St. Boniface
Roman Universalism in North Orange County
St. Boniface Church, St. Catherine’s Academy and Associated
Roman Catholic Institutions in Anaheim, California
Researched and Written by
Alex Lamb, Anaheim High School, Anaheim, CA
St. Boniface Roman Catholic Church
 German immigrant Roman Catholics followed German
immigrant Protestants to Anaheim, in Southern California,
and established St. Boniface Catholic Church in 1860. Many
of these German immigrants had originally come to
California to become wealthy during the gold rush of 18481849.
 The “new” St. Boniface Church was begun on September 1,
1902, at the corner of Lincoln Avenue and Harbor Boulevard.
It sustained serious damage during the Long Beach
earthquake of 1933 and eventually was torn down by the late
1950’s. The present day church is located one block West of
Harbor Boulevard on Lincoln Avenue.
German Roman Catholic Immigration
 The first large wave of German Roman Catholics began in the mid
1840’s. Most German immigrants during this time were more secure
economically than the Irish Catholic immigrants who were also coming
into the United States at this time. Most German Catholic immigrants
were able to purchase farms or small businesses, and settled in the Mid
West and in cities like Chicago, Cincinnati, St. Louis, and Milwaukee. A
few made their way to California, to seek their fortunes in the gold
fields, or to settle in small farming communities like Anaheim.
 American nativist political parties arose like the Know-Nothings, which
were anti-Catholic, anti-immigrant, and believed that immigrants would
take away the good paying jobs of native-born Americans. These nativist
and anti-Catholic feelings would arise later in Anaheim during the
1920’s when the Ku Klux Klan in Anaheim took control of the city
council and for a while wielded considerable political authority.
St. Boniface School
 St. Boniface School was established in the 1930’s to provide
Catholic education from Kindergarten to Grade 8.
 Several graduates of St. Boniface then went on to attend
Marywood Girls High School in Anaheim (at the corner of
Harbor Boulevard and Broadway), Mater Dei High School in
Santa Ana, or Servite High School in Anaheim.
 However, a great many of St. Boniface alumni chose to attend
Anaheim High School, a public school, one block West, at
811 W. Lincoln Avenue.
Nativism and the Ku Klux Klan in
Anaheim During the 1920’s
Recently arrived newcomers to the city of
Anaheim from the South and the Mid-West
brought their ideas of nativism with them
in the form of the Ku Klux Klan, which
was fundamentalist Protestant, antiCatholic, anti-foreigner, anti-new scientific
ideas, and anti alcohol. Anaheim up to this
time had been predominately Roman
Catholic, and had a long tradition of
manufacturing alcoholic beverages such as
wine and beer. Traditionally, Anaheim was
the only “wet” town in Orange County.
The Ku Klux Klan in Anaheim
In the mid 1920’s, there were Klan
rallies on the softball field at
Pearson Park, and a fiery cross was
placed on the cement walkway
before the main entrance of St.
Boniface Church. For a time, the
Klan gained control of the Anaheim
City Council. One year, a Klan
convention was held in Anaheim,
and one could see the initials
“KIGY” (Klansman, I greet you)
written throughout the city.
How Was the Klan Finally Defeated?
 The Klan was active in Anaheim from 1922-1927.
 The population of Anaheim during that time was less than 10,000
inhabitants. Klan membership didn’t exceed 300.
 To defeat the Klan, the Knights of Columbus, a Catholic
organization, created a strategy based on obtaining the
membership rolls of the Anaheim Klan and bringing it out into the
 The U.S.A. Club was created to fight the Klan. It included Knights
of Columbus members, Protestant clergymen, and prominent
business and professional men, such as Ernest Ganahl, owner of
Ganahl Lumber Company.
 A special election was held on February 3, 1925 which ousted four
members of the Ku Klux Klan from the Anaheim City Council.
