ANCIENT ROME
ROMAN EARLY DAYS
• GEOGRAPHY:
-Rome- built on 7 rolling hills at
a curve on the Tiber River, in the
middle of the Italian peninsula,
near river and sea
MYTH:
• 753 BCE: Romulus and Remus:
twins of the god Mars and a Latin
Princess
-Twins abandoned on Tiber River and
raised by she-wolf
-Twins built a city; Romulus killed
Remus, City named ROME
REALITY:
• -Latins (the first Romans), Greeks, and
Etruscans originally settled: 1000-500 BCE
• -From 750-600 BCE the Italian villages were
ruled by KINGS
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-during this time, Romans lived in peace
• -600 BCE- ETRUSCANS from N. Italy
conquered Rome
• -For 100 years Rome was ruled by Etruscan
Kings
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LEGACIES OF ETRUSCANS:
-built city wall
-built first sewer system
-Alphabet
-Moved Rome from small
farming town to CITY STATE!
The Etruscans:
• -Ordered the construction of Rome’s 1st
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temples, public centers. The most
famous: The Roman Forum: the heart of
Roman Political Life
-The last king of Rome: Tarquin the
Proud
-driven from power in 509 BCE
-harsh tyrant
-Rome forms a REPUBLIC
THE ROMAN REPUBLIC
• -509 BCE- The Romans rebelled
against the Etruscans and form a
Republic.
• -Republic: controlled by people, no
king, citizens elect men to make laws:
Only FREE-BORN MALE CITIZENS
VOTED
Two Types of People:
• PATRICIANS: wealthy landowners
• PLEBEIANS: common farmers, artisans,
and merchants: Most of Rome. Could
vote but not hold important government
positions.
• In time….Rome’s leaders allowed
Plebeians to form an assembly and elect
representatives called TRIBUNES: these
protected Plebeians from unfair acts.
TWELVE TABLES
• -Important victory for Plebeians: Written
Code of Laws
• -Before, laws were interpreted by
Patricians
• -451 BCE: laws carved in stone and hung
around Forum
• -SIGNIFICANCE: all free citizens had a
right to protection of the law!
GOVERNMENT OF ROMAN REPUBLIC
• LEGAL CODE: The Twelve Tables: a list of rules
that was the basis of Roman Legal System
• CITIZENSHIP: ALL ADULT MALE
LANDOWNERS
•In time of crisis, the republic
could appoint a DICTATOR:
a leader who had absolute
power to make laws and
command army. Only for 6
months, chosen by consuls
and elected by senate.
ROMAN MILITARY
• -Great Importance placed on MILITARY!
• -All those seeking public office must have spent
10 years in military!
• -All citizens who owned land were to serve!
• -Legions: large military units
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-5,000 heavily armed foot soldiers (infantry)
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-Group on horseback: (Cavalry)
• -Century: legions were divided in units of 80
men
THE PUNIC WARS
• As a Republic: Rome has
expanded its empire through
trade and conquest.
• RESULT: Rome and
CARTHAGE, Rome’s greatest
enemy: go to WAR!
• PUNIC WARS: series of
three wars from 264-146BCE!
• SIGNIFICANCE OF WARS:
• -By 70 BCE Rome controlled
the West and East
Mediterranean
THE REPUBLIC COLLAPSES!
• CAUSES: increasing wealth,
expanding boundaries, discontent
within the lower classes, and
breakdown of military!
EFFECTS: #1 ECONOMIC TURMOIL
• -As the empire grew, so did the wealth of the
elite
• -1000s of enslaved peoples worked on estates
of the rich
• -100 BCE: 1/3 of population slaves
• -Small farms cannot compete with estate ran by
slaves
• -Forced to sell land to rich: Unemployment
• -Migrated to city: creating Urban Poor: 1/4 of
population
Economic cont…
• Tiberius and Gauis Gracchus, 2 brothers,
tried to help urban poor by asking for the
elite’s estates to be limited in size.
• “The savage beasts have
their….dens…but the men who bear arms
and expose their lives for the safety of
their country, enjoy…nothing more than
the air and the light…and wander from
place to place with their wives and
children.” Tiberius Gracchus
• Both brothers became enemies of
the senate and met violent
deaths.
• RESULTS: CIVIL WAR between
the rich and poor
2. MILITARY TURMOIL
• -as Republic grew
unstable, the
military turned
disloyal
• -generals seized
more power for
themselves and
recruited landless
poor to fight for
them promising land
• -these soldiers fought
for their general, not
Rome
• RESULTS:
• -It is now possible for
a military leader to
TAKE OVER by force,
and…well……one did:
JULIUS CAESAR 60-44 BCE
• 60 BCE: Becomes military leader
• -His team: Crassus (wealthy) and
Pompey (general)
• 59 BCE: Elected Consul: for next 10
years these 3 men DOMINATED
Rome as a TRIUMVIRATE (group of 3
rulers)
• Served as Consul 1 year
(term), to remain in power:
• 58-50BCE: appoints himself
governor of GAUL (France)
• -A military genius, conquered
all of Gaul, won support of his
men
Caesar cont.
