Roman Civilization
Life in Ancient Rome
Roman Culture
• Greek statues, buildings, and ideas
• difference
What was Roman Art Like?
• Greek style statues
• Greek style porches and rows of columns
– Adding arches and domes
• Roman firsts
– Make full use of the arch
– concrete
• Colosseum
• Parthenon
Aqueducts and buildings
Roman Literature
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Based mostly on Greek writings
Virgil
Horace
Ovid
Catullus
Seneca
Plautus and Terence
Roman Science
and Engineering
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Galen
Ptolemy
Roads
Aqueducts
Volcanic ash ,
lime, and water
Daily Life in Rome
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Rome – 1 of largest cities in world
Forum
Wealthy – houses
Poor – apartment
buildings
• Bread and circuses
How was the Forum important
to the ancient Romans?
List some pros and cons of
holding sports figures up as
heroes and
the responsibilities that
major sports figures have to
the public.
What was Family Life like?
• Large families
• Father – head
– paterfamilias
• Becoming a man
Women in Rome
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Some rights
Not full citizens
Freedoms
Couldn’t sit with men
Empress Livia
Treatment of Enslaved People
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Grew with conquered lands
40% by 100 B.C.
Jobs
Greeks
Life
Revolt
Spartacus
Roman Religion
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Gods and goddesses
Roman emperors
Altars
Philosophy
Review
1. What were some of Ptolemy’s scientific
achievements?
2. How were the Roman and Greek
religions similar?
3. Explain the importance of the language of
the Romans.
4. Describe the education of Roman
children.
Greek Art
Roman Art
Greek Architecture
Roman Architecture
Greek Art
Roman Art
Sculptors tried to show an ideal
image.
Sculptors made realistic statues.
Greek Architecture
Roman Architecture
Used porches and colonnades
Borrowed Greek styles; used the
arch, vault, dome, and concrete
The Fall of Rome
The Decline of Rome
• Marcus Aurelius
• Commodus
• Severans
Political and Social Problems
• 22 different emperors
• Corruption
• Talented people
refused to serve in
gov’t
• Fewer
– honoring the old ideals
of duty, courage, and
honesty.
– Attending schools
• Large # enslaved
Economic and Military
Problems
• Law and order broke
down
• Roman soldiers and
invaders seized crops
and destroyed fields.
• Grew less crops
• Businesses closed
• Leave jobs and serve
in army
• Plague
• Inflation
Inflation
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Less gold in coins
Make extra coins
Pay for more things
People find out.
Barter
Write a journal entry
describing life in a Roman
city during the 200s A.D.
(React to at least one of the
political, social, economic,
and military problems that
led to disorder and decline.)
How do the social,
economic, and political
problems of Ancient Rome
compare to the current
problems in the USA?
Invasion
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Germanic tribes – W
Persian – E
Couldn’t enlist and pay Roman soldiers
Used Germanic warriors – not loyal
Diocletian’s Reforms
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AD 284 – emperor
Reforms
Divided empire into 4 parts
Set prices of goods
Workers
Constantine
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Emperor – AD 312
Orders
Byzantium
Hippodrome
Constantinople
Empire after Constantine
• Theodosius
• Western and Eastern Roman Empire
Invasion of Rome
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Germanic groups
Huns
Visigoths
Battle of Adrianople
Visigoths invading Rome
What leader did the Visigoths overthrow to take control of Rome?
More Germanic tribes
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Rhine River froze
Alaric
Rome’s capture
Vandals
Vandalism
The fall of Rome
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Odoacer
Romulus Augustulus
Theodoric
Western Roman Empire fades
Byzantine Empire
The Legacy of Rome
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Language
Ideas about gov’t
USA system of laws
Buildings
Peace and order allowed Christian religion
to spread.
Roman Ideas and
Government Today
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1st written laws (Twelve Tables)
All people are equal under the law.
Judges decide fairly.
Innocent till proven guilty
Republic made of equal citizens is best
form of gov’t.
• Republic works best if citizens do their
duty, participate in gov’t, and work to make
their society even better.
First Twenty Roman Numerals
I=1
II = 2
III = 3
IV = 4
V=5
VI = 6
XI = 11
XVI = 16
VII = 7
XII = 12
XVII = 17
VIII = 8
XIII = 13
XVIII = 18
IX = 9
XIV = 14
XIX = 19
X = 10
XV = 15
XX = 20
Numerals by 10’s
X = 10
XX = 20
XXX = 30
XL = 40
L = 50
•LX = 60
•LXX = 70
•LXXX = 80
•XC = 90
•C = 100
Numerals by 100’s
C = 100
CC = 200
CCC = 300
CD = 400
C = 500
•DC = 600
•DCC = 700
•DCCC = 800
•CM = 900
•M = 1,000
“My Dear Cousin Loves eXtra
Vitamins”:
Roman Numeral:
Translated:
My
M
1,000
Dear
D
500
Cousin
C
100
Loves
L
50
eXtra
X
10
Vitamins
V
5
Tricky Numbers
You would think that the Roman Numeral
for 4 would be IIII.