St. Boniface Catholic Church
Completed in 1903
The New St. Boniface Church in 1961
Prominent Members of St. Boniface
Catholic Church, Anaheim
 The Carl Karcher Family: Mr. and Mrs. Carl Karcher, started
the Carl’s Jr. hamburger restaurant chain, and have been generous
 The Joseph M. Anton Family: The father of Joseph Anton,
Abdullah, immigrated to Anaheim from Lebanon, and was part of
the Maronite (Syrian) Rite of the Catholic Church. Joseph Anton
began Anton’s Food Market on the corner of Lemon and Los
Angeles Streets (now Anaheim Boulevard).
 The George Garebedian Family: George was originally from
Armenia, and came to Anaheim in 1915. He began as a hospital
custodian, and accumulated orange groves in and around Anaheim.
His son, Richard, attended St. Boniface School, Anaheim High
School, and became an optometrist.
Prominent Members of St. Boniface
 The Roman Wisser Family: Roman Wisser immigrated to
Anaheim from the Alsace-Lorraine region of France because
of the booming wine industry. His sons and daughters started
Wisser Sporting Goods Store on Lincoln Avenue in Anaheim.
 The Ernest Ganahl Family: The Ganahls were immigrants
from Germany, and established Ganahl Lumber Company in
Anaheim, today consisting of several branches. Ernest was
instrumental in defeating the Klan in the 1920’s.
 Dr. John A. Larson, M.D.: Dr. Larson was a well known
and highly regarded general practitioner who was the last
doctor in Anaheim to make house calls. His son, John Jr., also
a doctor, continues to practice medicine in the Anaheim area.
Prominent Members of St. Boniface
 Rudolph Oscar Monnig: Mr. Monnig’s ancestors can be traced
to Germany in the 17th Century. Oscar Monnig, a German
immigrant to New York City, took a boat to St. Louis, Missouri,
and took another boat up the Missouri River to a German
settlement called Rhineland, all before 1861. His descendants
eventually settled in Anaheim, and they created the Monnig Floor
Covering Company. Frank Monnig graduated from Anaheim High
School in 1967.
 The Joseph Huarte Family: Of Basque Spanish heritage.
Affiliated with the Bastanchury family (spring water company).
His grandson John was a quarterback at the University of Notre
Dame, where he won the Heismann Trophy in 1962. Members of
this family were also teachers at Mater Dei High School in Santa
Ana, and at Marywood Girls High School in Anaheim.
Father John Quatannens of St.
Boniface Church - US Army Chaplain
 Father John Quatannens of St.
Boniface, was called to duty
by the U.S. Army in 1943 as a
chaplain. He was born in
Flanders, Belgium. He was
one of the first to land at
Omaha Beach in Normandy,
France, on June 6, 1944. He
was attached to General
George S. Patton’s 3rd Army,
and administered to the
wounded during the Battle of
the Bulge from December 16,
1944 to February, 1945.
St. Catherine’s Academy (formerly
St. Catherine’s Military Academy)
 First built by the German community of Dominican Sisters, and opened
in 1889, originally as a school.
It is located directly North of St. Boniface Catholic Church.
It became a Roman Catholic orphanage in 1894, taking in orphan boys
as young as three months.
The school experienced financial difficulties during its first year of
operation. An Eastern firm offered to buy the property in order to build
a shoe factory.
Reverend Mother M. Pia (1854-1925) travelled to Anaheim to sign the
papers for the final sale. As she was approaching St. Catherine’s from the
railroad station, a swarm of bees followed her carriage. The bees stopped
at St. Catherine’s. In those days, bees were thought to bring good luck.
Mother Superior Pia then decided not to sell the property. St.
Catherine’s began to prosper from then on. Other Roman Catholic
institutions were then established in Anaheim: Marywood Girls High
School in 1912, and Servite High School in 1958.