• Caesar gains popularity,
Pompey gets jealous,
becomes his rival!
• Pompey gets senate to
orders Caesar to
disband and come home
in 50 BCE.
• Jan. 10, 49 BCE: Caesar
defies Senate and
crosses Rubicon River
into Italy and marches
army towards Rome.
Pompey flees!
• Caesar’s troops crushed Pompey’s
troops in Greece, Asia, Spain & Egypt
(while there, had a little affair with
Cleopatra)!
• 46 BCE: Caesar returns to Rome with
support of army and people.
• Senate appoints him DICTATOR!
• 44 BCE: named dictator for life
CAESAR’S REFORMS
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-absolute ruler
-granted citizenship to many in provinces
-expanded Senate
-Created jobs for poor (Construction)
-Created colonies for the landless
-increases soldier’s pay
-improved calendar
-pressed for “honest” government
-planned founding of public libraries
-gave free grain to extreme poor
ASSASSINATION
• -Senators feared a loss of their
influence, considered him a tyrant
• -group of Senators led by Marcus
Brutus and Gaius Cassius plotted
assassination
• -IDES OF MARCH: March, 15, 44 BCE:
stabbed to death in Senate Chamber
RESULTS
• -Civil War
• -2nd Triumvirate: OCTAVIAN and
MARC ANTONY and LEPIDUS
OCTAVIAN TO AUGUSTUS
• 2nd Triumvirate
• Octavian, Marc Antony,
Lepidus:
• ALLIANCE ENDS:
• Lepidus forced to retire
• Octavian & Antony
become rivals
• Split empire: Octavian:
West….Antony (w/
Cleopatra): East
• TENSION LEADS TO another CIVIL
WAR:
• Octavian accused Antony of plotting
to rule all of Rome from Egypt with
Cleopatra
• Octavian and Antony fight: Battle of
Actium 31 BCE
• Octavian wins, Antony & Cleopatra
commit suicide
OCTAVIAN becomes: AUGUSTUS
• 1st emperor of Rome
• Glorified Rome
• Civil workers (pulled from
Plebeians or former slaves)
hired to manage affairs of
government such as tax
collection and postal
system: minimizes
unemployment: but still a
problem
• Senate still functioned, but
Augustus has supreme power
• Augustus, Rome’s most capable
emperor, created a system of
government that kept its stability
long after his death
ROMAN EMPIRE
• PAX ROMANA: “Roman Peace”
• Rome was at the peak of its power from
the beginning of Augustus’ rule in 27 BCE
until AD 180.
• For 207 years: peace existed in Rome
• Population grew: 60-80 million in empire, 1
million in Rome
• Advanced road and aqueduct system
COLOSSEUM
• -The Name Colosseum comes from the Latin word
meaning: GIGANTIC!!
• BUILT: AD 72-82
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-Building began under Vespasian, opened by
Titus, and completed by Domitian.
• -CAPACITY: 45,000-50,000 people
• -MATERIALS: Stone and concrete
• -SIZE: 157 Feet high, 620 feet long
• -80 entrances, central arena, elevators and ramps
from the cells and animal cages
• -Held events: GLADIATOR FIGHTS!!!
GLADIATORS
• Gladiators were slaves and freemen!
Used for entertainment!
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Emperors put of GAMES to appease
their citizens and to show their power!
• -Men and women both were gladiators!
• -fought each other and wild animals:
lions, tigers, elephants, hippos
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-Many animal populations were
severely hurt!
