AP World Review
Test Format

Exam last 3 Hours and 5 Minutes

55 Minutes for 70 Multiple Choice
Questions

Break

50 Minutes for Document Based
Question (10 minutes for Reading and
Evaluating Documents)

40 Minutes for Change Over Time Essay

40 Minutes for Comparative Essay
Question
Grading





70 Multiple Choice Questions =
1/2 Score
Document Based Question =
16.66% of Score
Change Over Time Essay = 16.66%
of Score
Comparative Essay = 16.66% of
Score
Essays Graded on Scale of 0 to 9
What do the questions look like
 The
questions fall into 6 basic
categories, which are as follows:
– Identification (35-40% of the test)
- simply test whether you know a
fact, or facts.
– Analytical (20-25% of the test) makes you think about
relationships, see connections,
place in order.
– Quotation Based (10% or less of
the test) - match the quote with the
appropriate person.
– Image Interpretation (10% or less
of the test) - determine images
relevance, purpose, or meaning.
– Map Based Questions (10% or less
of the test) - identify what a map
shows, or interpret it's purpose.
– Graph & Chart Interpretation (10%
or less of the test) - interpret
answer from data given in chart
form.
Six Themes
1. The impact of interaction among
major societies. Such as Trade,
International Exchange, War, and
Diplomacy
2. The Relationship of Change and
Continuity across the periods of
World History
3. Impact of Technology and
Demography on People and the
Environment; Including Population
change, Manufacturing, Agriculture,
etc.
Six Themes
4. Systems of Organization and
Gender Structure
5. Cultural and Intellectual
Development and Interactions
among Societies
6. Change over time in functions
and structures of Political
States
Time Frames
– Prehistory to 600 C.E: 19-20% of
Questions
– 600 C.E-1450 C.E: 22 % of
Questions
– 1450 C.E- 1750 C.E: 19-20% of
Questions
– 1750 C.E- 1914 C.E: 19-20% of
Questions
– 1914-Present: 19-20% of
Questions
Bookends of Foundation Period
8000 BCE – 600 CE
8000 BCE marks the Neolithic
civilization and the development of
four river valley civilizations
 600 CE marks the time which
classical empires fall

Building Blocks of
Civilization
 What
is a Civilization?
–Economic System
–Political Organization
–Moral Code (Religion)
–Written Language and
Intellectual Tradition
–Division of labor
PreHistory





History
Presence of a written language
Writing is essential for record keeping,
bureaucracy, commerce, and accumulating
knowledge;
it makes possible more varied cultural forms.
Writing also led to new social divisions based
on selective literacy.
– Scribes
– Scholarly gentry
Dark Age
– Art of writing has developed and been lost
Environmental determinism
 Relationship
between culture of a
civilization, success and stability
 How does the culture react to the
environment or environmental
change
 Technology
 Movement of peoples into and out
of the area
 Crossroads vs. isolation
River Valley Civilizations

China
– Yellow River valley
– Shang China: first dynasty
– Develop in isolation w/ minimal
contact with India and Middle East
River Valley Civilizations

China
– Became the subject of many
legends in later Chinese history
– Monarchy
– Bronze work, silk making, pottery,
jade, elaborate intellectual life,
writing, interest in science and
technology
Political structure tied to social order
and culture by Confucianism
Confucianism emphasized order,
hierarchy, and deference, including
specific injunctions to obey the
emperor.
 Bureaucracy aimed to alleviate
political instability, difficulties of
centrally controlling outlying
provinces, and related competition
among landed aristocrats for power
and influence.

Classical Civilizations
and great empires
Mesoamerican
Andean
Han
Gupta
Change from River Valleys to
Classical Civs

~1000 BCE

Location—China, India, Mediterranean World

New/renewed civs that were durable



Left the most substantial impacts and
legacies
Set in motion key values and institutions
that extend well beyond the classical period
All 3 built on achievements of the River
valley civs.

Classical civs not a continuation of ancient
river valleys
– Change political centers
– Improve technology
– Est. More elaborate philosophical and religious
traditions
– Expand science and math
– Set up methods for territorial expansion and
embraced a diverse group of people
– Integrated aspects of their institutions and
traditions
– Each civ operated separately despite contacts
with each other
 Greece/India—Alexander
 Rome/China—Silk
Road
the Great
Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
 The
area from north central Mexico
to Nicaragua
 Beginning
about 5,000 BCE,
domesticated certain plants – beans,
peppers, avocados, and squash.
 Maize
dominated the diet of these
agricultural peoples
 Later
innovations such as pottery
took place around 2000 BCE.
Mesoamerica
 When
Shang dynasty ruled in China,
permanent sedentary villages based
on some agriculture appeared.
There were small, modest
settlements without much hierarchy
or social differentiation and a lack of
craft specialization.
 Numbers
of villages rose proliferated
and population densities rose.
Olmec
Olmec
 1400
BCE to 500 BCE
 Suddenly appeared
 They had irrigated agriculture,
impressive drainage systems,
monumental sculpture, urbanism and
beginnings of calendar and writing
systems (carved inscriptions).
Olmec
 Giant
stone heads were found in
ruins. No one knows how the 40-ton
sculptures were moved from the
quarries without wheeled vehicles or
draft animals. All of these attest
to a high degree of social
organization and artistic skill.
 Called
the Mother Civilization of
Mesoamerica
Olmec
Olmec

They provided the basis of a state ruled
by a hereditary elite in which the
ceremonialism of a complex religious
dominated life.
– Powerful class of priests and aristocrats stood
at top of society
Most important – tradition of priestly
leadership and religious devotion that
became a basic part of later Middle
American civilization.
 Did not build true cities – built ceremonial
centers made of pyramid shaped temples
and other buildings

Olmec
 People
came for nearby farming
villages to work on the temples or
attend religious ceremonies
 Through trade, Olmec influence
spread over a wide area
 Great carvers of jade and traded or
conquered to get it.
Olmec
 Know
one knows what happened to
cause their decline – mystery.
 Some
scholars think they are
ancestors to the great Maya
civilizations that followed.
Andean World
 From
the coast to the
Andes Mountains
 Potatoes
and maize grown;
grazing for llamas and alpacas
Chavin
Chavin

850 BCE built a huge temple complex –
stone carving and pottery show the
Chavin people worshipped a god that was
a part jaguar and part human with
grinning catlike features
Artisans worked in ceramics, textiles, and
gold characterized.
 Used animals as decorations, often along
scenes of war and violence.

Chavin



Some similarities with Olmecs (possible
Amazonian lowland origin for both)
Warfare seems to indicate a general
process – with the development of
agriculture and a limited amount of arable
land, it becomes necessary to organize
irrigation and create political authority and
eventually states that could mobilize to
protect or expand the available land.
Influenced later peoples of Peru
Chavin
 By
300 BCE Chavin in decline
 Andean world became characterized
by regional centers – without political
unity but great art.
 Wide variety of crops, domestication
of the llama and related animals,
dense populations, and hierarchal
societies could be found in many
places.
Nazca
Nazca
 Weavers
 Great
figures of various
animals, which cover 100s of feet
and can be seen only from the air
 Also great straight lines or paths that
cut across plains and seem to go
towards mountains or celestial points
– no one know why they were drawn
Mochica
Mochica
Skilled farmers developing terracing,
irrigation, and fertilization of the soil
 Leaders built roads and organized
networks of relay runners to carry
messages
 To build one temple – had to produce 130
million bricks
 Textile, goldworking, woodcarving
 Potters decorated with scenes of everyday
life including battle, music, and textile
produced on small looms.

