SOL Blitz Review
Test Taking Tips
1. Read each question carefully. Twice; “not” or “except” in the question.
2. First answers are usually correct.
3. Use the process of elimination. If after you have narrowed down the selections to two and
you cannot decide between the two, go with your “gut feeling.” Most people will “feel” if an
answer is right or wrong.
4. Remember, there is no pattern to correct answers. If the last three answers were 'C', the
next answer could be A, B, C, or D.
5. If you really have no clue at all, go with the longest answer.
6. There should be no trick questions. If you think a question is a trick question, you might be
thinking too hard.
7. Take short breaks
Blueprint Summary
11 Questions
WHI. 2 Early Humans
WHI. 3 Early River Valley Civilizations
WHI. 4 Persia, Hinduism, Buddhism
10 Questions
WHI. 5 Ancient Greece
WHI. 6 Ancient Rome
9 Questions
WHI. 7 Byzantines and Russians
WHI. 8 Islam
WHI. 9 Early Middle Ages
13 Questions
WHI. 10 East Asia
WHI. 11 The Americas
WHI. 12 Late Medieval Period
WHI. 13 Renaissance
WHI.01 Geography
Tip: Be sure to look at the entire map – title, key (legend),
scale, etc
WHI.02: Early Humans
Essential Understandings
1. The life of early hunter-gatherer societies was shaped by their physical environment.
2. Early human societies, through the development of culture, began the process of overcoming
the limits set by the physical environment.
3. The beginning of settled agriculture (including permanent settlements) was a major step in the
advance of civilization.
4. Archaeologists continue to find and interpret evidence of early humans and their lives.
5. Rivers/waterways were extremely important to early civilizations.
1. Homo sapiens in Africa, between 100,000 and 400,000 years ago
A.
B.
C.
D.
lived in semi-permanent settlements.
had an organized government.
had complex tools.
were nomadic.
D – remember, farms did not exist yet, so early humans had
to follow their food source around
2. What important advance of Paleolithic man would fall at the question mark
on the timeline below?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Developed hieroglyphics
Learned how to make and use fire
Developed weaving
Developed pottery
B – A, C, & D are all much more advanced than
developed agriculture
WHI.03: River Valley
Civilizations
Essential Understandings and Tips to Remember
Tips
•
Phoenicia = alphabet (phonetics/trading purple dye)
•
Kush = located south of Egypt on the Nile
•
Natural Barriers = mountains, deserts, oceans not rivers!
Which civilization lasted approximately 1000 years?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Egyptian
Sumerian
Harappan
Babylonian
C – Harappan – each block below represents
500 years.
Of the civilizations listed on the chart, which was the latest to develop?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Israelite
Phoenician
Aryan
Shang/Zhou
B - Phoenician
Which civilization is shown as beginning about 1550 BC
A.
B.
C.
D.
Hittite
Babylonian
Minoan
Shang/Zhou
D – Shang/Zhou – the other one
that is close, the Hittites, started
about 1650 BC.
Which civilization lasted approximately 1500 years?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Sumerian
Egyptian
Harappan
Shang Zhou
A – Sumerian – each block
represents 500 years.
Which Chinese city was NOT located next to a river?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Yangzhou
Hao
Panlongcheung
Luoyang
B - Hao
What natural barrier lies between India and China?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Gobi Desert
Takla Makan Desert
Plateau of Tibet
Himalaya Mountains
D – Mountains are always the
best natural barriers.
Which river ran next to the cities of Yangzhou and Panlongcheung?
A.
B.
C.
D.
The Yangtze
The Huang He
The Xi Jiang
The Ganges
A – the Yangtze
Which one of the following was a river valley civilization in Africa about 3500 to
500 B.C. (B.C.E.)?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Mesopotamia
Phoenicia
Hindu Kush
Egypt
D – Egypt – the others are in the
Middle East
The most important reason man’s earliest civilizations began in river valleys
was because these valleys
A.
B.
C.
D.
were used for extensive trade.
offered abundant wildlife for food.
offered rich soil for agriculture.
provided transportation for nomadic peoples.
C - offered rich soil for agriculture
One of the first written codes of law was the
A.
B.
C.
D.
Vedas
Code of Hammurabi.
Eightfold Path to Enlightenment.
hieroglyphics
B – Code of Hammurabi
#
A.
B.
C.
D.
a
b
c
d
A-a
#
A.
B.
C.
D.
a
b
c
d
A-a
#
A.
B.
C.
D.
a
b
c
d
A-a
#
A.
B.
C.
D.
a
b
c
d
A-a
WHI.04 India, China and
Persia
Essential Understandings and Tips to Remember
•
Hinduism and Buddhism both began in India, BUT Buddhism
left India to go to China
•
China = silk, porcelain
•
Persia = Zoroaster, treated conquered people well, efficient government
(bureaucracy)
•
Confucius = respect for elders, ancestor worship
In what city did the Royal Road begin in the west?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Sardis
Nineveh
Lydia
Susa
A – Sardis (Lydia is
a province, not a city.
Which of the following cities was closest to the Tropic of Cancer?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Nineveh
Babylon
Thebes
Tyre
C – The Tropic of
Cancer is a line of
latitude in the
southern part of the
map. Thebes is the
southernmost city.
Which of the following was NOT a province of the Persian Empire?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Gedrosia
Greece
Egypt
Media
B – Greece is not
in the shaded region.
Which of the following provinces had no harbor or seacoast?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Syria
Bactria
Chaldea
Armenia
B – Bactria. It’s the
only land locked
province.
What advantage did the Persian Empire gain from building the Royal Road and
having long coastlines?
A.
B.
C.
D.
An advantage in trade
An advantage in agriculture
An advantage in irrigation
An advantage in ironworking
A – trading is easier on the water
and on roads.
