St. Boniface Roman Universalism in North Orange County St. Boniface Church, St. Catherine’s Academy and Associated Roman Catholic Institutions in Anaheim, California Researched and Written by Alex Lamb, Anaheim High School, Anaheim, CA St. Boniface Roman Catholic Church German immigrant Roman Catholics followed German immigrant Protestants to Anaheim, in Southern California, and established St. Boniface Catholic Church in 1860. Many of these German immigrants had originally come to California to become wealthy during the gold rush of 18481849. The “new” St. Boniface Church was begun on September 1, 1902, at the corner of Lincoln Avenue and Harbor Boulevard. It sustained serious damage during the Long Beach earthquake of 1933 and eventually was torn down by the late 1950’s. The present day church is located one block West of Harbor Boulevard on Lincoln Avenue. German Roman Catholic Immigration The first large wave of German Roman Catholics began in the mid 1840’s. Most German immigrants during this time were more secure economically than the Irish Catholic immigrants who were also coming into the United States at this time. Most German Catholic immigrants were able to purchase farms or small businesses, and settled in the Mid West and in cities like Chicago, Cincinnati, St. Louis, and Milwaukee. A few made their way to California, to seek their fortunes in the gold fields, or to settle in small farming communities like Anaheim. American nativist political parties arose like the Know-Nothings, which were anti-Catholic, anti-immigrant, and believed that immigrants would take away the good paying jobs of native-born Americans. These nativist and anti-Catholic feelings would arise later in Anaheim during the 1920’s when the Ku Klux Klan in Anaheim took control of the city council and for a while wielded considerable political authority. St. Boniface School St. Boniface School was established in the 1930’s to provide Catholic education from Kindergarten to Grade 8. Several graduates of St. Boniface then went on to attend Marywood Girls High School in Anaheim (at the corner of Harbor Boulevard and Broadway), Mater Dei High School in Santa Ana, or Servite High School in Anaheim. However, a great many of St. Boniface alumni chose to attend Anaheim High School, a public school, one block West, at 811 W. Lincoln Avenue. Nativism and the Ku Klux Klan in Anaheim During the 1920’s Recently arrived newcomers to the city of Anaheim from the South and the Mid-West brought their ideas of nativism with them in the form of the Ku Klux Klan, which was fundamentalist Protestant, antiCatholic, anti-foreigner, anti-new scientific ideas, and anti alcohol. Anaheim up to this time had been predominately Roman Catholic, and had a long tradition of manufacturing alcoholic beverages such as wine and beer. Traditionally, Anaheim was the only “wet” town in Orange County. The Ku Klux Klan in Anaheim In the mid 1920’s, there were Klan rallies on the softball field at Pearson Park, and a fiery cross was placed on the cement walkway before the main entrance of St. Boniface Church. For a time, the Klan gained control of the Anaheim City Council. One year, a Klan convention was held in Anaheim, and one could see the initials “KIGY” (Klansman, I greet you) written throughout the city. How Was the Klan Finally Defeated? The Klan was active in Anaheim from 1922-1927. The population of Anaheim during that time was less than 10,000 inhabitants. Klan membership didn’t exceed 300. To defeat the Klan, the Knights of Columbus, a Catholic organization, created a strategy based on obtaining the membership rolls of the Anaheim Klan and bringing it out into the open. The U.S.A. Club was created to fight the Klan. It included Knights of Columbus members, Protestant clergymen, and prominent business and professional men, such as Ernest Ganahl, owner of Ganahl Lumber Company. A special election was held on February 3, 1925 which ousted four members of the Ku Klux Klan from the Anaheim City Council. St. Boniface Catholic Church Completed in 1903 The New St. Boniface Church in 1961 Prominent Members of St. Boniface Catholic Church, Anaheim The Carl Karcher Family: Mr. and Mrs. Carl Karcher, started the Carl’s Jr. hamburger restaurant chain, and have been generous philanthropists. The Joseph M. Anton Family: The father of Joseph Anton, Abdullah, immigrated to Anaheim from Lebanon, and was part of the Maronite (Syrian) Rite of the Catholic Church. Joseph Anton began Anton’s Food Market on the corner of Lemon and Los Angeles Streets (now Anaheim Boulevard). The George Garebedian Family: George was originally from Armenia, and came to Anaheim in 1915. He began as a hospital custodian, and accumulated orange groves in and around Anaheim. His son, Richard, attended St. Boniface School, Anaheim High School, and became an optometrist. Prominent Members of St. Boniface Parish The Roman Wisser Family: Roman Wisser immigrated to Anaheim from