Mochica
Mochica
Mochica
Han Dynasty
Han Dynasty
Strongest and longest dynasty
 Expansionist Empire

– Postal system
– Roads
– Defensive fortifications

Weak Leadership caused collapse
– Corruption and leadership issues
Had to protect the expanding borders
some that encouraged trade along the
silk road
 Silk road brought “bandits” that
threatened the outer borders of the
Han dynasty

Silk Road
Han Decline
 100
CE
 Nomadic tribes topple Han China
 Central government control
diminished and corrupt bureaucracy
 Local landlords took up the slack by
ruling their own neighborhoods
 People heavily taxed
 Increased social unrest
Han Decline
 Daoist
revolutionary effort 184 CE
“Yellow Turbans” promised a golden
age that would come via divine
magic
 30,000 students demonstrated
against decline of government
morality
 Failed BUT decline continued into
civil war.
Factors of the Han Decline
 Political
ineffectiveness
 Spread of devastating epidemic killed ½ of population leading to
three centuries of chaos
India

Aryans
– Nomadic Group “invaded” India
– Earliest Europeans
– Conquered the Dravidians (Dark Skinned
Indians)
– Established Warrior Aristocracy
– Established Sanskrit
– Vedic Era and Early
Hindu faith

Don’t forget about
the Caste System!!!
Mauryan Empire
India Continued
Based on regionalism
 Open to influences from the west
 600BCE 16 major regional states all
with different types of gov’t.
 Mauryan empire 322BCE

– Began by Chandragupta Maurya
 1st
–
–
–
–
–
–
dynasty to unite most of the Indian
subcontinent
Ashoka: famous Emperor
Extended control to Southern tip of India
Converted to Buddhism
Collapsed from outside attacks
Laws of Manu
Empire falls due to lack of durable roots
Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
 320
CE
 Greatest period of political stability
 Negotiated with local princes,
intermarry with their families and
expand influence w/o constant
fighting
Gupta Empire
 Created
a demanding taxation
system
 No bureaucracy and allowed regional
leaders to maintain control
– There was a Gupta rep. at each local
princes court to ensure loyalty
 Promoted
Sanskrit
 Uniform law codes
 “Golden Age”
Gupta Empire
Political Culture
Not elaborate
 Regional
 Buddhism provides ethnic code
 Tightly knit villages
 Caste system – provided a way for
conquered and conquerors to live together
 Caste system limited political development
b/c of strict social rules – loyalty to caste
above all

Decline of Gupta Empire
 Between
200 and 600 BCE suffered
outside invasions
 Gupta overthrown by Huns – b/c
hadn’t solved tendency to dissolve
into political fragmentation
 Emperors having trouble controlling
local princes since 5th century
Gupta Decline
 N.
India affected by constant
nomadic invasions
 Eventually push further into central
India destroying the empire
 Nomads became integrated into the
warrior caste and regional control
resumed
Societal comparison
China's society featured less rigid
structure, slightly more opportunity for
mobility although there was some mobility
within castes
 different rules and cultural enforcements
 Law of Manu vrs. Confucianism
 different regard for merchants and specific
contrasts in the definition and function of
"mean people" versus untouchables.

– Dharma encouraged merchants in Gupta
– Merchants brought outside cultures and were
not socially accepted
Environmental Determinism
 India
was more open to contact and
invasion and less internally coherent
(interior mountains etc), which helps
explain the differences in openness to
influence, and political stability
 India absorbed other cultures while
China remains ethnically
homogeneous (90 % of all Chinese
trace their ancestry back to the Han
dynasty)
Post Classical &
Middle Ages
600-1450
Americas
East to West
Mongolians
Connections
The Bookends
 600-
great classical empires have fallen.
 632-
Coming of Islam
 1000-
trade increases both by land
and sea.
 1450-
Fall of Constantinople and decline
of Silk roads
 1450-
Europe looks westward toward
the Atlantic
Incas
Incas
 Peru
 1400s-1535
Inca Government
 Government
– emperor is the Inca
god-king owned all the land, herds,
mines, and people
 Nobles ruled the provinces along
with local chieftains whom the Inca
had conquered
 Below them officials carried out taxes
and laws
Inca
 Own
language and religion
 Great road system -12,000
miles, bridges, steps (more
impressive than Rome’s)
 It moved armies and news
using relay runners to
carry messages
 Kept soldiers at outposts to
crush rebels
Inca capital
 Cuzco
- Capital
 Temple of the Sun (no mortar,
survived earthquakes) is there
Inca Daily Life
Farming - terraces;
government took
possession of harvests
and divided it
 Metalworking
 Medical advances –
antiseptics and anesthesia
 Religion

– polytheistic linked to nature;
– religion tied to daily life
– Inti – Chief god - Sun god
Maya
Maya
 Influenced
by the Olmec
 Yucatan in Mexico through much of
Central America
 600- 900
Maya
 Farming
– cleared rainforest and
built raised fields and channels to
drain excess water; grew corn and
other crops
 Temples and palaces - Very tall;
used for sacrifices to gods; carvings
recorded history
Maya
Social classes – each city had own ruling
chief
 Nobles – military and officials (collected
taxes, enforced laws)
 Women occasionally governed on own or
in name of son
 Priests – great power only they could
conduct religious ceremonies
 Farmers – corn, beans, squash, fruit,
cotton, flowers; paid taxes in food and
helped build temples

Maya
 Hieroglyphic
writing style – scribes
 Expert
mathematicians and
astronomers
 365-day calendar
 Numbering
system and understood
concept of zero
Maya decline
 Around
900 CE, abandoned cities to
be swallowed up by jungles
 Why??? Possibly warfare,
overpopulation led to soil exhaustion,
revolts
Aztecs
Aztecs




Toltecs 1000 – 1200
In 1200s, band of nomadic people
(the ancestors to the Aztecs) migrated
into the Valley of Mexico from the north
and destroyed Toltecs
Settled at Lake Texcoco due to
legend (eagle on a cactus with
a snake in beak)
Aztecs 1200s-1521
Aztecs
Aztecs
 Shifted
from hunting to farming and
built Tenochititlan (Mexico City)
 used military and ideological force to
dominate a large part of ancient
Mexico
 actually multiethnic
 The Aztecs had a highly centralized,
tribute state based on the extraction
of labor and goods from conquered
populations

Aztecs continue the culture of the classical
Mesoamerican civilization and the Toltecs
– Toltecs considered givers of civilization
– shared same language
– use of human sacrifice
– establishment of empire centered on central
Mexico
– militarism of society
– concept of nobility tied to Toltec lineage initially
– use of city-state organization
– temple complexes associated with state; many
deities of pantheon of gods
– tribute based on sedentary agricultural system
– cyclical view of history and calendar system
Aztec
 Farming
–built chinampas – artificial
islands that are anchored to the lake
bed. Floating gardens - corn,
squash, and beans
 Filled
in parts of lake
and made canals
for transportation
Tenochtitlan
Urban commercial center
 Central zone of palaces and temples
surrounded by residential districts, smaller
palaces, and markets
 Heart of the empire and drew tribute and
support from allies and dependants

