AEGEAN ART
CYCLADIC
• Remains left after the volcano of Thera
erupted leaving only a ridge
• Palace complexes functioned as political,
religious and economic hubs
• Religion was epiphanic
• Abundance of marble for figurines
MINOAN CIVILIZATION
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Crete
Minos
Legend of minotaur
Lacked bronze
Peak 1600-1450 BC
Little known of daily life
• 3 periods of Minoan Art
– Old Palace
– Second palace
– Late Minoan
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Palace art does not celebrate the kings
Mud bricks faced with limestone
Focus was inward
Walls were plaster coated and painted with murals
Plumbing
Knossos-labyrinth (house of the double ax-labrys)
Minoan Architecture
Palace of Knossos
Minoan Painting
Toreador Fresco, from palace at Knossos
La Parisienne
Landscape w/ swallows
Akrotiri, Thera
Young fisherman
Minoan Sculpture
Snake Goddess
Minoan Pottery/Sculpture
Harvesters Vase, from Hagia Triada
Kamares Ware vessels
Rhyton
Rhyton bull cup
Vaphaio cup: repousse
Helladic Period
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Bronze age mainland Greece
3000-1000BC
Mycenaean
Wealthy, powerful kings
Discovered by Schliemann
Lioness Gate
• Heads were sculpted of bronze or gold
• 9 ½ feet tall
• Corbel arch relieved the lintel of wall’s
weight
Beehive tombs
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Tholoi, singular tholos
Cyclopean construction
Entrance façade
18’ door faced with bronze plaques
Stone surfaces incised with geometric
bands=chevrons
Mycenaean Sculpture
Two Women with a Child, ivory, palace at Mycenae, Greece, 1400-1200 BCE
Classical Greece
Greece
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Heroic Age follows the Dark Age
8th century BC
Polis develops-by 6th c Athens is dominant
Human forms return to art
Polytheistic
Oracles
Sanctuaries
Periods of art
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Geometric (900-700 BCE)
Orientalizing (700-600 BCE)
Archaic (600-480 BCE)
Early or Transitional classical (480-450 BCE)
High or 5th Century Classical (450-400 BCE)
Late or 4th Century Classical (400-320 BCE)
Hellenistic (means Greek-like)
Greek Pottery
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Proto-Geometric 1050-900 BCE
Geometric 900-700 BCE
Orientalzing 700-625 BCE
Archaic (Black Figure) 620-480 BCE
Classical (Red Figure) 533-500 BCE
Late Classical (White Figure phiale) 440-400
BCE
Proto-Geometric 1050-900 BCE
Proto-Geometric, Centaur, Terracotta, late 10th Cen
BCE
Geometric 900-700 BCE
• Periods classified by pottery
• Earliest is Dipylon Vase-narrative of
funerary rituals for an important person
• Abstract figures
Geometric, Dipylon Funerary Vase, terra-cotta, 750 BCE
Oritentalizing 700-625 BCE
Black figure 620-480 BCE
• First paints figures in black
• Then incises
• Black is engobe: phase one turns both pot and slip
red with firing, phase two (reducing) clay and slip
turn black due to lack of oxygen, phase three
coarser material of the pot reabsorbs oxygen and
turns red, slip remains black b/c its smoother and
silica-laden
Exekias, Ajax and Achilles, 540 BC
Andokides Painter
Francois vase
Amasis
Red figure 533-500 BCE
• Figures left unpainted and turned black in
the firing opposite of black figure painter
• Euphronios best known red figure painter;
especially known for his study of human
anatomy
Euphronios, Death of Sarpedon, 515 BCE
Niobid Painters
Apollo & Artemis slaying the children of Niobe,455 BC
Phiale Painters 440-400 BCE
Hermes bringing the infant Dionysos to Papposilenos, 440 bc
Orientalizing period
Eastern influence
• Contact with Egypt leads to monumental
building
Lady of Auxerre:
daedalic style
Archaic Period:
Kore, Greek, young woman
th
6
c BC
Kouros, young man
Archaic statues
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Free standing
Archaic smile
Nude males = Kouros
Clothed Females = Kore
Large eyes
Peplos kore
• Encaustic painting(wax)
Chiton vs. himation
Moschophoros(calf-bearer)
Architecture
• Doric
• Ionic
• Corinthian
Earliest Greek Temples
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Rectangular
Porch
Pitched roof
Cella (naos)
pronaos
Greek Architectural Terms
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Peristyle
Peripteral
Dipteral
Stylobate
Entablature
Cornice
pediment
Temple plans
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B.
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Temple in Antis
Double Anta Temple
Prostyle
Amphi-prostyle
Peripteral
Dipteral
Pseudo-dipteral
Monopteral / Tholos
Prostyle
Amphiprostyle
Peripteral
Peripteral
Pathenon & Temple at Paestum
Dipteral
Doric
• Fluted columns
• Capital=echinus and abacus
• Entabulature=architrave, frieze(metopes and
triglyphs), moldings
• Columns swell and contract upwardsentasis
• Adyton: housed the statue
Ionic style
• Volute = rams horns; most distinguishable
element of the columns
corinthian
• Acanthus leaves
• Undecorated frieze
Pediment Relief
Temple of Aphaia, Aegina, 480 BCE
East Pediment Temple Aphaia, Aegina 480 BCE
Siphnian Treasury
Early classical period
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Persian wars
Delian League
480-450 BC
Sought realistic expression
Temple of Zeus, Olympia
Charioteer, Transitional or Early Classical
Period, c.477 BCE
Riace Warrior, Transitional or Early Classical
Period, c.477 BCE
Which of these 3 epitomize “Early & High
Classical Greek Sculpture?