the Alsace-Lorraine region of France because of the booming wine industry. His sons and daughters started Wisser Sporting Goods Store on Lincoln Avenue in Anaheim. The Ernest Ganahl Family: The Ganahls were immigrants from Germany, and established Ganahl Lumber Company in Anaheim, today consisting of several branches. Ernest was instrumental in defeating the Klan in the 1920’s. Dr. John A. Larson, M.D.: Dr. Larson was a well known and highly regarded general practitioner who was the last doctor in Anaheim to make house calls. His son, John Jr., also a doctor, continues to practice medicine in the Anaheim area. Prominent Members of St. Boniface Parish Rudolph Oscar Monnig: Mr. Monnig’s ancestors can be traced to Germany in the 17th Century. Oscar Monnig, a German immigrant to New York City, took a boat to St. Louis, Missouri, and took another boat up the Missouri River to a German settlement called Rhineland, all before 1861. His descendants eventually settled in Anaheim, and they created the Monnig Floor Covering Company. Frank Monnig graduated from Anaheim High School in 1967. The Joseph Huarte Family: Of Basque Spanish heritage. Affiliated with the Bastanchury family (spring water company). His grandson John was a quarterback at the University of Notre Dame, where he won the Heismann Trophy in 1962. Members of this family were also teachers at Mater Dei High School in Santa Ana, and at Marywood Girls High School in Anaheim. Father John Quatannens of St. Boniface Church - US Army Chaplain (R) Father John Quatannens of St. Boniface, was called to duty by the U.S. Army in 1943 as a chaplain. He was born in Flanders, Belgium. He was one of the first to land at Omaha Beach in Normandy, France, on June 6, 1944. He was attached to General George S. Patton’s 3rd Army, and administered to the wounded during the Battle of the Bulge from December 16, 1944 to February, 1945. St. Catherine’s Academy (formerly St. Catherine’s Military Academy) First built by the German community of Dominican Sisters, and opened in 1889, originally as a school. It is located directly North of St. Boniface Catholic Church. It became a Roman Catholic orphanage in 1894, taking in orphan boys as young as three months. The school experienced financial difficulties during its first year of operation. An Eastern firm offered to buy the property in order to build a shoe factory. Reverend Mother M. Pia (1854-1925) travelled to Anaheim to sign the papers for the final sale. As she was approaching St. Catherine’s from the railroad station, a swarm of bees followed her carriage. The bees stopped at St. Catherine’s. In those days, bees were thought to bring good luck. Mother Superior Pia then decided not to sell the property. St. Catherine’s began to prosper from then on. Other Roman Catholic institutions were then established in Anaheim: Marywood Girls High School in 1912, and Servite High School in 1958. Sister Johnellen Turner, O.P., Current Director of Saint Catherine’s Academy Mother Pia, of the Dominican Sisters, Founder of Saint Catherine’s Original Main Building, St. Catherine’s Cadet, Saint Catherine’s Military School, 1920’s Colonel Bizzell (Commandant) and Sister Johnellen on the Parade Grounds St. Catherine’s Military School: 1920’s St. Catherine’s Academy Educational Philosophy of St. Catherine’s Academy Commandant Colonel Barry Bizzell, U.S.M.C., Ret., states St. Catherine’s Philosophy: “We will continue to teach leadership, self-discipline, honor, and respect through military tradition.” Ms. Joanna Ronan, Marketing Director of St. Catherine’s Academy says: “A Catholic school is first about promoting peace.” Hollywood Comes to St. Catherine’s St. Catherine’s was well known within the Hollywood community, and highly regarded. Many in the film industry sent their sons to study here. It was chosen as the site to make The PrivateWar of Major Benson, released in 1955 and starring Charlton Heston. The movie was filmed on location. Marywood Girls High School (1912), Anaheim, California Servite High School, Anaheim (1958) Who Was St. Boniface? Saint Boniface was born in England in the late 7th century CE. He became the official missionary to preach the Gospel to the heathen tribes in Holland and Germany. Boniface was part of the Emperor Charlemagne’s plan to convert the pagan Germanic tribes to Christianity by force or peaceful means. St. Boniface was Killed by Germanic Tribes He became a bishop in the year 723 CE. In the presence of a hostile, pagan crowd, he felled to the ground a sacred oak tree of the god Thor, and out of this wood he built a Christian church, the first in Germany. He planted a young fir tree to represent the tree of life. It is believed that from this action grew the German custom of the Christmas tree. St. Boniface and his Holy Ax Boniface was later attacked by a group of Germanic pagan warriors who objected to his forced conversions. He was declared a Saint. Today he is the patron saint