Supporting English Language
Learners
Dr. Julie R. Grady
Arkansas State University
November 6, 2009
Arkansas Curriculum Conference
Common Terms
• Language minority: Children whose native
language is other than English regardless of
proficiency in English
• LEP: Limited English proficient-official designation
originating with Civil Rights law
• ELL: English language learner in the process of
learning English
• Immigrant children: Children with at least one
foreign born parent
• Newcomers: recent arrivals to the U.S.
(Crandall, Jaramillo, Olsen, Peyton, & Young, 2008;
Garcia, Jensen, & Scribner, 2009)
Our Growing U.S.
English Language Learner (ELL) Population
• One in five children comes from an immigrant family
• Children from immigrant families are the fastest-growing
segment of the child population; are more likely than their
peers to live in poverty and to be behind grade level
(Hernandez as cited in Sadowski, 2008)
• Living in poverty in 2000: 68% of ELLs in preK-5, 60% of ELLs
in grades 6-12
• 2004: Foreign-born reached 34.2 million; 11.9% of
population
• 2000: 20% of preK-12 students were children of immigrants
• Grades preK-5: 7.4 % of students ELLs; in grades 6-12: 5.5%
(Capps et al., 2005)
Arkansas’s Growing ELL Population
• One of largest state percentages of increase from
1990-2000 for pre-K-8: 243%
(Capps et al., 2005)
ELLs at higher risk for underachieving in schools
than native English-speaking students because of
3 of 5 risk factors:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Parent education levels
Family income
Parent English-language proficiency
Mother’s marital status at time of birth
Single versus dual-parent homes
(García, E. E., Jensen, B. T., & Scribner, K. P. , 2009)
How Well Are Teachers Prepared to
Support ELLs?
• Teaching ELLs is the
responsibility shared by ALL
educators
• Most teachers do not feel
prepared to support the
academic needs of ELLs
• 1999-2000 study: 87.5 % of teachers who reported
teaching ELLs had less than one day of professional
development
(National Center for Educational Statistics, 2001)
Common Myths about Learning English
and ELLs
1. The more time students spend soaking up English
in the mainstream classroom, the faster they will
learn the language.
2. Children learn a second language faster and more
easily than teenagers and adults do.
3. Students should be strongly encouraged to speak
English from the first day.
(Haynes, 2007)
What Experts Know about Learning
A New Language
1. English language learners
need one to three years to
master social language in the
classroom.
2. Students don’t always
acquire social languages
naturally in informal
contexts. They may need to
be taught how to
communicate appropriately
in social situations.
3. Learning academic subjects
in their native language
helps ELLs learn English.
4. Parents of English language
learners should be
encouraged to speak their
primary language at home.
5. Students who have strong literacy skills in their
native language will learn English faster.
6. Students need more than two-three years in
bilingual or ESL classes to succeed in school.
(Haynes, 2007)
Practices to Avoid
1. Emphasizing that one group’s language is
superior to others
2. Forbidding ELLs to speak in their native languages
3. Recommending that ELLs speak only English
outside of school
4. Giving praise only to new language skills
(Agirdag, 2009)
What Can You Do?
1. In your school:
• Celebrate cultural and
language diversity with
classroom assignments,
bulletin boards,
assemblies, banners
• Encourage parent involvement, get to know the
families, spend time in their communities,
invite parents to share culture, mentor the
family, interview families, have special
programs for newcomers
• Embrace a school-wide
culture of caring
• Add materials in students’
languages, add bilingual
books, include newsletter
and Web page information
in other languages
• Hire multi-lingual staff
• Investigate the wide variety of ELL programs and
choose the one best for school community
needs
(Agridag, 2009; Aleman, Johnson, & Perez, 2009; Haynes, 2007;
Ramirez & Soto-Hinman, 2009)
2. In your classroom
• Welcome all languages
• Establish a routine
• Assign bilingual buddies
• Have high expectations
• Insist on deep understanding
• Remember that ELLs are a very diverse group
• Create special space in classroom for ELLs
• Have same language students help each other
• Learn and practice communication skills that
support ELLs
• Ask students to share their languages
• Learn how to differentiate instruction for ELLs
(Agridag, 2009; Haynes, 2007; Ramirez & Soto-Hinman, 2009)
3. Read all that you can about how to support ELLs
in your subject area, classroom, school and
community.
4. Demand professional development in your
content area and for the grade level you teach.
References
Agirdag, O. (2009). All languages welcomed here. Educational Leadership,
66(7), 20-24.
Aleman, D., Johnson, Jr., J. F., & Perez, L. (2009). Winning schools for ELLs.
Educational Leadership, 66(7), 66-69.
Capps, R., Fix, M., Murray, J., Ost, J., Passel, J., & Herwantoro, S. (2005). The
new demography of America’s schools: Immigration and the No Child Left
Behind Act. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.
Crandall, J., Jaramillo, A., Olsen, L., Peyton, J. K., & Young, S. (2008). Diverse
teaching strategies for immigrant and refugee children. In R. W. Cole (Ed.),
Educating everybody’s children (2nd ed., pp. 219-278). Alexandria, VA:
ASCD.
García, E. E., Jensen, B. T., & Scriber, K. P. (2009). The demographic imperative.
Educational Leadership, 66(7), 8-13.
Haynes, J. (2007). Getting started with English language learners: How
educators can meet the challenge. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
National Center for Educational Statistics. (2001). Schools and staffing survey.,
1999-2000. Washington, DC: Author.
