English for Speakers of Other Languages CSE 489 Seminar August 27, 2010 Josie Prado [email protected] Before we start…. • Remembering Dr. Erevelles’ lecture on Multiculturalism in U.S. schools, how do the concepts of invisibility and hypervisibility apply to English language learners? • Thinking of Dr. Siders’ lecture on Special Education, how would collaboration apply to you as a classroom teacher with an English Language Learner? My goal today is… • To consider the perspective of the English Language Learner • To introduce you to some basic principles of Second Language Acquisition • To connect those SLA principles with classroom strategies for English Language Learners ESL Alphabet Soup • ESL – English as a Second Language • ELL – English Language Learner • SLA – Second Language Acquisition • WIDA – World Class Instructional Design and Assessment • ELP – English Language Proficiency • LEP - Limited English Proficiency How important is culture? • Cultural beliefs influence individual thinking… (Pransky & Bailey, 2002) • Some students may ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ Avoid eye contact as a sign of respect Prefer to remain silent than make a mistake Be uneasy with informality in the classroom Not wish to be singled out for individual praise • What can you do? Get to know your student and learn more about your ELL’s culture. Stages of Acculturation Honeymoon Hostility Home Humor Seven Principles of SLA (1) • Learners with strong foundation in first language and in first language literacy skills learn additional languages more easily and more fully (Thomas & Collier, 2002; Cummins, 1981, 2000). ▫ Teacher: Draw on student’s first language to support learning academic content. The student’s prior knowledge in her first language is one of her best resources! What would that look like? • If your student already understands the concept of liberty in her first language, then she just needs a new word. Otherwise, she must learn the concept and the new word. • Use cognates (liberty / libertad / liberté) • Chapter summaries of textbook in native language • Dictionaries/electronic translators Seven Principles of SLA (2) • Continued development of first language will enhance overall development of second language (Cummins, 1976, 2000) ▫ Teacher: Encourage your ELLs to development their first languages; use their first language as a resource What would this look like? • Bilingual staff, especially with similar cultural backgrounds • Students are allowed to speak first language in the classroom • Encourage ELLs to read in their first language Seven Principles of SLA (3) • In order to learn a language, people must have contact with fluent speakers of that language (Wong-Fillmore & Snow, 2005) ▫ Teacher: Get ELLs actively engaged with their native-English speaking peers Small groups Hands-on activities Peer-tutors Seven Principles of SLA (4) • Social Language Proficiency (BICS) is completely different from • Academic Language Proficiency (CALP) (Cummins, 1979, 1981, 2000). ▫ Teacher: Just because your student is fluent (and speaks with his classmate’s accent), doesn’t mean that he will be on grade level in terms of academic work. What is this, again? • It takes 1-3 years to master BICS (social language) • It takes 5-7 years to master CALP (academic language) • http://www.wida.us/standards/PerfDefs.pdf Seven Principles of SLA (5) • In order for an ELL to develop language skills, the language she encounters must be comprehensible (Krashen, 1982, 2003). ▫ Teacher: Listening to lecture style presentations is tiring. After awhile, language will simply wash over the ELL. He won’t grow linguistically or academically. What does comprehensible language look like? • Use clear, “guessable” teacher talk (a.k.a. motherese) • Reduce the use of idioms (Do you really want them to “pull your leg???”) • Keep sentences short and vocabulary simple • Use key words from lesson (PRINT them on the board • Expand the one or two-word sentences from your ELL (restroom?) Seven Principles of SLA (6) • The best kind of language for an ELL is comprehensible language plus a little more (Krashen, 1982, 2003). ▫ Teacher: Use language that corresponds to your student’s level of proficiency and add a little more. That’s why “scaffolding” ELL’s learning process is so important. What does scaffolding mean, exactly? • Provide support to your student while he is learning a new concept. As student gains skills, gradually reduce support • Use visuals, realia, manipulatives, and other concrete materials • Use graphic organizers Seven Principles of SLA (7) • Anxiety that surrounds learning will hinder language development (Krashen, 1982, 2003) ▫ Teacher: Avoid embarrassing ELLs, or placing them in situations where their peers will make fun of them. Do NOT force your student to speak. He will produce language when he is ready. How can you reduce stress in the classroom? • Show genuine interest in the student (as an individual, not as a member of a group) through gestures, tone of voice, facial expressions • Don’t verbally correct grammatical or pronunciation errors (unless she asks you to)— model the correct form when you respond • Encourage your students to share their backgrounds and cultures General Instructional Strategies • Establish consistent patterns and routines in your classroom • Speak slowly (not loudly) and clearly • Use gestures and facial expressions • Use visuals to clarify key concepts • Use student’s first language • Use audiobooks, DVDs, chapter summaries More Instructional Strategies • • • • Check often for understanding Record your lessons/lectures Reinforce your concepts in a variety of ways Summarize and review frequently (breaking up chunks of new information) • Allow students enough time to respond • Involve parents in the instructional process A few tips for classroom assessment • ELLs answer fewer questions • Grade only those completed by ELL • Accept a picture or description instead of specific term • Provide word banks • Give ELLs more time to complete the test • Read questions aloud • Provide only 2 choices for multiple choice • Use graphic organizer instead of essay question Incorporating other forms of assessment • • • • Grade the process instead of the product Grade the content, not the language Include homework grades into final assessment Create your own test, instead of using publisher’s test Return to the Beginning • How do invisibility and hypervisibility apply to English Language Learners? • Why is collaboration important? References • Cummins, J. (1976). The influence of bilingualism on cognitive growth: A synthesis of research findings and explanatory hypotheses. Working papers on bilingualism, 9, 1 – 43. • Cummins, J. (1979). Cognitive/academic language proficiency, linguistic interdependence, the optimum age question and some other matters. Working papers on bilingualism, 19, 121 – 129. • Cummins, J. (1981). The role of primary language development in promoting educational success for language minority students. In California State Department of Education, Schooling and language minority students: A theoretical framework (pp. 3 – 50). Los Angeles, California State University, Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center. • Cummins, J. (2002). Language, power and pedagogy: Bilingual children in the crossfire. Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters. • Ellis, R. (1994). The study of second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. • Krashen, S. D. (1982). Principles and practice in second language acquisition. New York: Pergamon. References • Krashen, S. D. (2003). Explorations in language acquisition and use: The Taipei lectures. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. • Law, B. & Eckes, M. (2000). More than just surviving handbook. Winnipeg, Canada: Portage & Main Press. • Peregoy, S. & Boyle, O. (2005). Reading, writing, and learning in ESL: A resource book for k– 12 teachers. Boston: Allyn and Bacon • Pransky, K. & Bailey, F. (2002). To meet your students where they are, first you have to find them…The Reading Teacher, 56(4), 370-383. • Richard – Amato, P.A. (2005). Academic success for English language learners. White Plains, NY: Longman. • Thomas, W. P., & Collier, V.P. (2002). A national study of school effectiveness for language minority students’ long-term academic achievement. University of California, Santa Cruz: Center for Research on Education, Diversity and Excellence. • Wong-Fillmore, L. & Snow, C. (2005). What teachers need to know about language. In P.A. Richard-Amato & M. A. Snow (Eds.) Academic success for English language learners: Strategies for K – 12 mainstream teachers (pp. 47 – 75). White Plains, NY: Pearson Longman Press.