Aztecs
 1400s,
greatly expanded territory
through war and alliances
 By 1500 – 30 million people
Aztec Government
 Single
Ruler chosen by a council of
nobles and priests
 Nobles served as officials, judges, and
governors
 Warriors – rise to noble status by
killing or capturing enemy soldiers
 Commoners who farmed
 Slaves – criminals or prisoners of war
Aztec Religion
Priests are a class apart
 Performed rituals for gods to keep away
droughts
 Chief God– sun god
 To give sun strength to rise –
massive human sacrifices
 Warfare is used to get
sacrificial victims

Aztec Human Sacrifices
To give sun strength to rise – massive human sacrifices
– greatly exaggerated by the Spanish as a means of
validating European conquest and cultural
superiority
– religious act essential to the grant of rain, sun, and
other blessings of the gods
– an intentional use of a widespread practice to
terrorize their neighbors and to keep the lower
classes subordinate
– form of population control to lower population
density
– response to a lack of protein and the absence of
large mammals associated with animal sacrifice.
Aztec Learning
 Priests
keepers of knowledge
 Ran schools for sons of nobles
 Accurate calendar
 Herbs and medicines
Aztec
 1519
– Spanish reached Tenochtitlan
with Cortes
 Allies from conquered people
 Defeated by Spanish
Incas and Aztec Empires
Political Structures

Similarities:
– each had emperor supported by nobility that served as
personnel of state
– both based on tribute system with imperial redistribution
of goods
– both were militaristic
– each recognized indigenous rulers in return for
recognition of imperial sovereignty

Differences:
–
–
–
–
Inca empire more integrated
Aztec empire based more on concept of city-states
Aztec empire more open to trade
Inca empire almost entirely relied on state redistribution
of goods
– Aztec use of human sacrifice as weapon of political
terror
East Asia

Era of Division: (6 Dynasties Period)
– dominated by political division among
many small warring states often ruled
by nomadic invaders
– period of Buddhist dominance
– growth of monastic movement
– loss of imperial centralization
– loss of dominance of scholar-gentry
in favor of militarized
aristocracy (dark age).
Sui-Tang
 return
to centralized administration,
unified empire
– reconstruction of bureaucracy
– reconstruction of Confucian scholargentry at expense of both Buddhists and
aristocracy
– restoration of Confucianism as central
ideology of state
Tang and Song Dynasties
Tang and Song China
(China’s Golden Age)
Restoration of imperial government
implied strengthening of traditional
schools of Confucianism and resuscitation
of scholar-gentry
 Confucians attacked Buddhism as a
foreign innovation in China
 convinced emperors that monastic control
of land represented an economic threat
 persecution of Buddhists introduced in
840s.

Elements of Tang-Song
economic prosperity
– The full incorporation of southern China
into the economy as a major foodproducing region, center of trade
– commercial expansion with West, southern
Asia, southeast Asia
– establishment of Chinese merchant marine
– development of new commercial
organization and credit per acre
– expanded urbanization throughout China
Satellite Cultures of China
 Why
was China unable to assimilate
the Vietnamese despite direct rule for
almost a millennium?
– Vietnamese culturally different from the
outset:
 different
language
 tradition of local authority inherent in village
leaders
 emphasis on nuclear family rather than
typically Chinese extended families
 higher status accorded to women
Satellite Cultures of China
– Chinese able to exert some influence on:
 introduction
of central administration based on
Confucian exam system
 some
introduction of extended family and
ancestor worship
 use
of Chinese military organization
 ultimate
failure based on inability to impact
Vietnamese peasantry who remained
significant on local level
 only
Buddhism impacted peasantry

Chinese culture in relation to its satellite
civilizations
– Chinese culture extended only within semiclosed East Asian cultural system
– unlike Islam that spread from the Middle East
to Africa and to South and Southeast Asia
– unlike common cultural exchanges between
Islam and post-classical West
– East Asian cultural exchange occurred in semiisolation from other global cultures.
The Mongolian Empire
Mongol expansion

Khanates
– Ghengis
 brought all the nomadic tribes of
Mongolia under the rule of himself
and his family
 rigidly disciplined military state
 turned his attention toward the settled
peoples beyond the borders of his nomadic
realm
 began the series of campaigns of plunder and
conquest that eventually led to the
establishment of the great Mongol Empire.
Mongol expansion
The
four most significant
legacies of Chinggis Khan are:
–tolerance of many religions
–creation of the Mongols' first script
–support for trade and crafts
–creation of a legal code specific to
the Mongols' pastoral-nomadic way
of life
– Khubilai
Conquest of China
“Yuan Dynasty”
–Grandson of Chinggis Khan
–Khubilai Khan was an
important transitional figure in
Mongol history
–sought to rule — and not merely
conquer — the vast domains that
the Mongols had subjugated

Mongol Advances
– Stirrup
A
special wood-and-leather saddle
allowed the horses to bear the weight
of their riders for long periods
 permitted the riders to retain a firm seat
 a sturdy stirrup enabled horsemen to
be sturdier and thus more accurate in
shooting when mounted
– Advance horse warfare
 the
horses were fast and flexible
 Used hit-and-run raids
 The Mongols had developed a composite bow made
out of sinew and horn and were skilled at shooting it
while riding
 gave them the upper hand against ordinary foot
soldiers
 range of more than 350 yards, the bow was superior
to the contemporaneous English longbow, whose
range was only 250 yards

Inclusion of conquered peoples
– Included Muslim scholars in their courts
– Willingness to rely on advisers particularly
those who had worked with the Chinese

Fall of Mongols
– Became too Chinese and sedentary—removed
from nomadic traditions
– Tried to invade Japan--failed

Golden Horde and Il’ Khan (Persia)
– Conflict over religion
Islam the majority religion oppressed by
the Buddhist leaders
 Eventually will convert to Islam


Mongol dynasty of China (the Yuan)
attempt to alter the traditional Chinese
social structure
– refused to reinstate the Confucian examination
system-- attempt to destroy the social and
political dominance of the scholar-gentry
– seconded by dividing the Chinese social
structure ethnically
 Mongols
and Islamic allies on top
 northern Chinese second
 ethnic Chinese and minorities at bottom
 in addition Mongols promoted social advance of
artisans and merchants, who had been discriminated
against in traditional Chinese society.

political impact of the Mongol conquests of
Russia and the Islamic heartland
similarities
– traditional political structure was removed and
the path was smoothed for new political
organization to take place
– In Russia, Kievan superiority was forever
destroyed and Moscow was able to achieve
political dominance among the petty kingdoms
through its control of tribute and by becoming
the seat of Russian Orthodoxy
– In Islam, the Abbasid dynasty was ended and
the Seljuk Turks who had ruled through its
additions was devastated opening the way for
the rise of the Mameluks in Egypt and the
Ottoman Turks in Asia Minor.
Mongolians
 Territorial
extent of the Mongol
empire at its largest. How did this
affect inter-cultural exchange?
– permitted free exchange of goods and
ideas between global cultures along
traditional routes of trade.
Renaissance
Entrance into Modern World
1300 - 1600
Cultural
Developments
Humanism
Scientific
Revolution
Humanism vs. Enlightenment
1280ish to late 1600s vs. 1650 to 1750ish

