The Geography of Rome
• Rome is located on the plain of
Latium, one of three fertile areas
along the Po River.
• Rome was located 18 miles inland
on the Tiber River. Close to the
sea but not the pirates.
• It was easily defended as it was
built on 7 hills.
• Indo-Europeans peoples moved
into Italy from about 1500 to 1000
– The Latins settled in the region of
– Herders and farmers spoke Latin, an
Indo-European language.
• After 800 BCE, Greeks and
Etruscans moved into Italy.
Italy in 750 BCE
Cultural Diffusion
• Greeks settled in southern Italy and Sicily
– Giving the Romans their alphabet and
artistic models for sculpture, architecture,
and literature.
• Etruscans turned Rome from a village into a
city and gave the Romans their mode of dress
- toga and short cloak
– The organization of the Roman army was
modeled on the Etruscan army
Influence of the Etruscans
 Writing
 Religion
 The Arch
The Mythical Founding of
Romulus & Remus
The Roman Republic
• In 509 BCE the Romans
overthrew the last Etruscan king
and established a republic.
– Republic- the leader is not a king
and certain citizens have the right to
• Enemies surrounded Rome, so
the young republic began a long
period of continuous warfare.
Roman Confederation
• The Latins had full Roman
• Allies controlled their own local
affairs but gave soldiers to Rome.
• Soldiers could become Roman
Roman Virtues
• Duty, courage, and discipline
• Examples found in writings such as
Cincinnatus written by Roman historian
• Success is owed to the Roman skill of
– Extending Roman Citizenship
– Allowing states to run their internal affairs
• They were persistent soldiers.
• They were excellent strategists.
Social Groups
• Patricians – large landowners
who formed the ruling class. (Only
ones to hold elected office.)
• Plebians – landowning farmers,
craftspeople and merchants.
• Both groups were citizens and
could vote.
Republican Government
2 Consuls
(Rulers of Rome)
(Representative body for patricians)
Tribal Assembly
(Representative body for plebeians)
Job Descriptions of
Political Positions
• Consuls – part of executive branch
– There were two consuls
• They ran the government and
• Led the army into battle.
• Praetor(s) – part of executive branch
– He directed the civil law.
– A second Praetor was added to handle
non-citizen law.
Legislative Branch
• The Roman Senate – made up of 300
patricians who served for life.
– It started out as an advisory group .
– By 200-300’s BCE, it had the force of law.
• The Centuriate Assembly – was
organized by classes based on wealth,
so the wealthiest were always the
– It elected the consuls and praetors.
– It passed laws.
• Council of Plebs – a popular assembly
was created in 471 BCE
•By the 300’s BCE plebians could
be consuls
•By 287 BCE the council of the
plebs received the right to pass
laws for all of Rome.
•None-the-less, the wealthy ruling
class dominated political life.
• Tribune of the Plebs - Officials
empowered to protect the plebians.
The Twelve Tables, 450 BCE
 Providing political and social
rights for the plebeians.
Roman Law
• Twelve Tables – Rome’s first written
law code adopted in 450 BCE
• Law of Nations – handled legal
questions that arose involving Romans
and non-Romans.
– Its standards of justice applied to all
people equally and used principles
recognized today.
• A person is innocent until proven otherwise
• The accused has a right to a defense before a
judge, and judges should decide cases based
on evidence.
The Roman Forum
Practical Engineers
• They built towns
throughout conquered
Italy and connected
them with roads.
• They created political
institutions that
responded to
Rome’s Early Road System
Roman Roads:
The Appian Way
Roman Aqueducts
The Roman Colosseum
The Colosseum Interior
Circus Maximus
Roman Expansion
in the Mediterranean
• Carthage had been started as a
Phoenician colony on the northern
coast of Africa.
• As it grew it became a strong
trading empire in the
• There were Carthaginians in Sicily
which was unnerving to the
Carthaginian Empire
First Punic War (264-241 BCE)
• – Rome
built a
large navy and
sent troops to
Sicily. Rome
won the war
and Sicily in
241 BCE
making it
Rome’s first
Second Punic War
(218-202 BCE)
• – This was about revenge. The
greatest Carthaginian general,
Hannibal took a large army
including 6000 horses and
elephants into Spain marched
north into the Alps.