PANTHEON
• Built: 118-126 AD by Hadrian
• -Roman Temple built to honor gods
• -Built as a Roman Temple and later
used as Catholic Church
THE GOOD, THE BAD, THE
UGLY-EMPERORS
• Augustus Caesar –
– First Roman Emperor
– Julius Caesar’s adopted Son
• Changed name from Octavian to Augustus –
Augustus means “The Majestic”
• Starts the Pax Romana – “Roman Peace” 27
BC to 180 AD
• Under Pax Romana – the Empire is
restructured
• Trade Improved
– End of the Pirates and
Bandits
– Roads and Sea Lanes
cleared for commerce
• Creates Professional Civil
Service
• Creates Program of Public
Works – “Bread and
Circuses”
THE GOOD
• Trajan • Born in Spain
• Conquered Dacia – Romania –
source of gold/Roman wealth into 2nd
Century
• Building Campaign throughout the
Empire
• Trajan’s Column
• Extends Rome to its greatest extent
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Hadrian
Trajan’s cousin
Reformed the Civil Service
Suppressed Jewish Revolt
Continued Building Program of
Trajan
• Hadrian’s Wall – Northern Britain
• Defended borders – Strengthened
Frontiers
• Marcus Aurelius
• Last of the “Five Good Emperors”
• Followed Stoicism – Good is
determined by the state of the soul
• Therefore a virtuous life is VERY
important
• Disastrous Campaign – Army brings
back a plague weakening Rome and
Europe
• Biggest mistake – chose his son to be
the Emperor instead of someone
qualified
THE BAD
• Caligula
• Insane
• Murdered Senators for their property
and wives
• Considered making his horse a
Consul
• Demanded to be worshipped as
Jupiter
• Nero
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Made Emperor when 15 years old
Murdered Wife and Mother
64AD – FIRE IN ROME
Half the city destroyed
He blames Christians
Persecutions break out – Martyr of St.
Peter and St. Paul
• Rebellion in Gaul
• Commits suicide when rebellion
reaches Rome
• Commodus
• More interested in the gladiatorial
games then in running the empire
• Once killed an ostrich in the arena
and held up its head to the Senators
• “to show us that he had the same fate
in store for us” – Dio Cassius
• Strangled by his wrestling partner
THE UGLY
• Vespasian
• Crushed the Jewish
Rebellion in Palestine
• His son destroyed the
city of Jerusalem and
the Jewish Temple
• Destroys remainder of
rebellion at Masada –
a hilltop fortress
Three Unifying Elements that
Preserved the Empire
• Figure of the Emperor
• Civil Servants and City Councils
• The Army
Disruptive Influence is the Praetorian Guard
• Founded by Augustus
• Begin interfering in politics in 41AD
(Claudius)
LANGUAGE AND LATIN
• About ½ of the words in present-day English
come from languages other than English!
• Romance Languages:
• -Languages that developed from Latin!
• Romans spoke something called Vulgar Latin
• Each area had its owe dialect: version of Latin
• These dialects became separate languages
– Such as: Italian, French, Spanish,
Portuguese, and Romanian
Germanic Languages
• -Languages that came from Germanic
Tribes
• ENGLAND: although part of the Roman
Empire, England developed its language
from the Germanic Tribes that invaded
them.
• Germanic Languages: English, German,
Polish, Russian, and Scandinavian
dialects are just a few!
• Americans speak a Germanic Language,
not a Romance language.
CHRISTIANITY
• Anno Domini: “in the year of our
lord” AD
• Roman Empire spread to Jerusalem
in 63 BC. Jews felt threatened:
around 6 to 4 BC, Jews named
Jesus their savior.
• Christianity began with Jesus: Jesus
of Nazareth
• JESUS- a Jew, lived during the time
of the Roman Emperor Augustus
– born in Bethlehem, raised in Nazareth
– His story: New Testament of the Bible
called the GOSPELS written by a group
of 12 men called the APOSTLES (his
disciples or students)
JESUS’ LIFE
• -as a young man he was a
carpenter
• -at 30 he began public ministry
• -for 3 years he preached and
reportedly performed miracles
BELIEFS
• -monotheism
• -Ten Commandments
• -God has a personal relationship with
everyone
• -Good treatment to thy neighbor
• -That all who followed God’s wishes would
be rewarded after death
• His teaching appealed to the poor.
“Blessed are the meek, for they shall
inherit the earth”
THE DEATH OF JESUS
• -Jesus’ popularity threaten Roman
and Jewish leaders
• -Roman governor, Pontius Pilate
accused Jesus of defying the
power of Rome
• -Jesus sentenced to death by
crucifixion
• -After death, his body was placed
in a tomb and according to the
Gospels, 3 days later it was gone,
and a living Jesus began appearing
and finally ascended to heaven
• Because of this….Jesus’ followers were
more convinced he was the messiah
(savior)…..They began to call him JESUS
CHRIST.
• CHRIST comes from the Greek word
Christos meaning savior, the word
Christianity came from this as well.
• SACRED CHRISTIAN HOLIDAYS:
• Christmas: December 25: celebrate birth
of Christ
• Good Friday: Jesus’ death
• Easter: Jesus’ Resurrection
THE SPREAD OF CHRISTIANITY
• Christianity initially accepted, but as it
grew, Roman gov’t saw it as a threat!
• How did it spread so easily?
• -PAX ROMANA: 207 years of peace in
Rome!
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-made travel and exchange fairly safe
• -COMMON LANGUAGES: Latin and
Greek, allowed the message to be easily
understood
• -PAUL: wrote letters called the
Epistles to groups of believers
stressing the Jesus was the son of
God who died for people’s sins, and
that Christianity welcomed all
converts: made it not just a local
religion!