Humanism (Age of Questioning)
– Emphasis on individual
– Classical works
– Centered in N. Italian city-states and traveled
throughout world
– Elements include voluntary participation in
civic affairs
– Spurred questioning attitude – cultural
advancements, scientific revolution, age of
exploration, reformation

Enlightenment (application of humanism)
Age of Reason
– Belief in human perfectibility,
– application of scientific discoveries to
improvement of human condition;
– reason was key to truth, while religion was
afflicted with superstition;
– changes in economy reflected in mass
consumerism;
– growth of reading clubs, coffee houses, and
popular entertainment.
– Voltaire father of Enlightenment
Islamic Empires




Ottoman Empire
– Major leader, Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent
– Took over Constantinople
– Long decline
Safavid Empire
– Persia
– Shiite Muslim
Mughal Empire
– India
– Hindu Majority ruled by Muslims
All Three “Gunpowder Empires” – came from
Mongols/Chinese
Japan:
From Gempei Wars to Tokugawa Shogunate

Gempei Wars - culmination of a decadeslong conflict between the two clans over
dominance of the Imperial court
– marked dominance of provincial military
aristocracy over imperial court
– Minamoto family established first
dominance with military government (or
Bakufu) at Kamakura
– decline of central administration and
scholar-gentry
– Hojo family dominated Bakufu
Japan:
From Gempei Wars to
Tokugawa Shogunate
– finally Kamakura government
overthrown by Ashikaga Shogunate
– all central authority dissipated
during Onin War from 1467-1477
 initiated
a long, drawn-out struggle for
domination by individual daimyo, resulting in
a mass power-struggle between the various
houses to dominate the whole of Japan
– country divided up into 300 small
kingdoms ruled by daimyos.
– Introduction of Portuguese in 1400s
Japanese Shogunate


Japanese feudalism
– Shogun (leader)
– Daimyo (powerful lords—shogun
usually chosen from this group)
– Samurai (warriors)
– Bushido (feudal law)
Shogunates
– Most Famous is Tokugawa
Shogunate
 Dictatorship, Highly centralized
government
 Confucian Ideas
 Closed Ports to trade caused economic collapse

Japanese Contact with
West
– First step taken was
persecution of Christians,
then banning of Christianity
in 1614
– after 1616 foreign
merchants limited to few
ports
– by 1640s, only Dutch and
Chinese admitted at
Deshima (Nagasaki Bay)
– in eighteenth century Neo-Confucian
philosophy abandoned in favor of school
of "National Learning" based on
indigenous Japanese culture
– differed from Chinese in adopting
European technological developments.
East Asian Exploration and Isolation (Xenophobic)

Ming
– returned to use of Neo-Confucian philosophy as
basis of culture
– restored position of scholar-gentry
– reinstituted examination system as basis of civil
service.
– Early emperors attempted to curtail power of
scholar-gentry
– potential rivals to succession exiled
to provinces
– greatest economic reform was
Zhenghe voyages to distant markets
Women
 Different
status for Elite and Working
women
 Think noble versus serf/peasant
Women
 During
middle ages, new limits on
the conditions of women
 In some respects, women in the west
had higher status than their sisters
in Islam
– Less segregated in religious services
(although could not lead them)
– Less confined to the household
Women
Still women’s voices in the family may
have declined in the Middle Ages
 Urban women played important roles in
local commerce and even operated some
craft guilds, but found themselves
increasingly hemmed in by maledominated organizations
 Patriarchal structures take deeper root.

World Economy
 During
the postclassical millennium,
45-1450 CE, a few areas contributed
raw materials (including labor power
– slaves) to more advanced societies
– China and the Islamic world.
 The supply areas included western
Europe and parts of Africa and
southeast Asia
World Economy
 Although
economic relationships
were unequal, they did not affect the
societies that produced raw material
too much since international trade
was not sufficient to do so.
World Economy – Middle Ages
 Population
growth encouraged
further economic innovation – new
people =new markets
 Towns expanded and agriculture
increased
 Crusades exposed west to new
cultural and economic influence from
the Middle East. This included a thirst
for trade.
East meets west
– Three major manufacturing zones:
 Arab producing carpets, tapestry, glass;
 Indian producing cotton textiles;
 China producing porcelain, paper, silks.
– No central control of Indian Ocean trade
system, no use of military force.
– Portuguese brought use of military force
into system
– added new routes including route
around Cape of Good Hope to Europe
– introduction of concept of sea power
and military force
– introduction of Christianity, tribute
kingdoms
Other Trade Routes
Bantu peoples moved along Congo River
and further south and east in Africa.
(Evidence-Bantu languages)
 Vikings moved along rivers and oceans
into Europe and even the new world.
(Viking ships= horses of other nomads)
 Turks and Mongols moved southward and
westward from the steps of Asia bringing
bubonic plague to China and Europe.

Global trade and core and
peripheral nations




Core areas were those areas of the world economy
typified by production of manufactured goods,
control of shipping, monopoly of banking and
commercial services.
Core areas were located primarily in northwestern
Europe Britain, France, and Holland.
Dependent zones (peripheral) were regions typified
by production of raw materials, supply of bullion,
plantation agriculture of cash crops produced by
coercive labor systems.
Dependent zones surrounded the European core
including southern and eastern Europe, Asia, and the
colonial discoveries of the European explorers.
Global Network
East Asia, particularly China and Japan
remained outside of global trade network;
 Mughal India only minimally involved;
 Ottoman Empire restricted trade to European
enclaves in cities;
 Russia also remained outside system; outside
of slave regions, Africa not involved.
 After 1600, India increasingly dominated by
France and England;
 Eastern Europe brought into system as
supplier of grain to West.

Changes and Continuities





Change: Classic empires have fallen and new
ones have been created.
Change: Migrations of nomadic peoples cause
major international changes and diffusion of
ideas and diseases
Continuity: Religion continues to be important
and continues to spread.
Continuity: Trade routes continue to grow in
importance
Continuity: Societies continue to be Patriarchal
1450-1750
European Atlantic Empires
West becomes dominant
Gunpowder
Mughals
Ottomans
Neo-Confucianism
African Contributions
Bookends
 1450-
Beginning of European Atlantic
empires
 1450-Beginning of Global trade
 1492- End of Islam in Europe
 1433- end of Chinese treasure ship
expeditions
 1750- beginning of industrialization
 1750-western hemisphere
colonization peaks
Six things to Remember
Americas are included in world trade
for the first time.
 Improvements in shipping and
gunpowder technology continues
 Populations are in transition
 New social structures emerge based on
race and gender
 Traditional beliefs are threatened in
Europe but reinforced in China
 Empires are both land-based and cross
oceanic

