Middle Ages in Europe
Vocabulary
Byzantine Empire
• The eastern half of the Roman Empire that
survived after the west fell in 476.
Constantinople
• The capital of the Byzantine empire.
– Conquered in 1453 by the Turks and renamed
Istanbul
– Located strategically on the Bosporus
Straights
Eastern Orthodox
• Christian church separate from the
Catholic Church.
– Followed the patriarch instead of the pope
– Decorated churches with icons
Justinian’s Code
• Collected all Roman Laws in to one place
– Referenced by many other countries when
making laws
Middle Ages
• The period from about 500 – 1500
between ancient and modern times.
– Characterized by:
• Food shortages
• Violence
• Reduced Education
Charlemagne
• Frankish king known for:
– Promoting learning
– Encouraging Feudalism
– Being 1st Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire
Roman Catholicism
• The most powerful organization during the
middle ages in Western Europe.
– Christian
– Led by the Pope
The Pope
• The leader of the Roman Catholic Church
Crusades
• Wars fought to recapture the holy land
from Muslims
St. Thomas Aquinas
• Great Christian thinker who argued that
god gave us the ability to reason
– We should use reason to learn science and to
make better laws
– Power is given by god through the people to
Kings
• The people can take power away if laws are bad
Magna Carta
•
Laws limiting the power of the King of
England
– Established:
1. Right to a trial by jury
2. No taxation without representation
The Dark Ages
A.D. 476-1000
Textbook C13
Germanic Kingdoms Unite
Under Charlemagne
Chapter 13-1
Changes in Europe after the fall
Business collapsed
of Rome
Money became scarce
Cities were abandoned (people lived in
small communities)
Population declined
The population became rural
Level of learning sank sharply
Few people could read or write except ___
Different dialects (languages) developed
There were no written laws
There were no orderly central
governments
There was political chaos
Feudalism thrived
Small kingdoms sprang up all
over Europe
There was almost constant
warfare
The Battle of Tours A.D. 732
Charlemagne or
Charles the Great
What was one of
his greatest
accomplishments
?
Pope Gregory I (Gregory the Great)
Became pope in
A.D. 590

Was pope for 14
yrs.

Broadened the
authority of the office
of Pope. Under
Gregory, the office of
pope became secular
(worldly) as well as
religious.

Symbolically,
what did it
mean to have
Pope Gregory
I crown a king
like
Charlemagne?
C13-1 Notes/Study Questions
• What caused the Middle Ages to begin and
in what year do historians say this
happened?
• What event in history marked the end of the
Middle Ages?
• Who were the Franks?
• What are the Dark Ages of Western Europe
and how long did they last?
• Identify each of the following Frankish
leaders:
a. Clovis
b. Pepin the Short
•
•
•
•
•
•
c. Charles Martel
d. Charlemagne
Historically, why was the Battle of Tours
important?
What are monasteries and convents?
What is an illuminated manuscript?
What did it mean for the Catholic Church to
gain secular power?
Why was the coronation of Charlemagne
historic?
What is the nobility?
C13-2 Feudalism in Europe
Invasion of the Vikings
• The Vikings were feared for their barbaric
and warlike behavior
• During raids, enormous war ships with
merciless warriors looted coastal
settlements, inland villages and monasteries
• Invasions were swift and frequent
• Vikings acquired food resources, silver and
gold coins, and slaves from these invasions.
• How is it that the Vikings could freely
plunder much of Europe during the Dark
Ages?
The Vikings were traders, explorers,
fishermen, and warriors from Scandinavia.
Viking raids and the terror they caused
eventually faded away in Europe. Give
two reasons why they stopped raiding.
Leif Ericson- The Viking
Explorer
• Born around 980 A.D.,
Ericson is believed to
have arrived in
America around 1000
A.D., 500 years before
Columbus
• Like many Vikings that
resided in Iceland,
Greenland, and
Norway; Ericson was an
exceptional sailor and
explorer
Dukes, powerful lords
C13-2 Feudalism in Europe
 Define the following terms from C13-2;
1. feudalism-
8. lord or overlord-
2. vassal-
9. fief-
3. domain-
10. manor-
4. serfs-
11. homage-
5. self sufficient-
12. knights-
6. vassal-
13. tithe-
7. mutual obligations 14. Leif Ericson
Questions on Feudalism
Feudalism was based on the granting of ___ in
return for ___.
The political system known as feudalism existed
because ___________ did not.
Did the monarchs of Europe, in general, favor the
feudalistic system? Why or why not?
Under feudalism, could a person be both a lord
and a vassal at the same time?
What were some of the responsibilities of the lord
in feudalism?
What were some of the responsibilities of the
vassal under the feudalistic system?
T/F Serfs and peasants were nothing more than
slaves.
T/F The manorial system was restrictive, yet
provided the people with a stable way of life.