Sister Johnellen Turner, O.P.,
Current Director of Saint Catherine’s Academy
Mother Pia, of the Dominican Sisters,
Founder of Saint Catherine’s
Original Main Building, St. Catherine’s
Cadet, Saint Catherine’s Military
School, 1920’s
Colonel Bizzell (Commandant) and
Sister Johnellen on the Parade Grounds
St. Catherine’s Military School: 1920’s
St. Catherine’s Academy
Educational Philosophy of
St. Catherine’s Academy
 Commandant Colonel
Barry Bizzell, U.S.M.C.,
Ret., states St. Catherine’s
Philosophy: “We will
continue to teach
leadership, self-discipline,
honor, and respect through
military tradition.”
 Ms. Joanna Ronan,
Marketing Director of St.
Catherine’s Academy says:
“A Catholic school is first
about promoting peace.”
Hollywood Comes to St. Catherine’s
St. Catherine’s was well
known within the
Hollywood community,
and highly regarded. Many
in the film industry sent
their sons to study here. It
was chosen as the site to
make The PrivateWar of
Major Benson, released in
1955 and starring Charlton
Heston. The movie was
filmed on location.
Marywood Girls High School (1912),
Anaheim, California
Servite High School, Anaheim (1958)
Who Was St. Boniface?
Saint Boniface was born in
England in the late 7th
century CE. He became the
official missionary to preach
the Gospel to the heathen
tribes in Holland and
Germany. Boniface was part
of the Emperor
Charlemagne’s plan to
convert the pagan Germanic
tribes to Christianity by force
or peaceful means.
St. Boniface was Killed by
Germanic Tribes
He became a bishop in the
year 723 CE. In the presence
of a hostile, pagan crowd, he
felled to the ground a sacred
oak tree of the god Thor, and
out of this wood he built a
Christian church, the first in
Germany. He planted a young
fir tree to represent the tree
of life. It is believed that from
this action grew the German
custom of the Christmas tree.
St. Boniface and his Holy Ax
Boniface was later attacked
by a group of Germanic
pagan warriors who
objected to his forced
conversions. He was
declared a Saint. Today he is
the patron saint of the
Germans. When German
Catholics moved to Anaheim
in 1857, it was natural that
their church should be
dedicated to him.
Who Was Saint Catherine? (282-305 CE)
Saint Catherine, the daughter of the governor of
Alexandria, Egypt, converted to Christianity in
her late teens. When she attempted to convert the
Roman Emperor to Christianity, he ordered her
placed in a prison. She was condemned to death
on the breaking wheel, an instrument of torture.
According to legend, the wheel broke when she
touched it, so she was beheaded. She became a
symbol of proper Christian behavior and her
power as an intercessor was renowned. Joan of
Arc confessed that she communicated with her.
Her pilgrimage sites included the monastery at
Mount Sinai, Egypt; Rouen, France; and Canterbury and Westminster in England.
The Three Main Pillars of Western Civilization
The Judeo-Christian Heritage, Greek Rationalism,
and Roman Universalism
I. The Judeo-Christian Heritage
 1. The Jewish sense of historical
 2. God’s divine plan was to be
revealed to men through history
(Old and New Testament
 3. A covenant-contractual
relationship between God and
man implying mutual trust and
responsibility, and the ethical
values coming from this
 4. The Messiah concept: a divine
redeemer with a divine plan
(Christian tradition).
Examples of Judeo-Christian Heritage
2.Equality of all men
relationship, with
before God, due to
man as a special
men’s souls as image
creature of God
of God.
with great worth
3.Man’s spiritual,
and dignity, lord of
loving soul created
all earthly creation,
by a personal,
but still subject to
loving God.
Christ, played by Jeffrey Hunter in King
of Kings (1961)
II. Greek Rationalism
1. There is an underlying order or
harmony in nature.
2. Everything in the everyday
world is governed by natural
3. These natural laws can be
understood by human reason.
4. The emphasis in ancient Greece
was on the rational part of man.