Changes in
Weaponry

Changes
– Calvary/mounted knights & infantry
– Lance → arquebus (portable long barreled gun
fired by a wheel and lock) and pike → musket
with bayonet
– Calvary charge → rows/columns of uniformed
soldiers
– Simple medieval wall with gates and towers →
elaborate fortification systems designed to stop
canon fire
– Military leaders as battle chiefs →
management experts
– Performance learned on a drill field
Knights and Guns
 Infantry
had already proven to be
more successful than cavalry
– Ex. 1415 Agincourt—long bows—
mow down knights of France
on horseback
Origin of the Gun
 Chinese and Arabs
since 8th century
used gunpowder
 Mongols
13th century (1240) Poland
and Hungary 1st experience gunfire
 Ironworks in Europe soon learned
how to make a gun
– Iron tube in which gunpowder is
exploded to fire a missile
 1400
Ottomans construct cannons to
forge through the Balkans
– 1453 helped to take out Constantinople
 Gun
becomes premiere tool for
explorers, conquerors and merchants
 Knights couldn’t withstand heavier
armor to survive gun shot—death of
knighthood
 New formations and mass, unison,
precise gunfire could halt a charging
army
Big Guns
Smaller at first inaccurate
and bad for long distance
 Big guns—cannons—
better for breaking down walls
 Beasts of burden used to bring
them to town/castle walls to fire
cannon after cannon to break defenses
 Soldiers then raped and pillaged
town/castle

– 1st done by France –Charles VII in 1450

Problem: siege tactics
cost many innocent
lives; therefore, new
type of fortification
– Bastions—thicker walls
that protected people
and town within
– Very expensive to
build—Michelangelo
and da Vinci some of
the first designers
• Advent of professional
armies—Italy, Sweden
Switzerland, England,
France, Prussia
Changes in War
“Wars no longer a test of strength, to be
decided by “mere battles”, “rather they
depend on losing or gaining friends and
allies, and it is to this end that good states
men turn all their attention and energy
 Rise of Diplomacy

– Ambassadors develop out of medieval heralds
and/or messengers
– Enjoyed personal security from both parties
– Authorized to conduct negotiations, i.e.
diplomacy
 Expense
– Cost is huge—ruler provided equipment
(ammunition, amour, weapons)
– Wives and children, spare horses
– Armies sometimes 1600 strong
 Warfare
on ships (river or sea)
– Cannons prove to be very effective on
ships
M
U
G
H
A
L
E
M
P
I
R
E
Mughal Rulers
all fabulously wealthy
 empire covered 2/3 of present-day India
 Babur 1526-1530

– Charismatic leader
– Related to Gengis Khan and
Tamerlaine
– Took over Afghanistan
– Builder of gardens
– Brought the Persian culture
to India
– Brought first cannons to Indiahelped him to successfully invade

Humayan 1530-1556
–
–
–
–

Underachiever, son of Babur
Superstitious
Loved books
Spent entire reign consolidating
the empire
Akbar 1556-1605
–
–
–
–
–
Statesman
Encouraged religious tolerance
Brought Muslim culture to India
Married a Hindu princess
Ran the country with a good
infrastructure
– Came to power at 13 –
general who was loyal kept the
empire in tact for him until of age

Jahangir 1605-1627
– Drunkard
– Loved precious jewels…it was
an obsession
– Hunter; boasted about hunting
abilities and number of kills

Shah Jehan 1627-1658
– most famous to western world
– built Taj Mahal, Red Fort,
and Friday Mosque (largest in India)
– ruthless—killed male heirs of
extended family
– imprisoned the last 9 years by his son
Taj Mahal
Friday Mosque
Red Fort
 Auranzeb
1658-1707
– religious fanatic required all to be
Muslims
– enforced Muslim law which begins to
break up the empire—Hindus upset with
the law
– Eleven more rulers to follow,
yet the empire continues
to decline
Mughal Architecture
 formed
from the Persian and Indian
style of art
 consisted of archs, domes, towers,
indentures, and carvings
 To show the greatness of the Mughal
architecture, the buildings tended to
be tall and enormous.
The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman empire (1289-1923)


Founded by Osman Bey in 1289, who
led Muslim religious warriors (ghazi)
Ottoman expansion into Byzantine
empire
–
–
–
–
Seized city of Bursa, then into the Balkans
Organized ghazi into formidable military
machine
Central role of the Janissaries (slave troops)
Effective use of gunpowder in battles and
sieges
Ottoman Empire (1289-1923)

Mehmed the Conqueror (reigned
1451-1481)
– Captured Constantinople in 1453; it
became Istanbul, the Ottoman capital
– Absolute monarchy-centralized state
– Expanded to Serbia, Greece,
Albania;
attacked Italy
Tokapi Palace—main
residence in Istanbul
Ottoman empire (1289-1923)

Suleyman the Magnificent (1520-1566)
– Sultan Selim the Grim (1512-1520)
occupied Syria and Egypt
– Suleyman the Magnificent expanded
into southwest Asia and
central Europe
– Suleyman also built
a navy powerful
enough to challenge
European fleets
Ottoman empire (1289-1923)




Dynasty endured for more than 600 years
Too large to be maintained
the empire's communication technology was not
developed enough to reach all territories
the circumstances surrounding the Ottoman
Empire's fall closely paralleled those surrounding
the fall of the Roman Empire
– ongoing tensions between the empire's different ethnic
groups
– various governments' inability to deal with these
tensions



Built on war and steady territorial expansion
Possibilities for new lands ran out and lands
began to be lost to enemies
Means to maintain oversized bureaucracy and
army shrank
Ottoman empire (1289-1923)
Decline in effectiveness of the
administrative system = corruption
among officials
 Poor regulated central gov’t allowed local
officials to be corrupt which sparked
rebellions = further drain on resources
 Other issue →successors were not
prepared to ruled instead basically
imprisoned = weak rulers = pawns
 Civil strife increased and the discipline and
leadership of the armies deteriorated

Ottoman empire (1289-1923)
Began to lose on the battle field (change
to light field artillery by European powers)
 Not dominate on the sea (defeated by
Spanish and Italian navies at Battle of
Lepanto)
 Goods not going to Europe through
Muslim trading centers lost revenue for
Ottoman Empire
 Inflation caused by Spanish silver into
Ottoman Empire

Ottoman empire (1289-1923)
 Long
standing belief that little of
what happened in Europe was
important –not take seriously the
changes that transformed Europe
 Ends up being “Sick Man”
 Independence movements in Balkans
 Defeated in 1918 and divided
between Britain and France
Neo-Confucianism
the revival of the various strands of
Confucian philosophy and political culture
that began in the middle of the 9th
Century and reached new levels of
intellectual and social creativity in the
11th Century in the Northern Song
Dynasty.
 movement included speculative
philosophers, painters, poets, doctors,
social ethicists, political theorists,
historians, local reformers and
government civil servants.


14th C.--the teaching of the way or the
teaching of principle, became the standard
curriculum for the imperial civil service
examination system
– dominance of the civil service continued until
the whole system was abolished in 1905.
– In the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) there
was a further reaction against the speculative
philosophy of the learning of Han arose
to combat what were taken to be the
grave mistakes
– also know as the school of evidential research
because of its commitment to historical and
philological research in contradistinction to
the Song and Ming fascination with
speculative metaphysics and personal moral
self-cultivation.
 Neo-Confucian
masters where also
teachers of various forms of personal
moral self-cultivation
– sought to promote a unified vision of
humane flourishing that would end with
a person becoming a sage or worthy by
means of various forms of selfcultivation.
 became
an international movement
and spread to Korea, Japan, and
Vietnam
African Contributions to the
Cultures of America
 Slavery
 Music
– Jazz; gospel
 Religion - While the dominant
religions on the Caribbean islands
are all variants of Christianity, a few
religions are the result of African
slaves combining their spiritual
practices with the beliefs of their
captors. Most common are voodoo
and Santería.
Changes and Continuities
Change: The Americas are added to world
trade network
 Change: Europe becomes a Maritime area
 Continuity: Trade is really important
 Continuity: Religions continue to adapt to
new times, but very important
 Continuity: Diffusion of ideas and diseases
as people come into contact with each
other.