Ramirez, A. Y., & Soto-Hinman, I. (2009). A place for all families. Educational
Leadership, 66(7), 79-82.
Sadowski, M. (Ed.). (2008). Teaching immigrant and second-language
students. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.
English Language Learners
Supporting
Tammy Gillmore
Batesville High School
November 6, 2009
Arkansas Curriculum Conference
Share Time…coming up!
– Would you please share
how your schools work
with this sub-pop?
Batesville School Stats
ELL’s are the fastest growing sub-population.
~Jane D. Hill and Kathleen M. Flynn, 2006
Classroom Instruction That Works with English Language Learners
The Testing Reality
• 2008-2009, in order to graduate…
– students must pass
• End-of-Course Geometry
• End-of-Course Algebra Exams.
During their first year in the United States, students with an Individualized Educational
Plan (IEP) may be excluded from the reading/language arts test.
NCLB, 2004
The Testing Reality
• Literacy exam is an End-of-Level
– not an End-of Course exam
– Do not have to pass….yet…
– 2014:
• Literacy exam moves to the 1oth grade
• Becomes an End-of-Course = have to pass!
Students must still take the math test,
even if they enroll in a school on the day of the test.
NCLB, 2004
Peer-Buddy Program
• Teachers select a student per class to work
with each ELL.
• Submit nominees via a Google Document.
• Peer-Buddies receive “training.”
According to Department of Education (2007),
peer tutoring and response groups were found to have
positive effects on the language development of ELLs.
Vocabulary
• Emphasize jargon
of the classroom
– Math Classroom:
• difference, sum, even,
odd, plot, and point
• Everything a teacher does
should revolve around vocabulary attainment.
~Suzanne Irujo, 2007
Language learners need five to seven years to attain
the academic literacy necessary to succeed within the mainstream classroom.
~Jane D. Hill and Kathleen M. Flynn, 2006
Classroom Instruction That Works with English Language Learners
Dictionaries: Word-to-Word
• 75,000 Words
• May use on any AR state test!
– If checked on their LPAC form
as an accommodation
Language learners need five to seven years to attain
the academic literacy necessary to succeed within the mainstream classroom.
~Jane D. Hill and Kathleen M. Flynn, 2006
Classroom Instruction That Works with English Language Learners
ELL English Class
• Class of eight
– Score 1 on the LAS exam
to qualify
ELLs need early and intensive instruction in
phonological awareness and phonics.
~D.J. Francis, M. Rivera, N. Lesaux, M. Kieffer, & H. Rivera, 2006
English Class ~ Spanish Teacher
• Meet Ms. Insell = bilingual (English/Spanish)
• Students placed in her classes.
This enriched language environment, taught by highly qualified teachers, includes
utilizing both the native language and English, for not including both can stifle cognitive
development. Should a bilingual teacher not be available or if a district cannot afford
one, then schools should provide a language specialist
Garcia & Jensen, 2007; Decapua, Smathers, & Tang, 2007
Faculty Meetings = PD
Present test-taking tips
– Math
– Literacy
– ELL
Present life-long skills
Talk slowly…
ELL ~ Professional Learning Network (PLN)
ELL ~ Professional Learning Network (PLN)
• Book Study
– Strategies That Work
– Classroom Instruction That Works
with English Language Learners
School staff must now assume the responsibility of teaching language skills to these
students; this is not just duty of the ELL faculty.
~Jane D. Hill and Kathleen M. Flynn, 2006
Classroom Instruction That Works with English Language Learners
ELL ~ Professional Learning Network (PLN)
Dr. Grady
Recommendation
School staff must now assume the responsibility of teaching language skills to these
students; this is not just duty of the ELL faculty.
~Jane D. Hill and Kathleen M. Flynn, 2006
Classroom Instruction That Works with English Language Learners
ELL ~ Professional Learning Network (PLN)
• Learning in the 21st Century
– Blogs
• Larry Ferlazzo’s Websites of the Day
ELL ~ Professional Learning Network (PLN)
• More Blogs…
– ELL Classroom
– Engaging Parents In School
– ESL Teachers’ Blog of Substance
– ESL/EFL Sister Classes
– ESL/EFL Student Showcase
– Teaching EFL & ESL
Share Time!
– What are you doing
at your school?
Sharing Our Sources…
– This PowerPoint may be accessed here.
References
Arkansas Department of Education. (2006, Oct. 9). Rules governing the Arkansas comprehensive
testing, assessment, and accountability program and the academic distress program.
Retrieved September 21, 2008, from
http://www.arkansased.org/rules/pdf/current/ade_247_actaap06_current.pdf
DeCapua, A., Smathers, W., & Tang, L.F. (2007, Mar.). Schooling, interrupted. Educational Leadership,
64 (6), 40-46.
Francis, D. J., Rivera, M., Lesaux, N., Kieffer, M., & Rivera, H. (2006). Practical guidelines for the
education of English Language Learners: Research-based recommendations for instruction
and academic interventions. Retrieved September 2, 2008, from the University of Houston,
Texas Institute for Measurement, Evaluation, and Statistics at the University of Houston for
the Center on Instruction: http://www.centeroninstruction.org/files/ELL1-Interventins.pdf
Hill, J.D., & Flynn, K.M. (2006). Classroom instruction that works with English Language Learners.
Virginia: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Irujo, Suzanne. (2007). What does research tell us about teaching reading to English Language
Learners? Reading Rockets. Retrieved September 16, 2008, from
http://www.readingrockets.org/article/19575?theme=print
Descargar

Our Growing U.S. English Language Learner (ELL) Population