The following is a sacred writing of Hinduism:
A.
B.
C.
D.
Ten Commandments
Code of Hammurabi
Upanishads
Koran
C – Upanishads – the Ten Commandments are Jewish, the Koran is Muslim, and the
Code of Hammurabi was a law code for the Babylonians.
All of the following relate to Confucianism except
A.
B.
C.
D.
Ancestor worship
Respect for Elders
Belief in one god
Code of politeness
C – Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are the only monotheistic religions we’ve
studied. Confucianism isn’t even a religion, it’s a philosophy.
A belief in reincarnation, karma, many forms of one major deity, and a caste
system are characteristics of which of the following religions?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Hinduism
Buddhism
Judaism
Zoroastrianism
A – Hinduism.
WHI.05: Ancient Greece
Essential Understandings and Tips to Remember
•
Greece = mountainous peninsula
•
Athens = democracy
•
Sparta = oligarchy/military
•
Persian Wars = Greece v. Persia (Greece won)
•
Peloponnesian Wars = Sparta v. Athens (Sparta won)
What was Greece’s largest island?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Rhodes
Marathon
Crete
Knossos
C – Marathon and Knossos
aren’t even islands.
What sea separates Greece from Asia Minor
A.
B.
C.
D.
Mediterranean
Ionian
Aegean
All of the above
C – the Aegean
What is Greece’s easternmost city?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Byzantium
Pella
Troy
Athens
A - Byzantium
Troy lay near what waterway that separates Europe from Asia Minor?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Sea of Marmara
Aegean Sea
Ionian Sea
Dardanelles
D – Dardanelles – they
are the narrowest waterway
between Europe and Asia
Minor
In which form of government did social status play a role?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Monarchy
Aristocracy
Oligarchy
Direct Democracy
B – Aristocracy – Nobility means
a high social status. Also, the words
social status are in the Aristocracy
category.
What form of government was practiced in Sparta?
A.
B.
C.
D.
monarchy
aristocracy
Oligarchy
direct democracy
B – Oligarchy
Where was monarchy the form of government around 1450 BC?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Athens
Mycenae
Sparta
all of the above
B – Mycenae
Which form of government sometimes had a ruler who claimed divine right?
A.
B.
C.
D.
monarchy
aristocracy
Oligarchy
direct democracy
A – monarchy – most monarchs
in the ancient world claimed divine
right.
Which form of government was ruled by all citizens?
A.
B.
C.
D.
monarchy
aristocracy
Oligarchy
direct democracy
A – direct democracy
The Greek civilization was located on which of the following bodies of water?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Red Sea
Nile River
Indus River
Aegean Sea
D – Aegean Sea
Greek civilization was characterized by
A.
B.
C.
D.
Polytheistic religion based on mythology
harmony with nature
ancestor worship
Caste systems in religious law
A - Polytheistic religion based on mythology
An important economic development in ancient Greece was
A.
B.
C.
D.
an increase in trade with Western Europe.
a shift from a money economy to a barter economy c
a shift from a barter economy to a money economy
the use of land routes instead of sea routes
C - a shift from a barter economy to a money economy
The earliest democratic system of government was developed in
A.
B.
C.
D.
classical Athens
Sparta
Egypt
India
A – classical Athens
The structure shown below was built to honor which Greek goddess?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Athena
Aphrodite
Apollo
Hera
A - Athena
What is the correct order of the evolution of democracy in Athens?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Monarchy, aristocracy, tyranny, democracy
Aristocracy, monarchy, tyranny, democracy
Tyranny, aristocracy, monarchy, democracy
Monarchy, tyranny, aristocracy, democracy
A - Monarchy, aristocracy, tyranny, democracy
A government that is an oligarchy is characterized by
A.
B.
C.
D.
a representative rule of government.
rule by a small group.
rule by a dictator
rule by a monarch
B – rule by a small group
How did the results of the Persian Wars impact Western Civilization?
A. Persian influence increases greatly in the West.
B. Athens preserved its independence and continued innovations in
government and culture
C. Persian and Greek religions merged and spread throughout the
Mediterranean and beyond.
D. Cultural advancements slowed and the political power of the
Greeks weakened.
A - Athens preserved its independence and continued
innovations in government and culture
What key event united the Greek city-states to a greater degree than they had
been before?
A.
B.
C.
D.
The establishment of a constitution by Solon
The development of democracy in Athens
The formation of the Delian League
The fighting of the Persian Wars
D - The fighting of the Persian Wars
The significance of the Persian Wars was that
A.
B.
C.
D.
Athens and Sparta united against the Persian
Greece emerged as the world’s most powerful government.
the cultural advancements of Greek civilization slowed.
Greek democracy was extended throughout the Mediterranean
area.
A - Athens and Sparta united against the Persian
Empire.
WHI.06: Ancient Rome
Essential Understandings and Tips to Remember
•
Alps are in the northern part of Italy
•
Rome = republic, then empire
•
Senate was the most powerful gov’t body during the Republic
•
Roman language was Latin
•
Rome’s two biggest influences of today – engineering and government
•
Greece was the biggest influence on Rome
Carthage was located on which continent?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Europe
Asia
Africa
Australia
C - Africa
What body of water did both opponents share?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Adriatic Sea
Ionian Sea
Atlantic Ocean
Mediterranean Sea
D- Mediterranean Sea
Through which mountain ranges did Hannibal’s army have to travel with
elephants?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Himalayas and Alps
Pyrenees and Alps
Apennines and Himalayas
Alps and Apennines
B- Pyrenees and Alps
What was the site of the earliest major battle shown on the map?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Messana (264 BC)
Zama (202 BC)
Carthage (147 BC)
Cannae (216 BC)
A - Messana
Who won the Punic Wars and how do you know?