Age of Revolution
1750-1914
Mexican, Haitian,
and Chinese
Revolutions
Three Things to Remember
 Industrialization
caused true worldwide interdependence. Intensification
of core-periphery concept
 Populations grew and people moved
from the country into the cities to
work in factories.
 Women gained some economic
opportunities with the rise of factory
work, but they did not gain political or
economic parity.
Three more things to
Remember
 Western
culture influenced Asia
and Africa, especially because of
imperialism
 Rise of the Proletariat as a social force
 Revolutions were inspired because of
the Enlightenment ideals of the social
contract and natural rights.
The Bookends
 1750-
beginning of industrialization
with the water frame in Manchester
England
 1776-First enlightenment revolution.
 1800’s nationalism
 1800’s Imperialism
 1860 Emancipation of serfs and slaves
 1914 Eve of World War I
Classic Revolutions







Haitian Revolution-August 22, 1791 - 1804
Mexican Revolution -September 16, 1810 – 1821
– 2nd Revolution 1908
Greek Revolution - 1821 - 1829
French Revolution -1789-1799
American Revolution 1775-1781 (how was this
revolution different)
Russian Revolution 1917-1921
Chinese Revolution 1911 – 1921
– 2nd Revolution and civil war 1949
Latin American Independence
Sources of Discontent
1. Discontent among social hierarchy
– Peninsulars
– Creoles
– Mestizos
– Mulattoes
– Native Americans
– Enslaved Africans
Latin American Independence
Sources of Discontent
2. Enlightenment ideas
- read workers
- North America & creoles read Dec.
of Independence and Constitution
- Women hosted salon (tertulias)
where independence and revolution
were discussed
Latin American Independence
3. Napoleon’s invasion of Spain
-
Joseph on throne
Latin American leaders saw Spain’s
weakness as an opportunity to get rid
of them.
Mexican Independence
Mexican Revolution -September 16, 1810
– 1821
 Creole Priest, Father Miguel Hidalgo raised
cry for freedom (Sept. 15, 1810)
 Speech –
“el Grito e Delores” –
the cry of Dolores
 It called Mexican to fight
for
independence and liberty

Mexican Independence
 Ragged
army of mestizos and Native
Americans marched to outskirts of
Mexico City
 1st creoles supported but soon
rejected his call to end slavery and
reforms for NA
 Less than a year, Hidalgo was
captured and executed.
Mexican Independence
 Father
Jose Morelos – mestizo –
called for wide ranging social and
political reform- improve conditions,
abolish slavery, give vote to all men
 For 4 years, led forces then
captured and shot. (1815)
Mexican Independence
Agustin de Iturbide – conservative Creole
who fought revolutionaries – worried
about new Spanish government in 1820
 In 1821, backed by creoles, mestizos, and
Native Americans, he overthrow the
Spanish viceroy
 Mexico independent
 Iturbide took title –
Emperor Agustin I
 Toppled and set up Republic
of Mexico

Mexican Independence
 New
government but for most little
changed
 Military leaders dominated
government
 Next 100 years contains struggles to
improve conditions for Mexicans
Mexican Revolution #2
 Dictator
Porfiro Diaz ruled
for almost 35 years winning
as president again and again
 Prosperity for wealthy landowners,
businessmen, and foreign investors
but most Mexicans were peasants
who lived in poverty
 Factory workers, miners, and
middle class liberals opposed him.
Mexico
 Francisco
Madero demanded
free elections in 1910.
 He was imprisoned and by
Diaz and then began encouraging revolt
 Diaz resigned in 1911
 Madero became president but
was murdered within 2 years.
Mexico
Several leaders emerged including
 North -Francisco “Pancho” Villa –
personal power
 South - Emiliano Zapata – peasant revolt
(Zapatistas)
 Decade of fighting
 Women soldiers called
soldaderas cooked, tended
wounded and even fought.

Mexico

1917 Venustiano elected and approved a
constitution (today's)
– Land – broke up large estates, restricted
foreigners owning land and allowed
nationalization of natural resources
– Religion – Church land made “the property of
the nation”
– Labor – min. wage and protected right of
workers to strike
– Suffrage only to men but gave women some
protection (equal pay, married women to draw
up contracts, take part in legal suits, equal
authority with men in spending family funds)
Mexican Independence 2
 1920s
– after government restored
order finally
– Helped some Indian communities regain
land
– Supported labor unions
– Schools and libraries set up
– Teachers spread ideas of nationalism
 Mexico
reforms
became first LA to pursue
Revolutions in Haiti
• Slave Revolt
 Toussaint L’Ouverture
The Louisiana Territory and
Napoleon’s Empire Balanced
Precariously on an ex-slave
 Slave
revolt because of brutal slave
system
 St. Dominique (Haiti) whites decided
to fight for freedom from France b/c
of a law passed that gave all those of
color with 2 free parents their
freedom.
 1793 Toussaint joined fight
 National Convention abolished
slavery in St. Dominique
 1794 France’s National Assembly
abolished slavery in colonies







After war with Britain and Spain, Toussaint
supported French gov’t
Toussaint was made lieutenant governor of
St. Dominique
He distrusted all foreigners, believing only
black leadership could assure autonomous
St. Dominique
Toussaint made commander-in-chief of island by
French Convention
Resolved to quickly establish autonomous
black state
After defeat of Spanish & British began moving
toward independence from France
Wanted to be on equal footing with France and
other major powers
Toussaint was inspired by French & US
revolutions
– Some of his officers had fought with
French army in US War for
Independence
 1799 Napoleon’s coup d’etat in France
 Wanted Toussaint out
 Wanted to reestablish slavery
 1800 Toussaint became military dictator
 Re-imposed plantation system


Constitution gave Napoleon a reason for
sending French troops to take over
– Technically a French colony, acting as an
independent state
Toussaint “liberated” St. Dominique
from French
 Toussaint never formally severed its bond
with France
 Toussaint defeated and sent to prison
in France
 1804 Toussaint’s successor (one of his
lieutenants) declared St. Dominique the
independent country of Haiti

1911 Revolution in China

Last emperor Pi Yu abdicates the throne
– Mutiny by imperial soldiers
– Scattered secret society upheavals
– Organized plots, etc.