Riace Warrior, 460BCE
Charioteer, 477 BCE
Myron, Diskobolos, 450BCE
5th Century Classical, 450-400 BCE
Myron, Discus Thrower, c. 450 BCE
Canon of Polykleitos
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Body proportions
Facial attributes
Same ideal sought by Socrates and Plato
Canon= Greek rule or measure
Basic unit may have been the width of the
hand
Polykleitos, Spear Bearer (Doryphoros), Roman
copy of Greek bronze, c. 450 BCE, 5th cen classical
Nike (Victory) Adjusting Her Sandal, Temple of Athena,
Nike, Acopolis, Athens late 5th Cen. BCE
Praxiteles, Hermes and Infant Dionysos, c. 340 BCE,
4th Century Classical
Praxiteles, Aphrodite of Knidos, c. 350 BCE,
4th Century Classical
Lysippos, The Scraper (Apoxyomenos), c. 330 BCE,
4th Century Classical
Leochares ?, Apollo Belvedere, Roman copy of Greek Bronze
c. 330 BCE
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great Confronts Darius III at the Battle of
Issos, c. 310 BCE, Pompeii
Athenian Agora
• Agora sat at the foot of the Acropolis (akro=high; polis=city)
• Began as an open space for artists and farmers would display their
wares; over time public and private structures were erected
• Tholos: round building w/ 6 columns supporting a conical roof;
meeting place of the 50 member executive committee of the boule
(council)
Athenian Acropolis
• 22,000tons of imported marble
• Gate=Propylaia
Temple of Nike
Kallikrates, Temple of Athena Nike, Acropolis, Athens
c. 425 BCE
Parthenon
• 490BC
• Pericles was the ruler during the consruciton of the
Parthenon
• Kallikrates & Iktinos architects for Parthenon
• Pheidias-over saw sculptural decoration, but it was
the product of MANY individuals
• Finished 438BC
• 46 column peristyle(8X17)
• Base and entablature curve upward so as not to
distort
• Entasis-slight bulge into the shaft of a
Greek column. Provides the optical illusion
that the column appears straight.
• Space at corners is less
• Themes: triumph over Persia, preeminence
of Athens due to favor of Athena, triumph
of civilization over barbarism
sculpture
• West:Contest of Poseidon and Athena
• East: Birth of Athena
• Doric frieze on exterior: 92 metopes depicts
legendary battles-god against giant, Greek against
Trojan, Greek against Amazon, lapiths with
Centaurs
• Short colonnades in front of each entrance support
entablature with Ionic Frieze depicting the Great
Panathenaia
Erechtheion
• Mnesikles
• 2nd largest structure on acropolis
• Contest between Poseidon and Athena
supposedly happened there
• Mark of Poseidon’s trident enclosed there
• Spring of Eurytheus-Demeter taught
agriculture to Athenians
• Also houses memorial to Kekrops-founder
of Athens
• Judge between Poseidon and Athena
• Enter from porches-most famous Porch of
Maidens
• Hair gives strength to neck of columns
Hellenistic Period
• Alexander the died in 323
– No admin structure; no direct successor
– City states formed new mutual-protection league, but
NEVER gained significant protection
• 3rd Cen BCE 3 major powers emerged
– Antigonus=Macedonia
– Ptolemy=Egypt; capitol Alexandria=GREAT
Hellenistic center
– Seleucus=Asia Minor, Mesopotamia and Persia;
Pergamon also Hellenistic capitol
Hellenistic period
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More concerned with depicting action and emotion
High drama in sculpture and architecture
Better awareness of form
Willing to show man’s imperfections
Earlier periods = ideal and general, aloof serenity,
heroism of gods and goddesses
• Hellenistic = everyday mortals, individual emotion,
melodramatic, figures plunge into space, demand an
emotional response from the viewer
theatre
Epigonos, Dying Gaul, c. 220 BCE
Gallic Chieftain Killing His Wife & Himself, c. 220 BCE
Altar of Zeus / Pergamon
Altar of Zeus at Pergamon
Gigantomachy
Hagesandros, Polydoros, and Athanadoros of Rhodes,
Laocoon & His Sons, c. 1st Century CE
Nike of Samothrace, c. 190 BCE
Statuette of a veiled and masked dancer
Greek, 3rd–2nd century B.C.
Bronze; height: 8 1/8 in. (20.6 cm)
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York,
Statue of an old woman
Roman, Julio-Claudian, A.D. 14–68
Copy of a Greek statue of the late 2nd century B.C.
Marble; height: 49 5/8 in. (125.98 cm)
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York,
Aphrodite of Melos (Venus de Milo), c. 150 BCE
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AEGEAN ART