A. Carthage won because
Hannibal’s route continued
on to Zama
B. Rome won because the
major battle key label was
placed there
C. Carthage won because the
fighting lasted so long
D. Rome won because by 146
BC the Roman territory had
expanded
D – Compare Rome in
264 BC and 146 BC
Greece and Rome differed from earlier civilizations of the ancient world
because Greek and Roman citizens
a. believed in one rather than many gods
b. created large empires containing many
national groups
c. had a voice in their government
d. prohibited slavery
C - Greece and Rome differed from
the earlier civilizations of the ancient
world because Greek and Roman
citizens had a voice in their government.
Which modern European country occupies the homeland of the ancient Romans?
a. Germany
b. Italy
c. France
d. England
B - Italy is the European country that occupies the homeland
of the Romans. The Roman Empire included all of France and
part of England and Germany.
Which body of water connected Rome with North Africa and Asia?
a. Atlantic Ocean
b. Persian Gulf
c. Mediterranean Sea
d. Black Sea
C - The Mediterranean Sea connected Rome with North
Africa and Asia. This body of water was the great highway of
commerce between the cultures of Rome, Greece, Egypt,
North Africa, Syria, Phoenicia, Palestine and Asia Minor.
The Twelve Tables were important in Rome because they
a. laid the basis for the Roman Republic
b. freed all the slaves in Rome
c. gave Rome its first written code of laws
d. gave the emperor the status of a god
C - The Twelve Tables (about 450 B.C.)
gave Rome its first written code of laws.
These laws limited the power of the
patrician judges who often interpreted the
unwritten laws in a way that was unfair to
the plebeians.
What was the basic cause of the Punic Wars?
a. Rome's acceptance of Christianity
b. Carthage's invasion of Italy
c. Rome's rivalry with Carthage for control of the western
Mediterranean
d. Carthage's support for the plebeians against the
patricians
C - The basic cause of the
Punic Wars (264-146 B.C.)
was Rome's rivalry with
Carthage for control of the
western Mediterranean.
As a result of the Punic Wars, Rome
a. lost its overseas empire
b. lost control over most of Italy
c. was burned to the ground
d. won control over the western Mediterranean
D - As a result of the Punic Wars,
Rome won control over the western
Mediterranean. Carthage was completely
destroyed (146 B.C.) and its surviving
population was sold into slavery.
The term "Pax Romana" refers to the period of
a. peace and prosperity during the first two centuries of
the Roman Empire
b. civil wars between Roman generals which destroyed
the Republic
c. democratic government following the abolition of the
Senate
d. slave revolts which weakened the Republic
A - The term "Pax Romana"
is the name given to the period
of peace and prosperity that
occurred during the first two
centuries of the Roman Empire.
Which major religion was born during a time when the Roman Empire was
near its height?
a. Judaism
b. Hinduism
c. Islam
d. Christianity
D - Christianity was born during the 1st century A.D. at a time when the
Roman Empire was reaching its height under Augustus Caesar. Judaism can
trace its origins back to a period earlier than 1000 B.C., as can Hinduism.
Why was the Roman Empire divided in half during the 3rd century A.D.?
C-
a. invaders had conquered the western half
The Roman Empire was
b. so that land could be given to retired Roman soldiers divided by the Emperor Diocletian
c. to make it easier to administer
about 285 A.D. to make it easier to
d. to prevent a civil war between rival emperors
administer. Diocletian took control
of the wealthier eastern half and
appointed a co-emperor to rule over
the western half.
Which group was responsible for the destruction of the Roman Empire in the
west?
a. Byzantines
b. Germanic tribes
c. Huns
d. Persians
B - The Germanic tribes living north of the Danube River in
Europe were responsible for the destruction of the Roman Empire
in the west.
Julius Caesar is an important figure in Roman history because he
a. fought the First Punic War
b. became the first emperor of Rome
c. greatly increased the power of the Senate
d. expanded Rome's territory and became dictator for life
D - Julius Caesar is important in Roman
history because he expanded Rome's territory
(in Britain, Egypt, France, Spain, and Syria)
and became dictator for life (in 44 B.C.).
Caesar exercised nearly absolute power.
"I was the adopted son of the great Julius. I defeated all of my rivals and
became the first emperor of Rome." The person speaking is
a. Mark Antony
b. Octavian
c. Marcus Brutus
d. Gaius Cassius
B - The person speaking is Octavian, who took the name
Augustus Caesar after becoming Rome's first emperor.
Which of the following conquered people influenced Rome the most?
a. Greeks
b. Carthaginians
c. Gauls
d. Britons
A - The Greeks influenced Rome the most. After Greece was
conquered by Rome during the 2nd century B.C., Greek literature,
philosophy, science, mathematics, and art spread to Rome.
Two important contributions of ancient Rome to later societies were in
a. poetry and drama
b. law and engineering
c. painting and music
d. chemistry and physics
B - Rome made important contributions in law
and engineering. Roman law became the basis for
many legal systems in Europe.
WHI.07: Byzantines and
Russians Interact
Essential Understandings and Tips to Remember
•
Best Byzantine emperor was Justinian
•
Byzantine and Russian religion = Eastern Orthodox
About how many miles was it by road from the Golden Gate to the Augusteum?
A.
B.
C.
D.
6.5
1
5
3.5
D – 3.5 miles
Which of the following was closest to the Great Palace?
A.
B.
C.
D.
The Forum of the Ox
The Hagia Sophia
The Forum of Theodosius
The Church of the Apostles
B – the Hagia Sophia
The Aqueduct ran between which of the following?
A. The Forum of Arcadius and the
Forum of the Ox
B. The Church of the Apostles and
the Forum of Theodosius
C. The Forum of Constantine and
the Hippodrome
D. The Church of St. Salvador and
the Wall of Theodosius
B
Which of the following was the furthest north?
A.
B.
C.