Republic 1912-1949
– January 1, 1912 is the first official day of
the Republic of China
– Provisional president is Sun Yat-sen
– He is soon pushed aside which begins a 15
year period of military strongmen designated
as President—warlord period
– Politically it resembled the last few years of the
Qing rule
Meji Restoration
 Japanese
Modernization
– New Constitution based on US
– Parliament formed (Diet)
– Mostly an Oligarchy
 Zaibatsu
– State Sponsored businesses
– Industry and Private Enterprise
– Poor Working Conditions for Poor
 Increased
Urbanization
 Beginnings of Japanese expansionism
Japanese expansionism

Sino-Japanese War
– Japan wants part of Chinese Trade
– Takes over Korea and trading port
– Used U.S Open Door Policy to justify actions

Russo-Japanese War
– Caused by competition over Manchuria
– Surprise Attack by Japanese on Russian
positions
– Japan Wins
Begins to warn World of Japan’s Imperial
Leanings
 Asia for the Asians

Details-Cultural and
Intellectual expressions
African and Asian influences of
European art.
 Western intellectual thought- especially
science and the enlightenment - were
highly influential to Asian and African
areas.
 Traditional religious teachings continue to
be influential and often form the backbone
to anti-imperial activities.

Art Sample
Picasso’s encounter with
African masks (1907)
Women
 IR
– cut into women’s traditional
work
 Expanded educational opportunities
 Some new work roles and feminism
developed by 1914
 Elevated women’s position in home
and set up more demanding tasks
 New attitudes of middle and lowerclass women
 By
1900 feminist movements had
arisen – sought legal and economic
gains for women
 Won support from middle-class
women
 Several American states and
Scandinavian countries extended
vote by 1914 and the pattern spread
Women
 Emmile
Pankhurst – English – fought
for women’s rights and became
radical
Women
 Asian
and African -European
imperialism set up missionary
schools that became respectable
 Women became more prominent in
nationalist movements
Changes and Continuities
 Change:
Industrialization changed
almost everything- the way people
worked, lived, traveled, related to
their families and communicated.
 Change: rise of the middle class and
new governmental structures
 Continuity: Religion continues to be
a force for conservatism
 Continuity: Patriarchal gender
structure remains
th
20
Century
World Wars
Conflict of
Ideology
Trends in 20th
Century
World War I




Causes (NIMS)
– Competition between Empires
– Secret Alliances
– Tensions in the Balkans
– Assassination of Arch Duke Francis Ferdinand
Central Powers and Allies
Warfare
– Trench warfare on Western Front
– Naval Warfare and Submarines
Treaty of Versailles: Wilson’s 14 Points
– Great Britain and France wanted Revenge
 War Guilt Clause
 Loss of Territory
 Disarmament
 Reparations
Terms
 War
of attrition
 Ultimatum
 Atrocity
 Stalemate
 Reparations
 Armistice



Russian Revolution and
Communism
Russian Revolution 1917
– 1st Control was by Kenensky and social
democrats
– Lenin and group of Bolsheviks overthrow
Tsar Nicholas II
– After Lenin’s Death Josef Stalin gains
control
Economic Reforms
– Year Plans
 Five year Plan: heavy Industry
 Collectivization
 Kulaks – problems with land distribution
Political Oppression
– Little Political freedoms
– Siberian Labor Camps
Rise
Of
Fascism
 German fascism
– Began as lack of confidence in
Weimar Republic
– Against Communist Party which was
also strong in Germany
– Anti-Semitic as well as other races
(Gypsies)
 Italian fascism
– Appealed to veterans of WWI
– Extreme Nationalist/ Racial Prejudice
– Led by Benito Mussolini
March on Rome leads to control of
country
Eventually allied with German

Nazism
Led by Adolf Hitler
– Specific type of fascism
– Charismatic Leader
– Wrote Mein Kampf
– Last Chancellor of Weimar Republic
 Head of German Parliament, Reichstag
 Passed Enabling Act, Suspended
Constitution gave Hitler power to Rule
be decree
– Outlawed all political opposition
– Limited personal freedoms
– Began persecuting Jews and others
Chinese Communism
After Qing, China governed by
Nationalist Party
– Led by Sun Yat-Sen
– After Sun Yat-Sen dies Chang KaiShek takes over
 Chinese Communist Party
– Led by Mao Zedong
– Leads Revolution against nationalists
– Early Defeats lead to Long March
– Helped by distraction of Japanese
Invasion
– Eventually Communists succeed and

World
War
II
 Axis and Allies
– Axis = Germany, Italy, Japan
– Allies = U.S., France, Great Britain,
USSR
 Appeasement Policy (RASP)
– After number of aggressive moves
Allies continue to back down
– Japan Continues Expansion into
Chinese Territory
 New Technology
– Aircraft Carriers/ Bombers
– Radar
– Atomic weapons






WWII Continued
Blitzkrieg
– Lightning War, used by German forces
Germans took over all but Great Britain
– Battle of Britain
 Blitz
Japanese Aggression in Pacific
– Pearl Harbor Attack
Turning Point 1942
– Lost by Axis
 Midway
 El Alamein
 Stalingrad
D-Day (June 6th 1944)
Atomic Bombs on Japan
Holocaust
and
War
Crimes
Rape of Nanking



– Japanese troops storm city of Nanking, raping and
Killing civilians
Comfort Women
– Women forced to serve as prostitutes for Japanese
Soldiers
Holocaust
– Systematic genocide of Jewish people and other
ethnicities
– Called Final Solution
– Concentration Camps: Auschwitz




Extermination Camps
Gas Chambers: Zyclon B
Cremation Chambers
Total of 12 Million Deaths: 6 Mil Jews, 6 Mil
Non-Jews
Korean War
 First
Test of Containment
Policy
– 1950-1953 South Korea (NonCommunist) V. North Korea
(Communist)
– U.S supports South Korea
– China and USSR support North
Korea
– McArthur
 Brilliant
general but arrogant
 Fired for not following orders

War Ended at Original Line of Division
Cold War




Non Military aggression between Communist
and Capitalist Countries
Spread of Soviet influence and Control
– Eastern Europe falls to Soviet Control
– Violates Soviet promises at Yalta
Conference
– Berlin Blockade and division of Berlin
U.S containment Policy
– Marshal Plan
– Formation of NATO/SEATO
Arms Race
– Began after 1949 when Soviets
demonstrated Nuclear Weapons
– Nuclear Aggression and build up between
US and USSR





Cold
War
1950-1960’s
Nikita Khrushchev gains power in USSR
Space Race
– Soviets launch Sputnik in 1957
 Frightened US because USSR had first space
rocket
Cuban revolution
– Fidel Castro makes Cuba a Communist country
– Communist Country 90 miles of coast of US
U-2 spy plane shot down over USSR
JFK
– Bay of Pigs invasion: attempt to overthrow Castro
– As Result Nuclear weapons stationed in Cuba


To try to destroy missiles could start nuclear war with
USSR
Kennedy blockades Cuba and Soviets back down


Cold
War
1960-1970
US lands on the Moon
– Wins the Space race
Split between Chinese Communist and Soviet
Communist
– Mao disagrees with Soviet view of Socialism as well as
the role of Comintern
– Border between two nations became more hostile

Vietnam War
– French Indo-China

Vietnam was controlled by French, but they were too weak
to enforce it
– Ho Chi Minh

Leader of Communist Party in N. Vietnam
– U.S Supports French Claim and enters the War to help S.
Vietnam
– Domino Theory
– U.S/ French Defeat
End of Cold War