JEWISH REBELLION
• #1
• -66 AD: Band of Jews rebelled
against Rome
• -70 AD Romans storm Jerusalem
and burn the Temple
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- All that is left- small portion
of Western Wall- Holiest
• -1/2 million Jews were killed
throughout the rebellion
• #2
• -132 AD In 3 yrs. another ½ million died: they
refused to worship Roman Gods (like
Christians), didn’t want to be under Roman
control
• -Religion survived, but Jewish Political State did
not for 1800 yrs. Until the creation of Israel in
1948!
• -Most Jews were forced from homeland into
exile: called DIASPORA
CAUSES OF THE ROMAN
COLLAPSE
• Marcus Aurelius (180 AD) ended
Pax Romana.
• Next wave of
emperors….completely
• incapable of ruling Rome.
ROME’S ECONOMY FAILS
• Hostile tribes outside
boundaries and pirates on
Mediterranean Sea disrupted
trade!
• Reached limit of expansion,
could not get new resources
(gold and silver)
• Desperate for revenue, taxes
are raised and coins minted not
worth their face value
• INFLATION: drop of value of $ and
increase in prices
• Agriculture: harvest suffer due to
overworked land and war
• Food shortages and disease spread.
MILITARY AND POLITICAL
TURMOIL
• Soldiers less disciplined and loyal, fight for
general not Rome.
• Mercenaries: foreign soldiers hired to
fight, had less loyalty to empire
• Citizen loyalty drops, indifference emerges
• Lack of motivated, worthy emperors
ATTEMPTS AT REFORM
• DIOCLETIAN SPLITS THE
EMPIRE
• 284 AD: strong willed army
empire, limited citizens
personal freedoms, restored
the empire, doubled army, fixed
priced goods.
• -Presented himself god like –
preserves emperor role and
honor
• **Splits Empire:
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-EAST: Greek Speaking
(Greece, Anatolia, Syria, Egypt)
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- WEST- Latin Speaking (Italy,
Gaul, Britain, Spain)
• DIOCLETIAN takes the east! Co-ruler
takes West!
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-Diocletian kept overall control
• Retires 305 AD: Civil War breaks out 311
AD, 4 rules fights over Rome!!
CONSTANTINE MOVES THE CAPITAL
• 312 AD: Gains control
of Western half
• 324 AD: Gains control
of entire empire
• 330 AD: Moves Capital
of Roman Empire from
Rome to Byzantium:
Greek City in Anatolia.
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• -SIGNIFICANCE: center of power from
west to east!
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-soon Byzantium becomes a wonder
like Rome
• -CONSTANTINOPLE: name changes to
honor emperor. (City of Constantine)
• After death of Constantine: Empire splits
again: West Crumbles, and East
survives!!!!
THE EMPIRE CRUMBLES!!!!
• GERMANIC
INVASIONS:
• -370 AD: Mongol
Nomads called HUNS
moved into regions
outside empire forcing
Germanic People in!
• Romans call invaders:
BARBARIANS!!!
• 410 AD: Tribes overran
Rome itself and
devastated the city!
ATTILA THE HUN!!!
• -Huns indirectly responsible for Germanic
Invasion!
• 444 AD: Huns became a direct threat- United
under Attila: 100,000 Huns terrorize both
halves of empire!
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-attack 70 cities (not Constantinople or
Rome)
• 453 AD: Attila dies, Huns no longer a threat!
NO MORE ROMAN EMPIRE!!!!
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LAST EMPEROR: Romulus Augustulus
-removed by Germanic Tribes in 476 AD
FATE OF ROME:
WESTERN PROVINCES:
-Roman power disappeared
-Tribes from Northern Frontiers of Empire!
-Had to flee Attila the Hun
-Attila was forcing Barbarians into Roman
Empire
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-Attila himself was a direct threat to Rome
SIGNIFICANCE:
• -after collapse of W. Roman Empire, tribes set
up own independent states.
• EASTERN PROVINCES:
• -BYZANTINE EMPIRE!!!!- Flourished for 1000
years!!!!
• -Emperors ruled from Constantinople
• -Endured until 1453- fell to Ottoman Turks
LEGACIES OF ROME
• GRECO-ROMAN CULTURE:
mixing of elements of Greek,
Hellenistic, and Roman
Cultures (classical civilization)
• Fine Arts
–Pompeii: many preserved
• Learning and Literature
–Virgil: Aeneid: epic poem
about the birth of Rome
–Livy: historian
Legacies cont.
• Language: Latin: Romance languages
• Architecture
–Colosseum
–Pantheon
–Aqueducts
–Roads
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ANCIENT ROME - Hatboro-Horsham School District