• 2nd Punic War continued…
– Rome was truly threatened, at the Battle
of Cannae, Rome lost almost 40,000
– Rome raised another army.
– Hannibal was unable to successfully
attack any major cities.
– Meanwhile Rome attacked Carthage,
forcing Hannibal to go back.
– At the Battle of Zama Rome crushed
Hannibal's forces.
– Spain became the second province of
Hannibal’s Route
• Third Punic War – (151-146 BCE)
• Rome attacked Carthage.
– 50,000 men, women and children
were sold into slavery
– The territory of Carthage became a
Roman province called Africa.
– Rome now controlled the western
• In the same century Rome also
conquered Macedonia and
Greece making Rome the master
of the Mediterranean Sea.
Political Developments
• By the end of the Punic Wars, the
senate was mostly made of landed
aristocracy – a small group of
wealthy, powerful families.
• There was a new urban class of
landless poor and Rome suffered
growing economic and social unrest.
– Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus were
reform minded aristocrats who called for
the return of land to those who had lost
From Bad to Worse
• Tiberius was assassinated by a group
of senators in 133 BCE. Later, his
brother would also be killed as
discontent and unrest grew.
• A change in the Army worsened
– First century BCE, General Marius
recruited soldiers from amount the
landless poor, promising them land for
loyalty to HIM, not to the state.
– The council of Plebs wanted to give him
power, but he would have competition for
the rule of Rome.
– He set a precedent for generals to
become political.
Reform Leaders
 Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus
the poor should be given grain
and small plots of free land.
Military Reformer
 Gaius Marius
recruited an army from the poor
and homeless.
professional standing army.
• Sulla was the next general to wield
great political power.
• He had control in the east (Asia
• Civil war broke out when the council
of plebs tried to give Marius
• Sulla won by seizing Rome in 82BCE
• Sulla restored power to the Senate
and took away most of the powers of
the popular assemblies.
Collapse of the Republic
• Sulla’s seizure of Rome led to 50 years of
civil war.
• Three men emerged victorious and became
Rome’s first triumvirate.
– Crassus- more a moneyed power than
military power; especially since Pompey
took credit for downing the Spartacus
– Pompey – military commander
– Julius Caesar – equestrian, war hero
• Crassus was killed off quickly.
The First Triumvirate
 Julius Caesar
 Marcus Licinius Crassus
 Gaius Magnus Pompey
Civil War & Dictators
Julius Caesar
Senate Chooses Pompey
• The senate ordered Julius
Caesar to give up his command.
• He refused.
• He kept his loyal army and
moved into Italy illegally by
crossing the Rubicon River.
Crossing the Rubicon, 49 BC
The Die is Cast!
Comparing Law Codes
• Read the Twelve Tables
• Re-read the Code of Hammurabi
and Jewish Law Codes
• Make a list of Similarities and
differences between the three.
• Answer this question:
How is the Roman code
completely different from the
earlier codes?
Beware the Ides of March!
44 BCE
• Caesar
Pompey and
in 47BCE
• He filled the Senate with his supporters to
weaken its power.
• A group of senators assassinated Caesar in
The Second Triumvirate
 Octavian Augustus
 Marc Antony
 Marcus Lepidus
The Second Triumvirate
• Octavian, Antony and Lepidus
• Octavian and Antony divided the
Roman world between themselves;
– Antony took the east
• He married Cleopatra, though he was already
married, to add Egypt to Rome.
– Octavian took the west
• He defeated Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle
Actium in 31 BCE.
• Both fled Egypt and committed suicide a year
– A new period of Roman history was
ushered in –
The Age of Augustus
Home Work
• Priority 1
– Vocabulary Quiz tomorrow,
Wednesday 20 Feb. 08.
• Priority 2
– Assignment # 5 The Period of
• Due Date – Thursday 21 Feb. 08
Vocabulary for Quiz
"Mare Nostrum
Romulus & Remus
Praetorian Guard
Twelve Tables
Law of Nations
Punic Wars
foreign policy
• Gracchi Brothers
• agrarian
• Spartacus
Octavian Augustus:
Rome’s First Emperor
Age of Augustus
• Octavian proclaimed “ the restoration of the
Republic” in 27 BCE
– Really he had more power than the senate
• Was given the title Augustus meaning
revered one.