D’etente - General Relaxation of Tensions
between Super Powers
1980’s
– Soviets invade Afghanistan
 Threatened Oil Supply
 Damaged relations
– Olympic Games Boycotted
 US in Moscow in 1980
 USSR in Los Angeles in 1984
USSR begins to collapse internally
– Mikhail Gorbachev leads USSR in 1985
 Attempts
reforms “Perestroika” (restructuring)=
economic reforms
 Glasnost = “Openness” cultural liberation
– Berlin Wall is taken down
– 1991 Soviet Union Collapses
Patterns of Decolonization
 Wars
fought to gain
independence
 Education of Native peoples led
to easier decolonization
 Ethnic and religious differences
cause major issues for new
countries
 Exploitation of Natural
Resources
 Sides taken in Cold War
Post War Middle East
 The
regions importance as a
supply of Petroleum
 Contradiction between desire for
Modernization and Islamic
Tradition
 Destabilizing effect of the
Arab/Israel Conflict
Establishment Of Israel





Balfour Declaration in 1914
– Expressed the need for a Jewish state
Established as a state for displaced
Jews from the Holocaust
Britain controlled Region of Palestine
Gave region over to be State of Israel
Displaced Millions of Palestinian Arabs
to neighboring Nations
Globalism

The Little Tigers: Hong Kong,
Singapore, South Korea, and
Taiwan
– Followed Japanese model of exportdriven industry; rapid growth in 1980s


By 1990s highly competitive; joined
by Indonesia, Thailand, and
Malaysia
Nafta (Mexico, US, Canada)
– North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement
Globalism
Economic issues vs. cultural
issues
 1944
– Bretton Woods
– International Monetary Fund (IMF)
– International Bank for Reconstruction
and Development
– General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
(GATT) 1947
 Foundations
for United Nations 1944
and established in 1945
 World Trade Organization formed in
1995



Trading blocs
The European Union
– Begun in 1957 with six nations, now includes fifteen
– A common market, free trade, free travel within the
Union
– Eleven members adopted a common currency, the
Euro, in 1999
– Expectations of a European Political Union eventually
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
– Cartel established in 1960 to raise global oil prices
– After Arab-Israeli war of 1973, OPEC placed embargo
on oil to United States, Israel's ally
– Price of oil quadrupled from 1973 to 1975, triggered
global recession
– Overproduction and dissension among members
diminished influence, 1990s
Regional trade associations formed to establish free-trade
zones for member states
– Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in
1967, five members
– North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) in
1993: United States, Canada, Mexico

Age of Access
Who has access to technology
–
–
–
–
Weapons
Medical
Communication
Luxury
North South Divide
 Totalitarian regimes want to limit access
 Economic inequalities lead to conflict in
areas such as the World Trade
Organization (loans money to countries
who cannot afford to pay back loans)

Does it benefit those who have
to help those who do not?
 Developed
countries
 Lesser Developed countries
 Unable to Develop countries
 East West divide of Europe (ElbeTriest Line)
 North – South divide of world
Industrialized vs. non
 Industrialized
nations conduct the
most trading activity, the LDCs
conduct the least:
– LDCs make up ¾ of the world’s nations
but only accounts for 25% of world
trade.
– DCs including North America, Europe
and Japan accounts for 75% of trade.
– New Trend: blocs versus international
trade.
Maquiladoras

Mexican manufacturing or export
assembly plants
–
–
–
–
–
1 million people today
Grew from about ½ million in early 90s
Low wages
Low standards
High cost of living in border towns
Maquiladoras are owned by U.S.,
Japanese, and European countries
 Decreasing with trade barriers lowered in
east Asian countries in particular - China

Outsourcing
 Creates
English speakers
 Instead of moving to this country
and bringing their culture they stay
in their own country and begin to
adopt other cultures
Influence of International
Conglomerates
 Microsoft
 MacDonald’s
 Walmart
 Problems
– monopolies, cartels, oligopolies,
corruption
Humanitarian Efforts
 Non-governmental
Organizations
– Red Cross/Crescent
– Green peace
– Amnesty International and Human
Rights Watch
– Doctors without Borders
Connection between Economics
and demography

Economic inequities and labor servitude
–
Causes of poverty



–
Labor servitude increasing



–
Inequities in resources and income separate rich and
poor societies
Attendant problems: malnutrition, environmental
degradation
Legacy of colonialism: economic dependence
Slavery abolished worldwide by 1960s
Millions still forced into bonded labor
Child-labor servitude common in south and southeast
Asia
Trafficking of persons across international boundaries
widespread


Victims, mostly girls and women, lured with promises of
work
Often in sex industry; hugely profitable though criminal
Population pressures and
environmental degradation

Dramatic population increases in
twentieth century





Population increased from 500 million in
1650 to 2.5 billion in 1950
Asia and Africa experienced population
explosion after WWII
5.5 billion people in 1994; perhaps 11.6
billion people in 2200
So far, food production has kept pace with
population growth
Fertility rates have been falling for past
twenty years
Population:
Carrying
Capacity
Scientists and citizens concerned about physical limits of

the earth
Dire predictions not borne by facts: prices have fallen,
food has increased



–
–
–

–
–
–
–
Malthus – fallacy of his theories is that he did not include the
impact of technology (increase food production, build up etc…)
Environmental impact
Urbanization and agricultural expansion threaten biodiversity
Gas emissions, coal burning contribute to global warming
In 1997 at Kyoto, 159 states met to cut carbon dioxide
emissions
Population control: a highly politicized issue
Some developing nations charge racism when urged to limit
population
UN agencies have aided many countries with family-planning
programs
China's one-child policy has significantly reduced growth rate
Other cultures still favor larger families, for example, India
Population issues
 Migration
areas
from rural areas to urban
– Urban sprawl
– 75% of population is urban
– Strain on services (mass transportation,
garbage disposal)
 Mass
tourism
 Spread of disease
 Migrant workers and issues of
citizenship
Demographic transition
Issues of standard of living change with
the technological advancements and level
of industrialization of a country
 Most industrialized have 0 or negative
population growth, low birth rates
 Populations are older
 Problems occur because labor shortages
begin to appear
 LDCs have high mortality rates, less
access to medical care, large numbers of
population under age of 20, high birth
rates,
 Population growth in areas least able to
adapt to the growth







Major Trends of the 20th
Major Population
Growth
Century
Rise of Consumer Society
Social Activism
– 1960’s war Protests
Terrorism
– Arab/ Israeli conflict
Changes in Gender relations
Rise of Mass Media
– Television, film and Radio as a source of
Information and Entertainment
Impact of break up of Soviet
 Political instability
Unionin Eastern Europe
and Russia
 Nationalism causing ethnic groups
that were mostly Islamic to try to
break away
 Coalitions formed with other Islamic
groups
 Void of superpower to hold political
structures together
 No checks for China and USA
Recent
Conflicts and Issues
Gulf War

– Iraq invades Kuwait
 War breaks out between Iraq and US lead collation

Yugoslavian War
– Serbian aggression against Albanian and Bosnian
minorities in Kosovo

Weapons of Mass Destruction
– Limiting production and testing of Nuclear Weapons

Number of Small Arms increase
– Guns, semi-automatic and automatic



911 attack of al-Queda on the New York
Trade Center
2002 attack on Afghanistan and dissolution
of the Taliban
2003 attack on Iraq and the destruction of
the Baathist Sunni rule of Iraq
Which is best
 Convergence
and diversity and
tolerance and interdependence
OR
 Isolationism, self-sufficiency and
ethnocentrism
THE END
Good Luck
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AP World History Review