But, it is IV.
When a smaller number is in front of a
larger number such as IV you subtract
only those numbers.
I-V=
5-1=
4
Tricky Numbers
IX=
10-1=
9
XIX=
XLIV=
XCIX=
10+101=
50-10+51=
100-10+101
19
44
99
Translating
What is the Roman numeral translation for
CMIV?
For this you have to add the numbers.
CM+IV=
900+4=
904
Translating
What is the translation for MCDLXXX?
First break apart and add.
M+CD+LXXX=
1000+400+80=
1480
Question:
What is the translation for CLIV?
A. 1515
B. 154
C. 2525
D. 254
Question:
What is the translation for CDXX?
A. 1520
B. 150
C. 520
D. 420
Influence on Culture
• Latin alphabet
• Latin phrases used by doctors, scientists,
and lawyers.
• Literature: Virgil, Horace, Livy, and Tactius
• Buildings
• Concrete
• Architectural styles
Christianity
• 1 of major religions in the world
• Adopted Christianity in 300s
• Helped it grow and spread
Review
1. What social problems helped cause the
empire’s decline?
2. Why did the Roman government use
Germanic warriors in its army?
3. How did inflation affect Rome?
4. Who were the Visigoths, and how did they
contribute to the fall of the empire?
5. Give examples of Roman ideas in language
and architecture that exist today.
Write a paragraph discussing
whether or not you agree with the
following statement: The United
States owes more to Roman
culture than to any other
civilization that has ever existed.
(Support your answer with reasons and evidence
from the text, power point, or discussion.)
Roman Legacies
languages
Rule of law
Roman Legacies
Roman
architectural
styles
Christianity
The Byzantine Empire
Rise of the Byzantines
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Byzantine or Eastern Roman Empire
500s – high point
Italy – west
Egypt – south
Arabia – east
Importance of Constantinople
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Capital of Byzantine Empire
1 of world’s greatest cities
Location
Trade routes
Influence of Greek Culture
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1st followed Roman ways
“New Rome”
Honored Greek past
Egyptians and Slavs
Persians
500 – 1200 AD = 1 of the world’s richest
and most advanced empires
1. Located in eastern
Mediterranean only
2. Spain, North Africa
Emperor Justinian
• 527 A.D. – 565 A.D.
• Policies made empire
strong
• Strong leader
• Controlled military,
made laws, and was
supreme judge
• Theodora
Read the following information and
write at least five things you might
reflect on as you read this information.
In A.D. 532 Theodora helped save Justinian’s
throne. Angry taxpayers threatened to
overthrow Justinian and stormed the palace.
Justinian’s advisers urged him to leave
Constantinople. Theodora, however, told him
to stay and fight. Justinian took Theodora’s
advice. He stayed in the city and crushed the
uprising.
Justinian’s Conquests
• General Belisarius
• Controlled most of
Italy, northern Africa,
and Persia
Justinian’s Law Code
• Tribonian
• Justinian Code
Byzantine Civilization
• Lasted 1,000 years
• Constantinople –
largest/richest city in
Europe
• Highly educated and
creative
• Gave a new methods
in arts
• Spread Christianity
to people in Eastern Europe
Importance of Trade
• Center of trade between Europe and Asia
• Asia – spices, gems, metals, and cloth
• Merchants – furs, farm goods, honey, and
enslaved people
• Very Rich
Byzantine Art and
Architecture
• Hagia Sophia
• Mosaics
Byzantine Women
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Family – center of social life
Importance of marriage and family
Divorces
Regent
Byzantine Education
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Learning – highly respected
Gov’t supported
Boys
Tutors
Girls
Authors
Review
1. What is a mosaic, and where were mosaics
found in the Byzantine Empire?
2. How did silk weaving develop in the Byzantine
Empire?
3. What were some of the trade items that were
exchanged between merchants in
Constantinople?
4. Why were divorces difficult to get in the
Byzantine Empire?
5. What important service did Byzantine writers
provide to the rest of the world?
Which civilization do you
think was the most
advanced --- that of the
Greeks, the Romans, or the
Byzantines? Why?
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FALL 2006 Abstracts