D.
The Golden Gate
The Harbor of Theodosius
The Gate of Charisius
The Church of the Apostles
C – the gate of Charisius
The capital of the Eastern Roman Empire was
a. Rome
b. Jerusalem
c. Alexandria
d. Constantinople
D - The capital of the Eastern Roman Empire was Constantinople.
This city was built (in 330 A.D.) on the site of the ancient Greek city of
Byzantium. It is from that ancient Greek city that the Eastern Roman
Empire received the name Byzantine Empire.
Who established the city that was to later become the capital of the Eastern
Roman Empire?
a. Julius Caesar
b. Diocletian
c. Constantine
d. Justinian
C - Constantinople, the city which later became the capital of
the Eastern Roman Empire, was established by the Emperor
Constantine in 330 A.D.
Which religion became the strongest rival of Christianity in the Mediterranean
area during the time of the Byzantine Empire?
a. Judaism
b. Buddhism
c. Islam
d. Hinduism
C - Islam or the Muslim religion became the strongest rival of
Christianity in the Mediterranean area. Buddhism and Hinduism are
religions that arose in India. They never spread to the
Mediterranean region during the time of the Byzantine Empire.
Which was an achievement of the Byzantine Empire?
a. regaining Palestine from the Muslims
b. preserving Greek and Roman civilization
c. promoting paganism
d. conquering Persia
B - The Byzantine Empire preserved Greek
and Roman civilization after the fall of the
western half of the Roman Empire during the
5th century A.D.
The Justinian Code is important because it was a collection of the
a. laws of the Roman Empire
b. teachings of Jesus and the Christian fathers
c. scientific discoveries of the ancient world
d. military tactics used by Roman generals
A - The Justinian Code was a collection
of laws from all over the empire that were
organized and simplified by a committee of
officials appointed by Justinian. The
Justinian Code was later introduced to
Western Europe and influenced law codes
in European countries.
Three of the following are reasons why the Emperor Constantine
selected the ancient town of Byzantium as the site for his new
capital of Constantinople. Which is NOT?
a. It had an excellent harbor.
b. Its nearness to Rome would facilitate communications with the
Western Empire.
c. It was strategically located to deal with the Persians in the east
and barbarians to the north.
d. It was on the natural trade routes connecting Asia with Europe
and the Black Sea with the Mediterranean Sea.
B - Constantinople
was picked as capital
because of its excellent
harbor, its strategic
location and access to
trade routes.
What was a result of Justinian's attempt to reunite the
eastern and western halves of the old Roman Empire?
a. The effort was a complete failure.
b. All of the western lands of the old empire became part of
the Byzantine Empire.
c. The attempt led to a return of prosperity to Rome and Italy.
d. Italy and North Africa were conquered, but then lost to
new invaders.
D - As a result of
Justinian's attempt to reunite
the eastern and western
halves of the old Roman
Empire, Italy, and North
Africa were conquered, but
later lost to new invaders.
To which religion were the Russians converted in the 10th century?
a. Roman Christianity
b. Judaism
c. Islam
d. Orthodox Christianity
D - The Russians were converted to Orthodox Christianity in
the 10th century during the reign of Vladimir the Great. He
ruled Kiev from 972 to 1015. The Russians eventually formed
their own national church called the Russian Orthodox Church.
What name did the princes of Moscow take for themselves?
a. khan
b. czar
c. patriarch
d. pharaoh
B - Khan is the title taken by Mongol and Turkish rulers. Patriarch is the
name given to the leader of the Orthodox Church. Pharaoh was the name of
kings in ancient Egypt. The princes of Moscow took the name of czar. The
first prince to do so was Ivan III "the Great" who created the state of Muscovy
and ruled it from 1462 to 1505.
WHI.08: Islam
Essential Understandings and Tips to Remember
•
Mecca is holiest city, then Medina and Jerusalem
•
Respects Abraham, Moses, and Jesus as Prophets
•
Muslim holy book = Qu’ran or Koran
•
Founded by Muhammad
•
Five Pillars
What city in Europe was under Muslim control by 750?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Damascus
Cairo
Cordoba
Baghdad
C - Cordoba
What important teaching or custom is shared by only two of the three faiths?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Dietary laws
Judgment Day
Life after death
Unmarried spiritual leaders
A – dietary laws; Catholics
do not have any dietary laws.
On what subject do the three religions hold different views?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Judgment Day
Life after death
Jesus’ identity
Use of local languages
C – Jesus’ identity
What is similar about the beginning of all three faiths?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Each has several branches
Each was begun before AD 600
Each was begun in Southwest Asia
Each was begun with the same 2000 year period of history
C – each began in
Southwest Asia
One of the most important events in Islam, the Hijrah, refers to Muhammad's
a. years of meditation in the desert
b. conquest of Mecca
c. escape from Mecca to Medina
d. birth in Mecca
C - Muhammad and his followers left Mecca
because they believed themselves to be in danger of
attack by leaders of Mecca opposed to Muhammad's
teachings. The year 622 marks the beginning of Islam
as a distinct religion and the beginning of the Islamic
calendar. The Hijrah refers to Muhammad's escape from
Mecca to Medina in 622 A.D.
All of the following are among the Five Pillars of Islam, EXCEPT to
a. pray five times a day
b. be ceremonially accepted into the religion
c. fast during the month of Ramadan
d. give charity to the poor
B - Any person who accepts Allah as the
one God with Muhammad as his messenger,
as well as the other four Pillars of Islam is a
Muslim. Muslims do not have a ceremony,
such as Christian baptism or confirmation, to
signify acceptance as a follower of their
religion.