of the Germans. When German Catholics moved to Anaheim in 1857, it was natural that their church should be dedicated to him. Who Was Saint Catherine? (282-305 CE) Saint Catherine, the daughter of the governor of Alexandria, Egypt, converted to Christianity in her late teens. When she attempted to convert the Roman Emperor to Christianity, he ordered her placed in a prison. She was condemned to death on the breaking wheel, an instrument of torture. According to legend, the wheel broke when she touched it, so she was beheaded. She became a symbol of proper Christian behavior and her power as an intercessor was renowned. Joan of Arc confessed that she communicated with her. Her pilgrimage sites included the monastery at Mount Sinai, Egypt; Rouen, France; and Canterbury and Westminster in England. The Three Main Pillars of Western Civilization The Judeo-Christian Heritage, Greek Rationalism, and Roman Universalism I. The Judeo-Christian Heritage 1. The Jewish sense of historical purpose. 2. God’s divine plan was to be revealed to men through history (Old and New Testament revelations). 3. A covenant-contractual relationship between God and man implying mutual trust and responsibility, and the ethical values coming from this covenant. 4. The Messiah concept: a divine redeemer with a divine plan (Christian tradition). Examples of Judeo-Christian Heritage 1.God-centered 2.Equality of all men relationship, with before God, due to man as a special men’s souls as image creature of God of God. with great worth 3.Man’s spiritual, and dignity, lord of loving soul created all earthly creation, by a personal, but still subject to loving God. God. Christ, played by Jeffrey Hunter in King of Kings (1961) II. Greek Rationalism 1. There is an underlying order or harmony in nature. 2. Everything in the everyday world is governed by natural laws. 3. These natural laws can be understood by human reason. 4. The emphasis in ancient Greece was on the rational part of man. EXAMPLES: The development of knowledge: mathematics, the natural sciences (astronomy, chemistry, physics). This is where order and harmony are believed to have always existed. The Greeks tried to define the universe in terms of scientific and materialistic explanations. This orderly, rational explanation of the natural world could also be used to explain the behavior of human beings, and their place in the world. Greek Rationalism: Example Sir Isaac Newton (16421727).English mathematician and natural philosopher, formulated the laws of gravity and motion and the elements of differential calculus. III. Roman Universalism uni=one; vers=part; al=having; ism=belief in. 1. The Roman view of the Mediterranean basin as “One World.” 2. A single, great, centralized political entity known as the Roman Empire. 3. A system of universal government run under an organized system of laws The Roman Law. Examples: 1. The concept of “one world”. The Holy Roman Empire, the United Nations, The European Common Market, the Roman Catholic Church (catholicus=universal, general). 2. 3. 4. The absolute monarchies and governments of Europe in the 17th century. 20th century totalitarian governments Imperialism in the 18th and 19th centuries. SPQR: Senatus Populusque RomanusThe Senate and the People of Rome “One World”Concept: The Roman Empire (Roman Universalism) “One World”: Charlemagne’s Empire 800 AD (Frankish Empire) Roman Universalism: Roman Catholics in the World (in green) Today “One World” Holy Roman Empire 1100 CE “One World” Napoleon’s Empire, 1812 “One World”: European Union (2008) The Roman Catholic Church Early Christians in the Roman Empire adopted Roman political administration and organization almost immediately. After the Roman (political) Empire fell, the Roman Catholic Church was the strongest institution in the Western Roman Empire. The church continued Roman culture throughout Western Europe. According to Sir Kenneth Clark, it could be argued very convincingly that the Roman Catholic Church was solely instrumental in saving Western Civilization. The monk-scholars of the Church copied and thus preserved the ancient manuscripts of Greece, ancient Judea, and the early Christians. One could argue therefore that the Catholic Church-a form of Roman Universalism-saved Western Civilization. The Roman Catholic Church is Roman Universalism Roman Empire Roman Catholic Church One capital: Rome One capital: Rome One ruler: Emperor One ruler: The Pope One language: Latin One language: Latin The state is supreme The Church is supreme One law: Roman law One law: Church law Who are the Catholics and What do they Believe? The term “Catholic” means “universal” or “whole.” It is the largest Christian church in the world with 1.147 billion people in 2007. Catholics are 17.40% of the world population. The Pope is the head of the Church, and it defines its mission as spreading the gospel of Jesus Christ, administering the sacraments, and exercising charity. It