• He was also given the title - “Imperator”
which is emperor
– He had an army of 28 legions of 5,000
troops each. Only citizens could be in the
– He had auxiliary forces (open enrollment)
that numbered around 130,000.
– He also had a praetorian guard of 9,000.
The First Roman
The Early Empire
14-180 CE
• Rule became dynastic (adopted or
• First four emperors after Augustus were
of his line. Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius and Nero
– Under them the emperors gained more power, became
more corrupt.
– Nero had anyone who came in his way – killed. His
mom too.
– Nero controlled the army giving the Senate no power.
– The army finally turned against him and he commit
• Then came the five good emperors
– Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus
Pax Romana: 27 BCE – 180 CE
Pax Romana
• See supplemental handout for
• Expansion of Rome
– Under Trajan – Roman rule went into
Dacia, Mesopotamia, and the Sinai
– Trajan expanded Rome to its largest
– Hadrian realized the empire was getting to
large to rule so withdrew troops from
Mesopotamia and became defensive along
Rome’s frontiers.
Hadrian’s Wall
Cultural Diffusion
• Roman culture, law and Latin
language spread into the western
part of the empire.
• Greek was used in the east.
• The mixture of the two resulted in
the Greco-Roman Civilization.
The Greatest Extent of the
Roman Empire – 14 CE
Christianity and Rome
• Jesus began to preach in the midst of
this conflict. Humility, charity and love
of others.
• The Judeans turned Jesus over to the
Romans as a subversive because they
though he might cause people to revolt
against Rome.
• The procurator, Pontius Pilate, ordered
his crucifixion.
• Simon Peter – he and other disciples
taught that Jesus was the Savior and
Son of God who had come to Earth to
save all people. Jesus’ death could
make up for people's sins and offer
them salvation.
• Paul of Tarsus – he followed Jesus
command to preach the gospel to both
Jews and non-Jews or Gentiles. He
founded many Christian communities
in Asia Minor and along the Aegean
St. Paul:
Apostle to the Gentiles
• Between 40 and 100 CE Paul wrote
down letters to Christian communities
and other disciples are believed to have
written down Jesus’ sayings. These
form the Gospels of Jesus life and
teachings, the basis of the New
• At first Romans paid little attention to the
spread of Christianity,
• Then the political order saw it as harmful
to public order and morals since the
Christians would not worship Roman
• Roman persecutions had begun under
Nero who blamed them for a fire that
burned much of Rome.
Triumph of Christianity
• Persecution forced Christianity to
become more organized.
• Bishops controlled Christian
• A distinction arose between the clergy
and the laity.
• Reasons for growth of Christianity
It was a more personal religion.
It was familiar in its offer of immortality.
It fulfilled the human need to belong.
It was attractive to the poor and powerless.
A Change in Imperial
• Emperors in the third century
began new waves of persecution.
• Diocletian was the last.
• Then, Constantine became the
first Christian emperor
– Edict of Milan officially sanctioned
tolerating Christianity
• Then under Theodosius the
Great, Christianity became the
official state religion.
The Spread of Christianity
Imperial Roman Road System
Art, Architecture and
• Art – Romans developed a taste for Greek art.
Greek statues adorned their cities and homes.
• Architecture – innovated a dome, arch and
vault. They built roads, bridges, and
• Literature - high point during Age of Augustus
– Virgil – famous poet who wrote the Aeneid.
– Horace – famous poet; his satires poke fun at
weaknesses, follies and vices of the human race.
– Livy – wrote History of Rome. He traced the history
of Rome from its inception to 9 BCE. Accentuated
moral lessons. Not always accurate.
Roman Family
• The family was headed by the
paterfamilias- the dominant male.
• The household included the
paterfamilias, the wife, sons and their
wives and children, unmarried
daughters, and slaves.
• Romans raised their children at home.
• All upper-class children learned to
• Teachers were often Greek slaves.
Family Life
• Boys learned reading, writing, moral
principles, family values, law and
physical training.
• Males ended their childhood at 16 with
a special ceremony-the trade in of the
purple-edge toga for the white toga.
• Romans believed in the weakness of
women so they were required to have
male guardians.
• The Paterfamilias also arranged the
marriage of his daughters.
More Family Stuff
• Legal minimum age for girls to
marry was 12, but 14 was more
• For boys 14.