Why did people of the Dark Ages seldom leave the
manor?
T/F Most people of the Dark Ages lived on a
manor.
Who controlled the manor?
T/F Monarchs supported the manorial system.
Manors
Medieval manors were self-sufficient. Explain.
What characteristics could be found on nearly
every manor?
Name the three groups or social classes in early
Medieval society.
Contrast a peasant and a serf.
The main purpose of a castle was _____.
Why did peasants accept their harsh lives?
Most of the people who lived on a manor were ___.
This is basically how manorialism worked; in
return for _____, peasants agreed to ____ and give
up _____.
T/F Peasants never really owned the land, they
just worked the land for the lord.
C13-3 Age of
Chivalry
Cook
C13-3 Vocabulary
chivalry
tournament
troubadour
The Knight
During the Middle Ages,
the armored knight on
horseback was a
formidable weapon on
the battlefield. Knights
were usually nobles.
They spent most of
their time training to
serve in battle. The
tools of their trade
included a suit of
armor, a sword, and a
dexterarius (or battle
horse).
Knights on horseback
used leather saddles
to help them remain
firmly seated on their
dexterarius. They
used stirrups to help
them stand up while
riding and maneuver
heavy weapons.
Without both the
saddle and stirrup, a
charging knight would
likely fall off his
dexterarius.
Chivalry
Chivalry was a
complex code of
rules for knights. It
required a knight to
fight bravely in
defense of three
masters; his earthly
lord, his heavenly
lord. & his lady.
Since knights wore
a helmet, friends
and enemy could
not tell who they
were. Knights
would wear special
symbols on their
coat of armor. They
also put the
symbols on their
shields. This was
called heraldry.
The dubbing
3 Stages in becoming a
knight: page 328
(1) page (2) squire (3)
dubbing (accolade)
The Joust
Was a
mock
battle
The Role of Women in the Middle Ages
The role of
peasant women
in society was
much the same
as ancient time.
They were
required to work
in the fields and
perform many
chores at home.
• The status of
women across
Europe declined
during feudalism
• A noblewoman
might help run
and defend a
manor
• A noblewoman
could inherit
property, but lords
passed their fiefs
to their oldest son
The Church Wields Power
C13-4
The Roman Catholic
Church was a stable
force during the
Middle Ages
The Catholic Church
provided a sense of
security.
The Church helped
bond the people of
Europe together
The Roman Catholic Church
was at the center of the
Medieval world. Unlike
today, the Catholic church
was the only church in
Europe. All Christians
belonged to it. With its
own laws, lands, and taxes,
the Catholic church was a
powerful institution. The
Catholic church governed
almost every aspect of
people’s lives, from spiritual
to practical.
Most men & women,
rich and poor, were
baptized and married in
church. They attended
mass every Sunday of
their lives. When they
died, their priest read
them the last rites.
They were buried on
church ground. The
Catholic church was
their only way to
salvation.
For many, life on Earth during the Middle
Ages was hard, brutal, and short, but the
Catholic church said that if they followed
the teachings of Christ, they would be
rewarded in heaven. This gave the
Catholic church great power over the
people’s hearts and minds.
Secular Clergy
The
organization
of the Roman
Catholic
Church
allowed it to
remain
strong during
the Middle
Ages.
Monks and nuns (the
Convents and
Monastic clergy) received
monasteries were their training at
built throughout
Monasteries and
Europe during the Convents.
Middle Ages for
the Monastic
clergy. They
served as
hospitals, asylums
for the mentally ill,
libraries, and
orphanages.
Libraries were kept and books were
carefully copied by monks at a
monastery.
The Inquisition, or court
of the Roman Catholic
Church, was established
in A.D. 1232. Their job
was to seek out and
punish Roman Catholics
suspected of heresy.
The Inquisition often
accused people of
heresy without sufficient
proof, sometimes using
torture to obtain the
confession they sought.
Other forms of Church Justice
• Canon law – a system of justice Created
by the Catholic Church to guide people’s
conduct in matters such as marriage
• the interdict – the Church forbid the
performance of sacraments on the land of
a king who was not right with the
Church: aimed at punishing an entire
region
• excommunication – to banish an
individual from the church: aimed at a
specific individual
Clashes erupted throughout the Middle
Ages between the Catholic Church and
various monarchs.
Example: Pope Gregory VII & his
problems with the German Emperor,
Henry IV
Lay Investiture
Lay investiture was a ceremony in which
kings and nobles appointed church officials
(like bishops).
The Catholic Church began to resent the
control that this practice gave kings and
nobles over who ran the church.
The problem, you see, was that if a
particular church official was appointed by a
king, would he be more loyal to the king
than the Catholic Church.
The Concordat of Worms
The Concordat of Worms also, known as the
Pactum Calixtinum, was a compromise
designed to settle the lay investiture
controversy.