teaches that it is the church founded by Jesus Christ, its bishops are the successors of Christ’s apostles, and that the Pope is the successor to Saint Peter. Catholic doctrine maintains that the church is infallible when it rigidly teaches a doctrine of faith or morals. Catholic worship is centered on the Eucharist in which the Church teaches bread and wine are supernaturally transubstantiated into the body and blood of Christ. Who are the Catholics and What do they Believe? The Church’s hierarchy is headed by the Bishop of Rome, the Pope (“Holy Father”), a position that makes him the leader of the worldwide (universal) Catholic Church. The current Pope is Francis, who was elected on March 13, 2013. The office of the Pope is known as the Papacy. His ecclesiastical jurisdiction if often called the “Holy See”. The Roman Curia directly serves the Pope. It is the governing body that administers the day-to-day business of the Catholic Church. The Pope is also the head of state of Vatican City State, a sovereign city-state within the city of Rome. Who are the Catholics, and What do they Believe? Following the death or resignation of a Pope, members of the College of Cardinals who are under age 80 meet in the Sistine Chapel in Rome to elect a new Pope. The title of Cardinal is a rank of honor bestowed by Popes on certain high churchmen such as leaders within the Roman Curia, bishops serving in major cities and distinguished theologians. Since 1389, only fellow Cardinals have been elevated to the position of Pope, although theoretically any male Catholic can be elected. Individual countries, regions, or major cities are served by local “particular” churches known as dioceses or eparchies, each supervised by a Catholic bishop. Dioceses are further divided into numerous individual communities called parishes , each staffed by one or more priests, deacons, and/or lay ecclesial ministers. Parishes are responsible for the day-to-day celebration of the sacraments and pastoral care of the Catholic laity. Who are the Catholics? Ordained Catholics, as well as members of the laity, may enter into consecrated life as monks or nuns. A candidate takes vows confirming their desire to follow the three evangelical counsels of chastity, poverty and obedience. Examples of institutes of consecrated life are the Benedictines, the Carmelites, the Dominicans, the Franciscans, the Missionaries of Charity, and the Sisters of Mercy. Signal that a new Pope has been Elected Once a new Pope has been elected by the College of Cardinals, a special paper is burned which transmits white smoke. A New Pope is Elected A conclave of Cardinals elects the new Pope in the Sistine Chapel inside Vatican City, in Rome. Pope John XXIII (Left) and Pope John Paul II (Right) were both highly regarded Pontiffs Pope Innocent III (1161-1216 CE) Innocent III was the most powerful Pope of all time, forcing his will upon the leading monarchs of Europe, playing off one king against another with consummate skill. He was successful in excommunicating entire countries unless the reigning monarch bent to his will. He instigated the 4th Crusade, approved the new Franciscan and Dominican Orders, and successfully crushed heretics in Southern France. St. Peter’s in Rome, the center of the Roman Catholic Church The Crucifixion of St. Peter by Caravaggio St. Peter’s in Rome, site of St. Peter’s burial Who Are the Dominican Sisters? St. Catherine’s Academy, in St. Boniface parish is owned and administered by the Dominican Sisters of Mission San Jose. What is the difference between a nun and a sister? Both Nuns and Sisters are called “Sister.” However, there is a distinction made in the Catholic Church which is generally not made by the public. Nuns take solemn vows and are cloistered, that is, they reside, pray, and work within the confines of a monastery. Sisters take simple vows and live in a life governed by the particular mission, vision, and charisma of the respective Orders or Congregations of Sisters. Sisters embrace ministries that take them out to serve the people in hospitals, schools, parishes, social services, etc. Who Are the Dominican Sisters, and What is Their Role at St. Catherines? The Dominican Sisters of Mission San Jose are inspired by the dedication of Mother Superior Pia (1854-1925) who was also responsible for the founding of St. Catherine’s Academy dedicated in 1889. This order of Sisters was originally from Regensburg, Germany. According to their website, the Sisters are “committed to the education of the poor and the vulnerable.” St Catherine’s is rooted within the Dominican pillars of prayer, study, community, and ministry. Who Are the Dominican Sisters and What is their philosophy? According to Sister Caroline Monahan (formerly Sister Thomas Anne), St. Catherine’s for boys is a mixture of feminine (the Sisters), and masculine (the military). The best of the military emphasized here is honor, courage, leadership, combined