like "caution, dark, and looming“ lead readers to the tone. It is frightening! Tone: “Where Can They Stay?” About three million people have to look for a place to sleep at night. Some homeless people have jobs but do not earn nearly enough money for both food and shelter. Some become homeless because they have an unfortunate accident or lose their job. They do not have any back-up resources to make it through the hard times. The homeless face terrible problems. Many become victims of violence. Serious health problems may begin because they are exposed to bad weather and unclean conditions. Homeless children may miss the chance to go to school. Worst of all, some cities pass laws that make it even harder on the homeless. Tone: “Where Can They Stay” How would you describe the tone [attitude] of this author? a. Pleased b. Easy Going c. Serious Evidence? MOOD MOOD is the overall feelings or emotions that are created IN THE READER. The “power of the pen” can move mountains. Authors “move” their readers’ moods through their choice of words and level of detail. MOOD EXAMPLE During the holidays, my mother's house glittered with decorations and hummed with preparations. We ate cookies and drank cider while we helped her wrap bright packages and trim the tree. We felt warm and excited, listening to Christmas carols and even singing along sometimes. We would tease each other about our terrible voices and then sing even louder. Mood: Content, happy. How do we know? Words like "warm, excited, glittered” are used by the author. Mood: “A Gift in His Shoes” Donovan and Larry were early for baseball practice. They decided to run up and down the bleachers to exercise before the rest of the team arrived. Larry was first to the top. He whispered to Donovan, “Look over there.” He pointed to a man sleeping on the highest, narrow bench of the bleachers. His pants and shirt were faded, worn, and too large for his thin frame. One big toe stuck out of a huge hole in his sock. His scraped-up shoes sat a few feet away. Donovan whispered, “We should help him out. Let’s hide something good in his shoes. Then, when he wakes up, he will have a nice surprise.” Mood: “A Gift in His Shoes” How would you describe the mood of this passage? a. Angry b. Detached c. Sympathetic Evidence? Imagery Sensory details Imagery (21) Imagery is the use of language that appeals to the senses. Taste Smell Sight Touch Sound Imagery • Imagery allows us to perceive a person, place, object, animal, food, experience or other aspect of the world exactly as a writer envisions it makes the writing come alive for the audience. Ex. Sitting at Prim’s knees, guarding her is the world’s ugliest cat. Mashed in nose, half of one ear missing, eyes the color of rotting squash. --Suzanne Collins Why Use Imagery? There is a BIG difference between: -It was hot outside today. And -An explosion of heat blasted my face as soon as I stepped through the door. Images make things more interesting. You may be asked what sense imagery appeals to Wolf Mine is the howl that chills the spine in the forest gloom; mine is the whine. Mine is the nose that breathes in fear when danger's close; mine is the ear. Mine is the fur the huntsman trade; mine is the fur, I am afraid The first stanza mainly appeals to the sense of • A. Hearing • B. Smell • C. Taste • D. Touch Student Sample: The Earring A little drop of gold, Set upon her ear, Dangling in the Autumn light, A piece of Sun to wear, Etched with tiny woven patches, Snug upon the ear it latches, Curved in a classy crescent, Like half the moon sliced out. Its partner rests in place, Upon the wooden table, Studied by a passing crow, Landing on the old, worn stable. Inference Guesses about literature Inference (28) • An inference is a conclusion that can be reached about the meaning of a piece of literature based on the evidence provided in the writing. • In other words, it is a guess the reader can make about the meaning of a piece based on what the piece says. To infer… • We take things we know about life and combine them with the information we get from the text We make inferences in real life There is no Frigate Like a Book by: Emily Dickinson There is no Frigate like a Book To take us Lands away Nor any Coursers like a Page Of prancing Poetry— This Traverse may the poorest take Without oppress or Toll— How frugal is the Chariot That bears the Human soul. Because of Libraries We Can Say These Things by: Naomi Shihab Nye She is holding the book close to her body, carrying it home on the cracked sidewalk, Down the tangled hill. If a dog runs at her again, she will use the book as a shield. Where can we infer this girl has been? What can we infer has already happened? She looked hard among the long lines of books to find this one. When they start talking about money, when the day contains such long and hot places, She will go inside. An orange bed is waiting. Story without corners. She will have two families. They will eat at different hours. What can we infer about her home life? She is carrying a book past the fire station and the five and dime. What this town has not given her the book will provide; a sheep, a wilderness of new solutions. The book has already lived through its troubles. The book has a calm cover, a straight spine. What can we infer about the neighborhood? When the step returns to itself, as the best place for sitting, and the old men up and down the street are latching their clippers, she will not be alone. She will have a book to open and open and open. Her life starts here. How does she feel about life? Books? Short, Short Story by --Richard Brautigan “It's very hard to live in a studio apartment in San Jose with a man who's learning to play the violin." That's what she told the police when she handed them the empty revolver. Make inferences: Describe what has happened in your own words. Why did it happen? Who are the man and woman. Why are the police there? How does the story end? Symbolism (29) Symbolism is using one object to represent something else In other words, it is when a thing, person, or idea stands for a completely different thing, person, or idea. Symbolism is all Around Us Symbols are Used in Advertising Symbols on the $1 Bill! Common Symbols in Literature Doves: Peace Spring: Birth; youth Winter: Old age; death Eagle: Freedom Skull: Death Cross Bones: Danger; Death Water: Birth; life Rose: Love; beauty Crown: Royalty Ring: Love; unity Circle: Unending; life Sunrise: birth; new starts Full Moon: Strangeness; Danger Passing Storm: new start Fire: Rage Keys: discovery; mystery Storms: Danger • • • • • • • • • Common Color Symbolism (Archetypes) Green: jealousy; greed; nature Red: Passion; violence; blood; anger Blue: Calm; peace White: Pure; Newly born; innocent Black: Death; evil Purple: Wealth; royalty Grey: Gloom; misery; sadness Yellow: Caution Orange: distrust Nursery Rhymes often have Symbolism Ring around the rosie A pocket full of poesy Ashes, Ashes We all fall down! Symbolism can happen in Literature Papa died that summer. Everyone came at once and brought us food…I couldn’t stand it! They all wore black, black like coal mines that killed my papa. He didn’t even like black. He liked all the bright colors of the day. So why were they wearing black, I wondered. --The rag coat The Road Not Taken by Robert Frost Two roads diverged in a yellow wood, And sorry I could not travel both And be one traveler, long I stood And looked down one as far as I could To where it bent in the undergrowth; Then took the other, as just as fair, And having perhaps the better claim, Because it was grassy and wanted wear; Though as for that the passing there Had worn them really about the same, And both that morning equally lay In leaves no step had trodden black. Oh, I kept the first for another day! Yet knowing how way leads on to way, I doubted if I should ever come back. I shall be telling this with a sigh Somewhere ages and ages hence: Two roads diverged in a wood, and I— I took the one less traveled by, And that has made all the difference.