It was arranged on Sept.23, 1122, between
Pope Calixtus II and the German emperor
Henry V near Worms.
This agreement solved the problem of lay
investiture which had come to a boil when Pope
Gregory VII excommunicated German emperor
Henry IV.
Terms in C13-4
•
•
•
•
•
clergy
sacrament
canon law
lay investiture
Holy Roman Empire
The Middle Ages
Life in Rome
Trade fuels prosperous
economy
Thriving cities
Learning and Increasing
Technology
People from all parts of the
empire can communicate
Borders Well protected and
people safe from attackers
Life in the Middle Ages
No trade and money is scarce
Abandoned Cities
Lack of learning/ decreasing
technology
Isolated areas create new
words that evolve in to new
languages – people can not
communicate with neighboring
villages
Constant attack by Vikings or
other jerks
The Beginning
Fall of Roman Empire – 476
Middle Ages – 500 – 1500
Discovery of New World 1492
The Beginning
Germans invade Rome
Disruption of Trade
Downfall of Cities
Population Shifts
The Decline of learning
Loss of a common Language
The Beginning
Germanic Kingdoms Emerge
The Concept of Government Changes
The Franks under Clovis
511 Clovis united the Franks into
one kingdom
The beginning of a special
partnership between
Church and State
Charlemagne
Charles the Great
Took center stage
Strong royal power
Made sure that the counts
governed justly
Regularly visited his kingdom
Empire larger than Rome’s
Charlemagne
Feudalism
What is Feudalism?
Serfs: Nobles: Knights: Kings
Serfs:
A step higher than slaves
Some rights and privileges
Worked the land long hours
very little money
Feudalism
Medieval Knights
Chivalry
The Code of the
Medieval Knights
Lady
Feudal Lord
Heavenly Lord
Castles
Gatehouse
Moat
Outer Bailey
Keep
Drawbridge
The Age of Chivalry
The Age of Chivalry
Page
Squire
Knight
The Age of Chivalry
Women in Power
Women Falling Status
Code of Behavior
Chivalry
Feudalism
MEDIEVAL
SOCIETY
Belief System
The Church
Manors
The Formation of
Western Europe
Church and Reform
Simony
St Francis of Assisi
Gothic
Urban II
Crusades
Clergy
Saladin
Richard the
Lion Heart
Reconquista
Inquisition
Nuns
The First
Crusade
1095
1215
King John
Magna Carta
Bubonic
plague
1347
1453
Hundred
Year War
Ends
The Crusades
Byzantine emperor Alexis Comnenus
Robert, Count of Flanders
Pope Urban II
The Crusades
Saladin
1138-1193
Muslim
Honest and Brave
The Crusades
Richard the Lion Hearted
1157 -- 1199
Left England to
recapture Jerusalem
Siege of Acre
Slaughtered survivors
The Crusades
Reconquista
Driving Muslims out of Spain
Inquisition
Isabella and Ferdinand
Tribunal to suppress heresy
Burned at the stake
In 1492 expelled all Jews and Muslims
The Crusades
Causes
Muslims control Palestine
Byzantine emperor calls for help
Pope wants Palestine
Christians Knights
Knights wants land, riches, adventure
Italian cities want commercial power
The Crusades
Effects
Byzantine Empire weakens
Pope’s power declines
Feudal nobles weakens
Feudal Kings grow in power
Religious intolerance grows
Italian cities expand trade and wealth
Muslims distrust Christians
Cathedrals – Cities of God
Cathedrals – Cities of God
Gothic
Pointed Ribbed Vaults
Sculptures
Flying Buttresses
Pointed Arches
Tall spires
Germanic tribe named Goth
1170-1270 over 500 were built
Financial Revolution
Three Field System
Manor
Guilds
Trade and growing power of towns
The Revival of Learning
Geoffrey Chaucer
The Canterbury Tales
vernacular
England
William, Duke of Normandy
William the Conqueror
Harold Godwinson
England, Anglo-Saxson
Battle of Hastings
October 14, 1066
England
King Henry II
1154 – 1189
Royal Court
Use of Juries
Common Law was formed
Footprint of Western Courts
England
King John
1199 – 1216
Soft in battle
The Magna Carta
Granted basic
political rights
limited kings power
applied to everyone
England
Parliament
November 1295
Westminster in London
House of the Commons
House of the Lords
The Hundred Years War
England’s Edward III claimed French throne
1337 – 1453
Back and forth all in France
Battles of Crecy, Poitiers and Agincourt
Archers won the battles, Knights as
weapons ended
Joan of Arc
1429, teenage peasant girl
Help win war killed as a “witch”
The Church
The Plague
Learning
Crusades
Europe in
The Middle
Ages
Farming
Trade and Towns
Government
Hundred Years War
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