The Koran, the holy book of the religion of Islam,
a. was written by Muhammad
b. has been amended by later religious
leaders
c. is a collection of recollections of the
teachings of Muhammad
d. includes the Old and the New
Testament of the Bible
C - The Koran was written 30 years after the
death of Muhammad by followers who remembered
his teachings. Since Muhammad's teachings were
based on his revelations, Muslims believe that the
Koran is the revealed word of Allah. The Koran
cannot be changed or amended because it is the
word of Allah transmitted through Muhammad.
Muslims believe that the Koran can only be written
and read in the classical Arabic of the 7th century.
A city in the Middle East that is sacred to Jews, Arabs, and Christians is
a. Jerusalem
b. Mecca
c. Istanbul
d. Damascus
A - Jerusalem is one city that is sacred to all three monotheistic
religions in the Middle East because significant events in the history
of each religion took place there.
During the 700s, most of Spain was conquered by the
a. Germanic barbarians
b. Muslims
c. Byzantines
d. Huns
B - During the 700s, most of Spain was conquered by the
Muslims. Only a few small Christian kingdoms were able to
survive in the north. This conquest was part of the rapid
expansion by Muslim Arabs out of Arabia and the Middle East
after the death of Muhammad in 632.
WHI.09: Early
Middle Ages
Tips
•
Middle Ages/Medieval Period = heavy Catholic Church influence (only thing to unite
Europe during this time)
•
Monasteries were places for learning and healing
•
Charles Martel stopped the spread of Islam into Europe at the Battle of Tours
Which invaders traveled primarily across the Mediterranean Sea?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Vikings
Muslims
Magyars
All of the Above
B - Muslims
From what region or country did the Vikings come?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Byzantine Empire
Russia
France
Scandinavia
D - Scandinavia
What region or country suffered raids from all three types of invaders?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Russia
France
Scandinavia
Byzantine Empire
A - France
Which body of water was NOT used by Viking Raiders?
A.
B.
C.
D.
North Sea
Atlantic Ocean
Mediterranean Sea
Caspian Sea
D – Caspian Sea
During the Early Middle Ages in Europe
a. cities increased in size
b. trade with areas outside of
Europe increased
c. warfare frequently occurred
d. population increased
C - There were invasions by Germanic barbarians,
Vikings, Magyars, and Muslims. In addition, frequent
wars occurred between rulers and between nobles. Cities
were destroyed and the population decreased. One
effect of this was that trade within Europe and between
Europe and other areas of the world was ruined
The Early Middle Ages in Europe (500-1000 A.D.) are often called the Dark Ages
because
a. there are no written records from
the period
b. literacy and education declined
c. all government disappeared
d. the Muslims conquered all of Italy
and Gaul
B - The Early Middle Ages are often called the Dark
Ages because literacy and education declined. The
state of constant warfare reduced the size of towns and
cities; trade and travel nearly came to an end. Many
people fled from urban to rural areas to find safety.
Cities had been the center of education and learning.
When these declined or were destroyed, the cultural
level of European society declined.
Which of the following barbarian tribes established a kingdom in what is now
France?
a. Huns
b. Magyars
c. Franks
d. Vandals
C - The Franks established a Germanic kingdom in northern Gaul,
in what is now France, during the 5th century A.D. In 481 A.D., a
Frankish chieftain named Clovis began to expand his small kingdom.
He gained the support of the Church in Rome when he and his
Frankish subjects converted to Christianity.
What contribution did the Catholic Church make to society during the early Middle
Ages?
a. preserving learning
b. abolishing serfdom
c. encouraging trade
d. helping overseas expansion
A - The Catholic Church helped to preserve learning
during the early Middle Ages. The Church ran most of the
schools so that its clergy could be educated. Many schools
were established in monasteries where monks studied Latin
and copied works written by ancient Greek and Roman
writers.
Charlemagne was able to
a. convert his subjects to Islam
b. reunite the Eastern and Western Christian Churches
c. avoid war with his neighbors
Charlemagne was able to create a strong
d. create a strong and stable government
D-
and stable government. He ruled as king of the
Franks from 768 to 814 A.D. Charlemagne
appointed officials who traveled around his
kingdom checking on how the local governments
were being run by the nobles of his kingdom.
They also reported on how the duties of the
Christian clergy were being carried out.
Feudalism arose in Western Europe because
C-
a. Charlemagne desired it
Feudalism arose in Western Europe because
b. commerce revived
there was a need for law and order. During the period
c. there was a need for law and order 500-1000 A.D., Europe experienced many wars and
d. the pope promoted it
invasions. During this period rulers had to depend on
local lords to defend their lands because transportation
was so poor. By the 9th century A.D., a class of
mounted warriors called knights had developed. These
knights were given land in exchange for their military
service to a ruler. This system of exchanging land for
military service is called feudalism.
The fief was an important basis for feudalism because it was the
a. obligation owed by a serf to a lord
b. military service performed by a knight
c. tax levied by a king on a noble
d. land given by a lord to a vassal
D - The fief was the land given by a lord to a
vassal in return for military service. The vassal
promised to defend his lord against attack. The
fief included land and all of the people living on
it. Therefore, peasants living on land given by a
lord to a vassal had to perform services for the
vassal, who was now their new lord.
Which statement about feudalism in Europe is CORRECT?
a. The feudal manor was self-sufficient.
b. The feudal system provided a strong central government.
c. Feudal lords were chosen by the Catholic Church.
d. Trade was encouraged by feudal nobles.
The correct statement is that the
A-
feudal manor was self-sufficient. The
almost constant warfare during the period
500-1000 A.D. led to the development of
the feudal manor. The decline of trade and
towns during this period meant that nearly
all food, tools, and clothing had to be
produced on the manor.
What position did serfs have in feudal society?
a. They were slaves and could be bought and sold by their lords.
b. They often could rise in class to become nobles.
Serfs could not be bought and
c. They could not leave the manor without the
sold like slaves, but they also could not
permission of their lords.
leave the manor without the permission
d. They owned the lands on which they worked.