with compassion. The students are taught to develop a strong sense of responsibility and compassion towards each other, and to develop a sense of honor and strength. They are also taught to become attentive to all things around them for the ultimate concern of the group as a whole. The subject of religion is about integration of faith into life through what the Church considers universal values. All teachers talk with the boys about various situations in order to integrate Dominican values and the supreme importance of charisma (spirit) and study. Who are the Dominicans and what do they believe in? The Dominican Sisters of Mission San Jose follow the teachings and philosophy of Saint Dominic (1170-1221). According to Sister Caroline Monahan, the Dominicans have always dealt with the world as it is. Their underlying emphasis is upon education. The Sisters at St. Catherine’s follow the Constitution of the Dominican Order approved in the year 1217. St. Dominic, by El Greco Saint Dominic and the Dominicans The official name of the Dominicans is The Order of Preachers. They were a product of the struggle against the Albigensians, a heretical sect in Southern France. A Spanish priest named Dominic organized a group of followers who aimed to live saintly lives, by example, in order to persuade the Albigensians, or Cathari, to return to the Roman Catholic Church. They also engaged in preaching and intense education. The heretics respected him, but most did not follow him. The Albigensians (Cathar/Cathari) Albigensian (Cathar) Cross Albigensians were a group of heretics in Southern France. Pope Innocent III originally had sent preachers like Saint Dominic to bring them back to the Catholic faith. When that failed, he called for a crusade, and they were destroyed. One of the Last Remaining Strongholds of the Albigensians (Cathari) The Dominican Order The Dominican Order evolved out of the small group of volunteers who joined Dominic in his work to convert the Albigensians. Gradually, Dominic came to see the possibility of a far greater mission for his followers: to preach and win converts to the faith throughout the world. Their order attracted men of imagination and unusual religious dedication who were confronted with the stimulating goal of working toward the moral regeneration of society by working in the world, rather than withdrawing from society. This religious order was geared toward working in the new European of towns and cities of the High Middle Ages, places of new vitality, ideas, problems, and social and religious opportunities. They successfully fulfilled a need by preaching the faith and establishing educational institutions. The Dominicans Their life, strictly regulated and austere, included such rigors as regular midnight services, total abstinence from meat, frequent fasts, and prolonged periods of mandatory silence. The entire order was strictly bound by the rule of poverty, which Dominic had learned from his contemporary, Saint Francis. It was to exist through charitable gifts. The Dominican order expanded during the course of the thirteenth century. Dominican friars carried their evangelical activities across Europe, into the Holy Land, Central Asia, Tartary (the Mongol Empire), Tibet, and China. Dominican friars, including such notable scholars as St. Albertus Magnus, and St. Thomas Aquinas, joined the faculties of universities, and became proponents of Aristotelian philosophy. Dominic himself insisted that his followers acquire broad educations before undertaking their mission of preaching, and that each Dominican priory include a school of theology. Catholic Institutions as Historical Links Visitors to the Roman Catholic institutions in Anaheim, are witnesses to historical continuity and direct links to foundations of Western civilization. The Catholic Church applied what it calls Roman Universalism as one of the three pillars preserving Western Civilization. The church propelled itself forward after the Roman Empire ended. Besides its function of providing for spiritual needs through compassion, charity, and hope, the church was an earthly power, a corporation, attracting men of the highest caliber, intelligence, and imagination. The dynamic actions of new religious orders, such as the Dominicans and Franciscans, established educational institutions and transformed learning. According to Sir Kenneth Clark, this began in the year 1100 at the start of the High Middle Ages, when European civilization experienced great progress in organization, cooperation, art, philosophy, technology, and boundless energy. Clark has argued that Western civilization is really a creation of the Catholic Church. The church gave Western civilization its restless curiosity, constructive thought, intellectual energy, scientific inquiry, ability to move and to change. It connected humankind both with Greece through educational institutions, and with God through expressions of beauty.