 The development of knowledge:
mathematics, the natural
sciences (astronomy, chemistry,
physics). This is where order and
harmony are believed to have
always existed.
 The Greeks tried to define the
universe in terms of scientific and
materialistic explanations. This
orderly, rational explanation of
the natural world could also be
used to explain the behavior of
human beings, and their place in
the world.
Greek Rationalism: Example
Sir Isaac Newton (16421727).English
mathematician and natural
philosopher, formulated
the laws of gravity and
motion and the elements of
differential calculus.
III. Roman Universalism
uni=one; vers=part; al=having;
ism=belief in.
1. The Roman view of the
Mediterranean basin as “One
2. A single, great, centralized
political entity known as the
Roman Empire.
3. A system of universal
government run under an
organized system of laws
The Roman Law.
1. The concept of “one world”.
The Holy Roman Empire, the
United Nations, The European
Common Market, the Roman
Catholic Church
(catholicus=universal, general).
The absolute monarchies and
governments of Europe in
the 17th century.
20th century totalitarian
Imperialism in the 18th and
19th centuries.
SPQR: Senatus Populusque RomanusThe Senate and the People of Rome
“One World”Concept: The Roman
Empire (Roman Universalism)
“One World”: Charlemagne’s Empire
800 AD (Frankish Empire)
Roman Universalism: Roman Catholics
in the World (in green) Today
“One World” Holy Roman Empire 1100 CE
“One World” Napoleon’s Empire, 1812
“One World”: European Union (2008)
The Roman Catholic Church
 Early Christians in the Roman Empire adopted Roman political
administration and organization almost immediately.
 After the Roman (political) Empire fell, the Roman Catholic
Church was the strongest institution in the Western Roman
Empire. The church continued Roman culture throughout
Western Europe.
 According to Sir Kenneth Clark, it could be argued very
convincingly that the Roman Catholic Church was solely
instrumental in saving Western Civilization.
 The monk-scholars of the Church copied and thus preserved the
ancient manuscripts of Greece, ancient Judea, and the early
Christians. One could argue therefore that the Catholic Church-a
form of Roman Universalism-saved Western Civilization.
The Roman Catholic Church is Roman
Roman Empire
Roman Catholic Church
 One capital: Rome
 One capital: Rome
 One ruler: Emperor
 One ruler: The Pope
 One language: Latin
 One language: Latin
 The state is supreme
 The Church is supreme
 One law: Roman law
 One law: Church law
Who are the Catholics and What do
they Believe?
 The term “Catholic” means “universal” or “whole.”
 It is the largest Christian church in the world with 1.147 billion
people in 2007. Catholics are 17.40% of the world population.
The Pope is the head of the Church, and it defines its mission as
spreading the gospel of Jesus Christ, administering the sacraments,
and exercising charity.
It teaches that it is the church founded by Jesus Christ, its bishops
are the successors of Christ’s apostles, and that the Pope is the
successor to Saint Peter.
Catholic doctrine maintains that the church is infallible when it
rigidly teaches a doctrine of faith or morals.
Catholic worship is centered on the Eucharist in which the Church
teaches bread and wine are supernaturally transubstantiated into
the body and blood of Christ.
Who are the Catholics and What do
they Believe?
 The Church’s hierarchy is headed by the Bishop of Rome, the Pope
(“Holy Father”), a position that makes him the leader of the
worldwide (universal) Catholic Church.
The current Pope is Francis, who was elected on March 13, 2013.
The office of the Pope is known as the Papacy. His ecclesiastical
jurisdiction if often called the “Holy See”.
The Roman Curia directly serves the Pope. It is the governing body
that administers the day-to-day business of the Catholic Church.
The Pope is also the head of state of Vatican City State, a sovereign
city-state within the city of Rome.
Who are the Catholics, and What do
they Believe?