C-
of their lord. The lands on which they
worked belonged to the lord of the
manor. Nobles looked upon
themselves as being superior to the
serfs they ruled, and no serf could
hope to become a noble.
What was a result of the Crusades?
a. European conquest of the Middle East
b. fall of the Byzantine Empire
c. growth of trade with the Middle East
d. rise of Charlemagne's empire
B - One result of the Crusades was the
growth of European commerce. Europeans who
joined the Crusades were introduced to products
like silk, spices, and precious stones. The
demand for these luxury goods by wealthy
Europeans helped to revive trade. Although the
First Crusade succeeded in capturing Palestine,
that land was recaptured by the Muslims a
century later. Although several other Crusades
were sent into the Middle East, they all failed.
The Black Death was
a. the attack by Mongol and Tatar horsemen
on Europe during the 13th century
b. a disease that killed millions of
Europeans during the 14th century
c. the series of civil wars between the grandsons
of Charlemagne for control of his empire
d. a succession of extremely cold winters
during the 11th century
B - The Black Death was a disease
(plague) that killed millions of Europeans
during the 14th century. The plague
entered Europe by way of Sicily in 1347.
Within two years it spread northward and
affected nearly all of Europe. Between
1347 and 1350 about one-third of the
population of Western Europe died from
the Black Death.
Anglo-Saxon England was conquered in 1066 by
a. Charlemagne
b. Attila the Hun
c. Charles Martel
d. Duke William of Normandy
D - Anglo-Saxon England was conquered by Duke William
of Normandy. William was the descendant of the Viking (also
called Norsemen or Northmen) invaders who settled in an area
of western France called Normandy.
The signing of the Magna Carta in 1215 by King John of England
a. limited royal power over the nobility
b. established the Church of England
c. created Parliament
d. gave equal rights to all Englishmen
A - The Magna Carta or "Great Charter" limited
royal power over the nobility. King John was
forced to sign the Magna Carta by rebellious
barons who resented his attempts to tax them.
The Magna Carta guaranteed the traditional rights
of the English nobility.
A cause of the Hundred Years' War was the
C-
a. conflict between French kings and the papacy
In 1337, Edward III of England
b. Viking invasions of Western Europe
claimed the French throne, bringing on the
c. rivalry between French and English kings
Hundred Years' War (1337-1453). He and
d. struggle between Catholics and Protestants
his successors invaded France a number
of times to enforce their claim until the
English gave up their quest to conquer
France.
Joan of Arc is important in French history because she
a. became the first female monarch of France
b. led the fight against Protestantism in France
c. called the first Estates General in France
Joan of Arc inspired the French
d. inspired French nationalism during the
nationalism during the Hundred Years' War.
Hundred Years' War
Joan was a teenage peasant girl who appeared
D-
before Charles the Dauphin, heir to the French
throne, in 1429. She claimed to have heard
voices telling her to lead the French in an effort
to drive the English out of her country.
The Holy Roman Empire included most of modern
a. Russia
b. England
c. Spain
d. Germany
D - The Holy Roman Empire included most of modern Germany. In
the eastern portion of Charlemagne's empire, his heirs lost power to local
nobles called dukes.
The Spanish monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella
a. succeeded in unifying Spain under Christian rule
b. supported the Protestant Reformation
Ferdinand and Isabella succeeded in
c. were defeated by the Muslims of North Africa
unifying Spain under Christian rule. Queen
d. promoted religious toleration
A-
Isabella of Castile married Ferdinand, heir to
the throne of Aragon, in 1469. This
marriage united most of Spain. They were
able to increase the power of their state.
WHI.10: East Asian Empires
and Africa
Tips
•
China heavily influenced Japan
•
China = Buddhism
•
Japan = Shintoism and Buddhism
•
African trade items = gold and salt
Which khanate extended the furthest north?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Khanate of the Golden Horde
Khanate of the Great Khan
Chagatai Khanate
Ilkhanate
B – Khanate of
the Great Khan
What body of water did Marco Polo cross twice?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Black Sea
Mediterranean Sea
Arabian Sea
South China Sea
B–
Mediterranean Sea
Which of the following was NOT in the Khanate of the Great Khan?
A.
B.
C.
D.
China
Gobi Desert
Mien
Tibet
C – Mien is
located south of
the Great Khan,
next to Vietnam
To whom was the samurai required to be loyal?
A.
B.
C.
D.
B
Heavenly God, earthly lord, and chosen lady
Their lord above all else
Their parents and children above all else
Their heavenly God, earthly lord, and parents
What would samurai rather do than face defeat or dishonor?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Show humility
Burn their armor
Commit ritual suicide
Kill each other
C – Samurai would
perform seppuku (ritual
suicide) rather than be
captured.
What did chivalry require of knights that Bushido did not require of samurai?
A.
B.
C.
D.
That they commit suicide rather than face defeat
That they show humility
That they value bravery and loyalty above all else
That the regard women as equals
B – Show humility.
Which of the following is NOT true of both Japanese samurai and European
knights?
A.
B.
C.
D.
They lived by a code of honor that valued bravery and loyalty
They fought for a lord in exchange for something
They entered battle with protective gear and weapons
They would commit ritual suicide than face defeat
D – Samurai would
commit ritual suicide, but
not European knights.
During the reign of the Tang Dynasty Chinese civilization and culture reached
great heights. New land was conquered and art, literature, and poetry
flourished. Which term best describes the era of the Tang Dynasty?
a. Age of Philosophers
b. The Golden Age of China
c. Nationalist China
d. Mongol China
B - The reign of the Tang Dynasty (618-907) was also
known as The Golden Age of China because great
advances were made in Chinese civilization and culture
during this period.
