Language Allocation Policy
(LAP)
P.S. 1 0 5
NOVEMBER 4, 2014
BY ALICE LEE
Why do we have ESL or Bilingual Programs?
 NYS Commissioner’s Regulation Part 154:
 In a Landmark 1974 decision, Lau vs Nichols, the US
Supreme Court established the right of ELL students to
have a meaningful opportunity to participate in the
educational program.
 Aspira vs. Board of Education – 1972 , consent decree in
which the board agreed to begin to provide a
transitional bilingual instructional program
Both cases fought for equal access to fully participate in
the public education system for ELL students.
ELLs within the context of the
entire DOE student population
4 1 % O F T H E S T U D E N T S E N R O L L E D I N N YC
PU B L IC SC H O O L S SPEA K A N OTH ER L A N G UAG E
AT H O M E
•
•
•
ELLS MAKE UP 14.4% OF THE ENTIRE DOE
S T U D E N T P O P U L AT I O N
•
N E A R LY H A L F ( 4 7 . 5 % ) O F T H E D O E ’ S E L L S
W E R E B O R N I N A N OT H E R C O U N T RY
16.4%, 12,137 STUDENTS CAME FROM CHINA –
T H E S E C O N D L A R G E S T E L L P O P U L AT I O N
Top 12 ELL Languages in NYC Public Schools







Spanish (63.4%)
Chinese (13.6%)
Other (5.2%)*
Bengali (3.9%)
Arabic (3.6%)
Haitian Creole (2.5%)
Russian (2.1%)
•
•
•
•
•
•
Urdu (1.9%)
French (1.5%)
Punjabi (0.6%)
Albanian (0.6%)
Korean (0.5%)
Uzbek (0.5%)
*(151 languages are represented in this group)
New ELL Students by Grade and Level
Grades
PS 105 LABR (Fall 2013)
K
1
2
15
3
4
4
5
Beginner
128
2
Intermediate
58
Advanced
25
1
2
1
Proficient
16
2
3
0
2
1
Total New Admits
227
18
5
5
2
3
PS 105 NYSESLAT Scores By Levels
2013-2014
Grades
0K
01
02
03
04
05
Total
Beginner
#
%
60.7%
128
18.6%
44
10.3%
17
12.5%
17
19.3%
23
27.4%
34
26.5%
263
Intermediate
#
%
27.5%
58
22%
52
38.2%
63
22.1%
30
27.7%
33
19.3%
24
26.2%
260
Advanced
#
%
11.8%
25
59.3%
140
51.5%
85
65.4%
89
52.9%
63
53.2%
66
47.2%
468
Grand Total
%
#
%
100%
211
100%
236
100%
165
100%
136
100%
119
100%
124
100%
991
Number of Proficient Students By Modality
PS 105 NYSESLAT Results 2013-2014
Listening
Speaking
#
%
#
1
65
29.4%
43
2
69
41.8%
3
89
70%
4
22
18.8%
5
39
32.2%
Grade
%
Reading
#
Writing
Total
Students
%
#
%
19.5% 101
45.7%
106
48%
221
29
17.6%
57
34.5%
76
46.1%
165
6
4.7%
84
66.1%
60
47.2%
127
45 38.5%
47
40.2%
87
74.4%
117
14
75
62.1%
82
67.8%
121
K
284
137
11.6%
364
411
752
What is the Language Allocation Policy?
 It is a systematic plan for language
development that guides
programmatic and curricular
decisions for ELL students until they
acquire academic proficiency in
English.
 Specific guidelines for language of
instruction for ELL students in ESL
and bilingual programs
Why do we have a LAP?
 As per CR Part 154, SED requires that DOE
schools must develop, submit, and implement a
comprehensive LAP that addresses the unique
academic and linguistic needs of their ELLs and
families.
 CR Part 154 establishes standards for the
education of ELL students. All districts must
provide ELL students with equal access to all
school programs and services offered by the
district. Non-compliance will result in reduced
funding to schools.
 Schools must submit this plan every two years.
What are the components of the LAP?
 Analysis of all available assessment
data for ELL students as well as non-ELL
students on all grade levels
 How the school uses the trends and
patterns to inform instructional
decisions
 How the school evaluate the success of
programs for ELLs
 The ELL identification process – HLIS
and the Program choice for parents
ELL Program Models at PS 105
1. Freestanding ESL program including
push-in and self-contained
2. Chinese Transitional Bilingual Program
Both programs must provide intensive
ESL instruction:
 Beginner and Intermediate ELLs – 8
periods of ESL instruction
 Advanced ELLs – 4 periods of
mandated ESL instruction
Language of Instruction for ESL Programs
Freestanding ESL programs:
ESL students receive language arts and
subject area instruction in English.