 Following the death or resignation of a Pope, members of the
College of Cardinals who are under age 80 meet in the Sistine
Chapel in Rome to elect a new Pope. The title of Cardinal is a rank
of honor bestowed by Popes on certain high churchmen such as
leaders within the Roman Curia, bishops serving in major cities
and distinguished theologians. Since 1389, only fellow Cardinals
have been elevated to the position of Pope, although theoretically
any male Catholic can be elected.
 Individual countries, regions, or major cities are served by local
“particular” churches known as dioceses or eparchies, each
supervised by a Catholic bishop. Dioceses are further divided into
numerous individual communities called parishes , each staffed by
one or more priests, deacons, and/or lay ecclesial ministers.
Parishes are responsible for the day-to-day celebration of the
sacraments and pastoral care of the Catholic laity.
Who are the Catholics?
 Ordained Catholics, as well as members of the laity, may
enter into consecrated life as monks or nuns.
 A candidate takes vows confirming their desire to follow the
three evangelical counsels of chastity, poverty and obedience.
 Examples of institutes of consecrated life are the
Benedictines, the Carmelites, the Dominicans, the
Franciscans, the Missionaries of Charity, and the Sisters of
Signal that a new Pope has been
Once a new Pope has been
elected by the College of
Cardinals, a special paper is
burned which transmits
white smoke.
A New Pope is Elected
A conclave of Cardinals
elects the new Pope in the
Sistine Chapel inside
Vatican City, in Rome.
Pope John XXIII (Left) and Pope John Paul
II (Right) were both highly regarded
Pope Innocent III (1161-1216 CE)
Innocent III was the most
powerful Pope of all time,
forcing his will upon the
leading monarchs of Europe,
playing off one king against
another with consummate
skill. He was successful in
excommunicating entire
countries unless the reigning
monarch bent to his will. He
instigated the 4th Crusade,
approved the new Franciscan
and Dominican Orders, and
successfully crushed heretics
in Southern France.
St. Peter’s in Rome, the center of the
Roman Catholic Church
The Crucifixion of St. Peter
by Caravaggio
St. Peter’s in Rome, site of
St. Peter’s burial
Who Are the Dominican Sisters?
 St. Catherine’s Academy, in St. Boniface parish is owned and
administered by the Dominican Sisters of Mission San Jose.
 What is the difference between a nun and a sister? Both Nuns
and Sisters are called “Sister.” However, there is a distinction
made in the Catholic Church which is generally not made by
the public. Nuns take solemn vows and are cloistered, that is,
they reside, pray, and work within the confines of a
monastery. Sisters take simple vows and live in a life
governed by the particular mission, vision, and charisma of
the respective Orders or Congregations of Sisters. Sisters
embrace ministries that take them out to serve the people in
hospitals, schools, parishes, social services, etc.
Who Are the Dominican Sisters, and
What is Their Role at St. Catherines?
 The Dominican Sisters of Mission San Jose are inspired by the
dedication of Mother Superior Pia (1854-1925) who was also
responsible for the founding of St. Catherine’s Academy
dedicated in 1889. This order of Sisters was originally from
Regensburg, Germany.
 According to their website, the Sisters are “committed to the
education of the poor and the vulnerable.” St Catherine’s is
rooted within the Dominican pillars of prayer, study, community,
and ministry.
Who Are the Dominican Sisters and
What is their philosophy?
 According to Sister Caroline Monahan (formerly Sister Thomas
Anne), St. Catherine’s for boys is a mixture of feminine (the
Sisters), and masculine (the military). The best of the military
emphasized here is honor, courage, leadership, combined with
 The students are taught to develop a strong sense of responsibility
and compassion towards each other, and to develop a sense of
honor and strength. They are also taught to become attentive to all
things around them for the ultimate concern of the group as a
whole. The subject of religion is about integration of faith into life
through what the Church considers universal values. All teachers
talk with the boys about various situations in order to integrate
Dominican values and the supreme importance of charisma (spirit)
and study.