What is meant by the term "cultural diffusion"?
a. People believe that their own culture is superior to all others.
b. People guard their customs and will not share them with others.
c. Cultural practices are taught by the older generation to the
younger.
d. Customs and ideas are spread from one society to another.
D - Cultural diffusion is the spread of ideas, traditions, innovations, and customs from
one society to another. Often believed to have been isolated throughout its long history,
ancient China was in fact part of the long-distance trading network, commonly known as the
Silk Road.
What effect did the Civil Service Examination have on Imperial China?
a. It encouraged the study of Confucianism.
b. It provided a method to reward the merit
and hard work of individuals.
c. It provided a vehicle for peasants to
advance into a higher social class.
d. all of the above
D - Since the Civil Service Examination was
based on Confucian principles, a person taking
the exam had to study Confucianism carefully. If
the person did well on the exam, he was
rewarded with a well-paying government
position in the bureaucracy; thus his hard work
and merit were rewarded. Since nobody was
barred from taking the test, theoretically a
peasant could use the exam system as a vehicle
into a higher social class.
Africa had large and important kingdoms during the time of the Middle Ages in Europe.
All of the following were major sub-Saharan kingdoms in Africa, EXCEPT
a. Ghana
b. Mali
c. Songhai
d. Carthage
D - Carthage was a major kingdom on the coast of Africa north of the
Sahara Desert. It dominated the western Mediterranean for hundreds of years
until conquered by the Roman Empire in ancient times. Ghana, Mali, and
Songhai were all important kingdoms south of the Sahara Desert in West and
Central Africa between 500 and 1500 A.D.
Before 1500 A.D. the trade items most sought after from the African kingdoms
south of the Sahara were
a. gold and ivory
The sub-Saharan kingdoms traded their gold and ivory for salt
b. silk and cotton
and cloth brought by caravans that crossed the Sahara Desert from
c. fruit and vegetables
North Africa.
d. rubber and coffee
A-
The trade across the Sahara Desert was an avenue for the spread of which
religion to sub-Saharan Africa?
a. Christianity
b. Judaism
c. Islam
d. Roman paganism
C - Muslims carried on the trans-Sahara trade which had grown in the
preceding centuries. Many sub-Saharan Africans adopted Islam which
spread into West and Central Africa across the desert, and from Egypt
along the Nile into Sudan.
Warriors in feudal Japan were known as
a. shogun
b. samurai
c. bushido
d. origami
B – The samurai were the warriors of feudal Japan. Origami is a
Japanese art form, bushido is the code of behavior for the samurai and a
shogun is a military leader.
The code of honor of a samurai warrior was known as
a. bonsai
b. kamikaze
c. kami
d. bushido
D - The code of honor followed by a samurai warrior in ancient and
medieval Japan was known as bushido. It was a code based on honor,
respect, obedience, and loyalty to one's superior.
Which of the following religions diffused into Japan from China?
a. Shinto
b. Buddhism
c. Christianity
d. Islam
B
Which of the following religions is native to Japan?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Hinduism
Buddhism
Shintoism
Christianity
C - Native means “original, or originate. Shintoism is
Japan’s native religion.
This Shinto Shrine would most likely be found in what country?
a.
b.
c.
d.
China
Japan
India
Egypt
B - Shintoism is Japan’s
native religion.
WHI.11: The Americas
Tips
•
All polytheistic
•
All made sacrifices (Aztec and Mayan did human sacrifices, Incan sacrificed llamas)
Which of the following was located in the region controlled by the Moche?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Machu Picchu
Cuzco
Chan Chan
Lake Titicaca
C – Chan Chan.
Which of the following ran down the middle of the Incan Empire?
A.
B.
C.
D.
The Andes Mountains
The Amazon River
The Tropic of Capricorn
Lake Titicaca
A – the Andes Mountains
Which of the following is the furthest south?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Lake Titicaca
Cuzco
Machu Picchu
Chan Chan
A – Lake Titicaca
Latin America includes which of the following regions?
a. Central America, South America, and Spain
b. Central America, South America, and Antarctica
c. Mexico, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean
d. Mexico, Central America, South America, and Spain
C - Latin America is a vast region that stretches from
the Mexican-U.S. border in the north to Cape Horn in South
America. It includes Mexico, Central America, South
America, and several Caribbean islands. The region is
comprised of 32 independent nations and some small
possessions of European nations.
WHI.12: The Late
Medieval Period
Tips
•
Crusades – series of wars between Christians and Muslims
•
Crusades increased trade between Europe and the Middle East
•
Middle Ages/Medieval Period = heavy Catholic Church influence (only thing to unite
Europe during this time)
•
Monasteries were places for learning and healing
Where did a young page begin his education?
A.
B.
C.
D.
At tournaments
At his lord’s manor
At another lord’s castle
At home with his parents
C – at another lord’s castle
Which of the following was a page supposed to learn?
A.
B.
C.
D.
To take care of horses
Courtly manners
To use a battering ram
To shoot a rifle
B – courtly manners
At what age was a page raised to the rank of a squire?
A.
B.
C.
D.
7
10
14
17
C - 14
What was the main job of a squire?
A.
B.
C.
D.
To serve a knight
To play chess well
To behave chivalrously
To fight in a battle
A – To serve a knight
Who had the authority to declare a squire a knight?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Another knight
The squire’s future chosen lady
A member of the clergy
The knight’s lord
A – the knight’s lord
Chivalry was a code of behavior for the medieval
a. serf
b. clergy
c. knight
d. merchant
C - Chivalry was a code of behavior for the medieval knight. The code
glorified the values of a warrior and also emphasized Christian ethics. A knight
was supposed to be courageous, respect women, and treat his enemies
honorably.