• Teachers employ specific ESL
methodologies which can include native
language support.
• ELLs exit ESL service when they reach
proficiency on the NYSESLAT
• Former ELLs continue to receive
transitional support for up to one year,
and they are entitled to ELL testing
accommodations for up to two years.
•
Language of Instruction for Bilingual
Programs
Transitional Bilingual programs – English and
Chinese
 Language arts and subject area instruction in
both native language and in English, in addition
to intensive ESL instruction.
 The ratio of native language to English
instruction will shift as students become more
proficient in English.
 Students can exit when they reach proficiency
on the New York State English as a Second
Language Achievement Test (NYSESLAT),
however schools are required to provide students
with language support for an additional two years
after proficiency is achieved.
Language Allocation for Bilingual Classes in STARS
 School Model
 Beginners –
 30% English : 70% Chinese
 Intermediate –
 50%English : 50% Chinese
 Advanced –
 70% English : 30% Chinese
Native Language in the Bilingual Program
 Every bilingual class must have one period
of native language arts per day
 All content area instruction should be
taught in the native language to ensure
comprehension
ELL Groups and Subpopulations
 ELL newcomers – 63.1% of the 159,162 ELLs are new comers
 ELLs with disabilities – citywide, 21.6% of ELLs have IEPS
 Long-term ELLs – students who continue to require ELL service after 6
years – these students often demonstrate oral proficiency in English,
but low academic literacy in both English and their home language.
 73% of the City’s 19,984 long-term ELLs were born in the US
 Nearly 50% of the long-term ELLs have IEPs (84.6% Spanish, 4.8%
Chinese)
 Findings show that a common characteristic is educational
inconsistency, such as moving back and forth between US and their
native country, or moved between bilingual and ESL programs.
 Students with interrupted Formal
Education (SIFE)
–Students who come from a home
where a language other than English is spoken, have had at least two
years less schooling than their peers; function at least two years
below expected grade level in reading and math; and may be preliterate in their first language.
What Is the Difference Between Social and
Academic English?
Social English:
 Everyday communication in oral and written forms.
 May develop within a few months. However, it will take a
couple of years to fully develop social English skills in
listening, speaking, reading, and writing.
Academic English:
 Academic English is more demanding and complex than
social English.
 Academic English is the language necessary for success
in school. It is related to a standards-based curriculum,
including the content areas of math, science, social
studies, and English language arts.
Why is it important for ELLs to develop academic
English?
 ELLs come to school not only to learn how
to communicate socially, but to become
academically proficient to handle the
standards-based curriculum.
 Learn academic vocabulary to develop the
content knowledge in English to succeed
in future schooling.
 Provide support and scaffolding according
to their ability to ensure learning with
rigor.
To Facilitate Academic Language Development
 In math - teach terms for subtraction, like
"subtract," "take away," and "decreased by.”
 In science - teach terms to connect the parts of an
experiment, like "therefore," "as a result," and
"for instance."
 In social studies - teach the words and also the
background knowledge that ELLs will need. For
example, background knowledge to
Thanksgiving.
 In language arts - teach ELLs by using basic
graphic organizers for word development to
visually represent knowledge: concept maps,
KWLs, synonyms, antonyms, tenses, etc.
How to Help Students Develop Both Social and
Academic English?
 Determine students' levels of proficiency
 Begin with social English
 Include many contextual supports through
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visuals, maps, charts, manipulatives, music, and
pantomiming. Use Total Physical Response
(TPR) activities to help ELLs learn by doing.
Add content vocabulary in your lessons or units.
Use sentence frames in discussion as support
Create cooperative learning groups
Challenge students' thinking using Bloom's
taxonomy
Challenge Students' Thinking
For example: In a unit on urban and urban life in the US for
intermediate students:
Lessons focus:
 Content vocabulary
 Students will be expected to produce short statements:
 Knowledge and comprehension - know what they can find
in a U.S. city and in the country
 Application - determine whether someone lives in the
country or city based on a description of what they see
 Analysis - name two or three ways in which cities and
rural towns are similar and different
 Synthesis - draw typical city and rural scenes
 Evaluation - say whether they would prefer to live in the
city or the country and give one or two reasons why
What are your next steps?
• Look at the data pattern of your students
• Determine learning groups using all available data
• Identify content vocabulary for each unit
• Identify appropriate resources
• Create differentiated activities and lessons to address
the needs of your students with rigor
• Create appropriate assessment for learning
• Refer to “Specific Considerations for Teachers of
English Language Learners” from Advance to guide
your planning.
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Language Allocation Policy (LAP)