Who are the Dominicans and what do
they believe in?
The Dominican Sisters of
Mission San Jose follow the
teachings and philosophy of
Saint Dominic (1170-1221).
According to Sister Caroline
Monahan, the Dominicans
have always dealt with the
world as it is. Their
underlying emphasis is upon
education. The Sisters at St.
Catherine’s follow the
Constitution of the
Dominican Order approved
in the year 1217.
St. Dominic, by El Greco
Saint Dominic and the Dominicans
 The official name of the
Dominicans is The Order of Preachers.
They were a product of the struggle
against the Albigensians, a heretical
sect in Southern France. A Spanish
priest named Dominic organized a
group of followers who aimed to
live saintly lives, by example, in
order to persuade the Albigensians,
or Cathari, to return to the Roman
Catholic Church. They also engaged
in preaching and intense education.
The heretics respected him, but
most did not follow him.
The Albigensians (Cathar/Cathari)
Albigensian (Cathar) Cross
Albigensians were a group
of heretics in Southern
France. Pope Innocent III
originally had sent
preachers like Saint
Dominic to bring them
back to the Catholic faith.
When that failed, he called
for a crusade, and they
were destroyed.
One of the Last Remaining Strongholds
of the Albigensians (Cathari)
The Dominican Order
The Dominican Order evolved out of the
small group of volunteers who joined
Dominic in his work to convert the
Albigensians. Gradually, Dominic came to
see the possibility of a far greater mission
for his followers: to preach and win
converts to the faith throughout the world.
Their order attracted men of imagination
and unusual religious dedication who were
confronted with the stimulating goal of
working toward the moral regeneration of
society by working in the world, rather
than withdrawing from society. This
religious order was geared toward working
in the new European of towns and cities of
the High Middle Ages, places of new
vitality, ideas, problems, and social and
religious opportunities. They successfully
fulfilled a need by preaching the faith and
establishing educational institutions.
The Dominicans
 Their life, strictly regulated and austere, included such rigors as regular
midnight services, total abstinence from meat, frequent fasts, and
prolonged periods of mandatory silence. The entire order was strictly
bound by the rule of poverty, which Dominic had learned from his
contemporary, Saint Francis. It was to exist through charitable gifts.
 The Dominican order expanded during the course of the thirteenth
century. Dominican friars carried their evangelical activities across
Europe, into the Holy Land, Central Asia, Tartary (the Mongol Empire),
Tibet, and China.
 Dominican friars, including such notable scholars as St. Albertus
Magnus, and St. Thomas Aquinas, joined the faculties of universities, and
became proponents of Aristotelian philosophy. Dominic himself insisted
that his followers acquire broad educations before undertaking their
mission of preaching, and that each Dominican priory include a school
of theology.
Catholic Institutions as Historical Links
Visitors to the Roman Catholic institutions in Anaheim, are witnesses to
historical continuity and direct links to foundations of Western civilization.
The Catholic Church applied what it calls Roman Universalism as one of the
three pillars preserving Western Civilization. The church propelled itself
forward after the Roman Empire ended. Besides its function of providing for
spiritual needs through compassion, charity, and hope, the church was an
earthly power, a corporation, attracting men of the highest caliber,
intelligence, and imagination. The dynamic actions of new religious orders,
such as the Dominicans and Franciscans, established educational institutions
and transformed learning. According to Sir Kenneth Clark, this began in the
year 1100 at the start of the High Middle Ages, when European civilization
experienced great progress in organization, cooperation, art, philosophy,
technology, and boundless energy. Clark has argued that Western civilization
is really a creation of the Catholic Church. The church gave Western
civilization its restless curiosity, constructive thought, intellectual energy,
scientific inquiry, ability to move and to change. It connected humankind both
with Greece through educational institutions, and with God through
expressions of beauty.

St. Boniface Catholic Church and St. Catherine’s Academy