• Divorce was introduced in the third
century CE and was easy for
either sex to obtain.
By the second century CE
the paterfamilias could not
• sell his children into slavery or have them put
to death.
• Women increasingly were not required to
have a male guardian.
• Upper-class women could own, sell, and
inherit property.
• Roman wives were never segregated from
their men in the home
• Outside the home, women could attend the
races, the theater, and events in the
– Seating was segregated.
• Women could not participate in politics.
• No people relied on slavery as much as the
– Before the third century BCE, even a small Roman
farmer would have one or two slaves.
• War captives had been brought to Italy as
• Greeks were prized as tutors, musicians,
doctors and artists.
• Slaves worked in ships, kept house, waited
tables, were personal servants and made
• They built roads and public buildings.
Slavery Cont.
• Masters feared slave revolts
• Punishments were harsh: the murder of
a master by a slave might mean all the
remaining household’s slaves would be
– Sparticus 73 BCE 70,000 slaves joined up
and defeated several Roman armies
before being defeated. Thousands of his
followers were crucified.
The Rise of Christianity
Roman Religion
• Augustus revived traditional Roman
religious festivals and ceremonies to
bring back the state religion.
• By 6 CE, Judea was a Roman
province under the direction of a
– Sadducees counseled and cooperated
– Essenes awaited a Messiah to deliver
them from oppression.
– Zealots advocated overthrowing Roman
• In 66CE a revolt was crushed by the Romans.
The Decline
• 180 CE After the death of the last
good emperor, Marcus Aurelius,
Rome was ruled by Severans.
– Their motto was “pay the soldiers and
ignore everyone else.”
– Their rule ended between 235-284 CE
– Rome was ruled by whoever had the
army to seize it.
• There were 22 emperors over these years.
• Twenty died violently.
Germanic peoples
Invasions, civil wars, and plague
Trade and small industry declined,
and there was a labor shortage
due to plague
• Farm production declined on fields
ravaged by invaders.
The Empire in Crisis: 3c
• Money was short, but
Rome needed soldiers more than ever.
• It grew dependent on Germanic
• Diocletian and Constantine revived
– It had a new governmental structure, a
rigid economic and social system and a
new religion.
– Diocletian divided the empire into four
sections, each with its own ruler to
administrate its extremely large expanse.
– Constantine continued the policies.
Diocletian Splits the
Empire in Two: 294 CE
• Both Diocletian and Constantine
expanded the bureaucracy and
enlarged the army to five hundred
thousand troops.
– Expanding the civil service and
military drained the treasury.
– To fight inflation, Diocletian issued
strict wage and price controls for the
entire empire.
– Both issued edicts forcing people to
stay in their jobs.
– Free farmers increasingly were in
debt to large landowners.
• In 324 Constantine became the
sole ruler of Rome
• He had Byzantium transformed
into Constantinople which
became the eastern capitol of
Constantine: 312 - 337
Constantinople: “The 2nd
Rome” (Founded in 330)
The Fall
• The empire restored by Diocletian and
Constantine continued for anther hundred
plus years.
• In the second half of the fourth century, Huns
form Asia moved into eastern Europe and
put pressure on the Germanic Visigoths.
• The Visigoths moved south, crossing the
Danube into Roman territory.
• They had been allies, but they revolted and
defeated a Roman army in 378.
• In 410 Visigoths sacked the city of Rome.
• In 455, the Vandals also sacked the city.
• Romulus Augustus was deposed by the
Germanic head of the army which is what we
pin point as the fall.
Theories to Explain the Fall
• Christianity weakened Rome’s military
• Roman values declined as non-Italians
gained prominent positions
• Lead poisoning from water pipes and
vessels caused a mental decline
• Slavery held Rome back from
advancing technologically
• Rome’s political system proved
Barbarian Invasions: 4c-5c
Attila the Hun:
“The Scourge of God”
The Eastern Roman Empire
The Byzantine Empire
During the Reign of Justinian
The Byzantine Emperor
The Legacy of Rome
Republic Government
Roman Law
Latin Language
Roman Catholic Church
City Planning
Romanesque Architectural Style
Roman Engineering
• Aqueducts
• Sewage systems
• Dams
• Cement
• Arch

Ancient Rome - Regents Review