Which of the following statements about women in the European Middle
Ages is MOST accurate?
a. women were highly educated
b. women and men worked equally hard on the manor
c. women were considered unimportant
d. women were "free" to be all that they could be
B - In the European Middle Ages women and men on the
manor worked equally hard. Women played an important
role in life. Wives were expected to care for the house, cook,
care for the children, work in the fields, and take care of the
chickens, sheep, and cows. Even the lord's wife was busy.
She raised the children, supervised the servants, and made
sure that there was enough food for the family. In addition
she was in charge of spinning, weaving cloth, and sewing.
Noble women in the Middle Ages
a. were expected to bear and raise many children
b. were not allowed to inherit fiefs
c. received an education similar to that of noblemen
d. supervised the running of her husband's manor
A - Noble women were expected
to bear and raise many children.
Marriages were arranged for women
of the nobility by their fathers, often
as a means of making an alliance
with other noble families. Although a
woman could inherit a fief, she was
not allowed to control it. Instead,
her father, male guardian or eldest
son acted as her legal guardian.
Noble women were taught such
practical skills as weaving, sewing,
and cooking.
What was the main subject of works of art during the Middle Ages?
a. nature
b. Greek and Roman mythology
c. monarchs
d. religion
D - Religion was the main subject of works of art
during the Middle Ages. Medieval churches were
decorated with statues of Christ, the Apostles, or saints.
Stained glass windows often illustrated scenes from the
Bible. Most medieval paintings also had religious
themes.
WHI.13: The Renaissance
Tips
•
Renaissance focuses on the human and individual
•
Church influence begins to decline
•
Renaissance began in Italy
The Renaissance began in Italy partly
because
a. Italian city-states were wealthy
The Renaissance began in Italy partly
b. Italy was not affected by the Black Death
because Italian city-states were wealthy. Many
c. Italy has a pleasant climate
rulers of the Italian city-states used the revenues
d. Italy was unified under one monarch
A-
from trade to hire artists and architects to
beautify their cities. Wealthy merchants
competed with each other to become patrons of
the arts.
Which idea was most characteristic of the
Renaissance?
a. feudalism
b. humanism
c. chivalry
d. scholasticism
B - Humanism was most characteristic of the
Renaissance. The classical writings of Greece
and Rome emphasized human concerns.
During the Italian Renaissance, the Medici family
a. helped spread the ideas of the Protestant
Reformation
b. supported artists and scholars in Florence
c. attempted to make Italy a unified country
d. conducted voyages of discovery and
exploration in Africa
B - The Medici family supported artists
and scholars in Florence. They became
wealthy during the late 14th century from
commerce and banking. The Medici family
ruled Florence for nearly a century.
Renaissance literature was most
concerned with the
a. enjoyment of earthly pleasures
b. deeds of legendary heroes
A - Renaissance literature was most
c. lives of Christian saints
concerned with the secular – meaning the
enjoyment of earthly pleasures.
d. activities of peasants and workers
The term "Renaissance" refers to a
a. revolution against royal authority
b. repression of dissent
c. rebirth of learning
d. reformation of religion
C - The term "Renaissance" refers to a
rebirth of learning. During the
Renaissance there was a revival of interest
in the literature, art, and architecture of
ancient or classical Greece and Rome.
The Renaissance is considered to be a
period of transition between the Middle
Ages and early modern times.
A "Renaissance man" can be best
described as a
a. successful businessman
b. brave warrior
c. religious and humble monk
d. person of many talents
D - A "Renaissance man" can be best
described as a person of many talents.
Humanists praised the person who was
educated and who had many talents and
achievements. A good example of a
"Renaissance man" is Leonardo da Vinci
who studied painting, architecture,
sculpture, mathematics, anatomy,
engineering, and literature.
Which Renaissance artist painted the
"Mona Lisa" and "The Last Supper"?
a. Michelangelo Buonarroti
b. Donatello
c. Leonardo da Vinci
d. Sandro Botticelli
C - Leonardo da Vinci painted the
"Mona Lisa" and "The Last Supper."
Michelangelo is famous for his painting on
the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel and his
statues of David and Moses. Donatello is
credited with creating the Renaissance's
portrait style. Botticelli is considered one
of the finest Renaissance artists.
Both Desiderius Erasmus and Thomas
More
a. became leaders of the Protestant
Reformation
b. were Renaissance architects
c. opposed humanist ideas literature and
art
d. advocated reform in secular and
religious matters
D - Erasmus and More were humanists who
advocated reform in secular and religious
matters. Erasmus (1466-1536) was a Dutch
monk and teacher who dedicated his life to
Christian scholarship. In his best known work,
"In Praise of Folly," Erasmus criticized the
luxury and worldliness of the Catholic Church.
When the Protestant Reformation began,
Erasmus advocated compromise and
suggested reforms. For this stand, he was
attacked by both Catholic and Protestants.
Thomas More (1478-1535) was an advisor to
King Henry VIII of England. In his book,
"Utopia," More described an ideal society
without poverty, war, and religious persecution.
When Henry separated his kingdom from the
Catholic Church, More remained faithful to
Catholicism and was executed.
Which idea was a basis for Renaissance
art?
a. The human body must always be shown
fully clothed.
b. Artists should paint only religious
subjects.
c. Only rulers and the nobility can
appreciate great art.
d. Art should show the beauty of the
human body and spirit.
D - A basis for Renaissance art was the
idea that art should show the beauty of the
human body and spirit. Like the sculptors
of ancient Greece, Renaissance artists
tried to accurately describe the human
body while at the same time idealizing its
beauty. The human figure was shown
nude as well as clothed. The paintings and
sculpture of the Renaissance was
displayed in public buildings, churches,
and squares of European cities for the
enjoyment of the entire populace.
Although Renaissance artists used
religious themes in many of their works,
they also used themes from classical
mythology and secular life.
#
A.
B.
C.
D.
a
b
c
d
A-a
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