Chapter Seven
India and China Establish Empires
400 B.C.-A.D. 550
pgs 189-207
Jalisa Mott
November 12, 2008
Dr. Linebarger
4th period
Table of Contents
• Section One: India’s First Empires-pgs 189-192
• Section Two: Trade Spreads Indian Religions
and Culture-pgs 193-197
• Section Three: Han Emperors in China-pgs 200207
Section One:
India’s First Empires
Key Terms:
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Mauryan Empire
Asoka
Religious Toleration
Tamil
Gupta Empire
Patriarchal
Matriarchal
Mauryan Empire/ Chandragupta
Maurya
• Chandragupta Maurya gathered an army, killed the Nanda King and
claimed throne, which was the start of the Mauryan Empire.
• Unified North India; seized all land from Magadha to the Indus
• Began to battle Seleucus I around 305 B.C.
• Selecus wanted to establish Macedonian control over the Indus
Valley
• Chandragupta defeated Selecus
• Mauryan Empire stretched more than 2,000 miles; united North India
for the first time politically
• The government levied high taxes to clothe, feed, and pay troops
• A bureaucratic government was formed and four provinces were
created with a royal prince to rule each
Asoka (Chandragupta’s grandson)
• Became king of Mauryan Empire in 269 B.C.
• Followed grandfather’s footsteps to expand empire; waging war
• Victorious war against Kalinga; 100,000 soldiers slained and many
civilians penished
• Felt sorrow after victory over Kalinga
• Began to study Buddhism and started ruling by the teachings of
Buddha “peace to all beings”
• After Asoka’s death, kingdoms of central India regained their
independence
• Andhras profited from the extensive trade between north and south
India
• People migrated from parts of Asia, introducing new languages
(Tamil) and customs
• South India experienced turmoil (commotion/confusion)
Gupta Empire Established
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500 yrs of invasion and commotion
Gupta Empire (India’s 2nd empire)
Chandra Gupta I’s empire included Magadha and areas north of it
Chandra’s son, Samudra expanded the empire within 40 yrs with his warlike
attitude
Majority of Indians were farmers (all members worked in the fields)
Drought was common, causing farmers to irrigate crops
Majority of the families were patriarchal (eldest man ran the household)
In South India, Tamil groups followed matriarchal cultural pattern (mother
was the head of the household)
In the matriarchal culture, property and throne was passed through the
family line
While the Gupta’s were in reign, India achieved in several areas, including
areas of art, religious thoughts and science
• In South India, Tamil groups followed matriarchal cultural
pattern (mother was the head of the household)
• In the matriarchal culture, property and throne was
passed through the family line
• While the Gupta’s were in reign, India achieved in
several areas, including areas of art, religious thoughts
and science
• Hunas threatened North India
• Next 100 yrs included the Gupta Empire into small
kingdoms
• Empire ended around 535
Section Two:
Trade Spreads Indian Religions and Culture
Key Terms:
• Mahayan
• Theravada
• Stupa
• Brahma Vishnu
• Shiva
• Kalidasa
• Silk Roads
Buddhism & Hinduism Change
• 250 B.C., Hinduism & Buddhism were the two major faiths of India
• Hinduism was dominated by priests
• Buddhism was the ideal of self- denial proved difficult for others to
follow
• Buddhists began to divide over the new doctrines by the 1st century
A.D.
• Those who accepted the doctrines, new teachings, belonged to
Mahayana sect
• Those who held Buddha original teachings belonged to the
Theraveda sect.
• The new trends inspired Indian art such as huge statues
of the Buddha for people to worship
• Wealthy Buddhists merchants who eager to do good
deeds paid for the construction of stupas (mounded
stone structures built over holy relics)
• Buddhism and Hinduism both were remote for the
people
• Hinduism developed a complex set of sacrifices by the
time of the Mauryan Empire that were performed by the
priests
• Non-priests had a less direct connection with the
religion
• Trend towards monotheism began to up rise
3 Important Gods of Hindu
• Brahma-creator of the world
• Vishnu- preserver of the world
• Shiva- destroyer of the world
Achievements in Indian Culture
• Southern India was high in literary tradition
• 2nd century A.D., city of Madurai became the site of writing
academics
• Drama was also a big addition to the culture
• Women and men traveled in Southern India to put on shows in cities
across the region
• Astronomy increased because the sailors on trading ships used the
stars to help them figure out their location in the sea
• Modern numerical, the zero, and decimal system were invented in
India. The pi symbol used in math was created by Aryabhata around
A.D. 500 and calculated the length solar years
Indian Trade Spread
• Rich in spices, diamonds, sapphires, gold, pearls and woods (ebony,
teak, and fragrant sandalwood)
• Trade between India distanced as far as Africa and Sumeria began
more than 4,000 yrs ago
• As trade increased, the rise of banking in India increased
• Interest rates that the bankers had on loans to merchants varied
depending on the business
• Gupta Empire- sea trade was no longer considered dangerous so
interest rates were only 15- 20 percent a year
• Trades brought religions to new regions, along with Indian culture,
art, and other things
Section Three:
Han Emperors in China
Key Terms
• Han Dynasty
• Centralized government
• Civil service
• Monopoly
• Assimilation
Han Restore Unity in China
• Two powerful leaders emerged during the Civil War
• Xiang Yu-aristocratic general; allowed the war lords to
keep their territories only if they acknowledged him as
the feudal lord
• Liu Bang- general of Xian Yu who eventually went
against him
• His goal was to destroy the king’s power while using the
centralized government (central government controls the
running of a state)
• They fought two battles and Bang won. In result, he
declared himself the emperor of the Han Dynasty
Han Dynasty
• Han Dynasty- ruled China for more than years
• Influenced by China and still to this day many of
the Chinese societies call themselves “people of
Han”
• Bang Departed from Shi Huandi’s strict legalism
and lowered taxes and softened harsh
punishments
• Bang was appreciated by the people of the
empire due to the peace and stability he brought
amongst China
Highly Structured Society
• People accepted the emperor’s power because they
believed he passed a divine authority; a link between
heaven and earth
• If emperor completed his job well, their was peace and
riches; if not, earthquakes, floods, and famines occurred
• Government ruled on a complex bureaucracy
• Government levied taxes to raise money
• Peasants owed the government a month’s worth of labor
and paid taxes (merchants paid taxes as well)
Han Technology, Commerce and
Culture
• Paper was invented in A.D. 105 and books were written
on silk before this invention
• Since paper was cheap, books became more available,
promoting China’s education
• Agriculture became the most important and honored
occupation because of the increase of population during
the Han Dynasty
• Monopolies (when a group has exclusive control over the
production and distribution of certain groups) were
established on the mining of salt, forging of iron, minting
of coins, and brewing of alcohol
The Han Unifies Chinese Culture
• Assimilation was encouraged by the Chinese
government posts process of making conquered people
part of the Chinese Culture)
• Sent farmers to settle colonized areas
• Schools were set up to train people in the Confucian
philosophy and scholars were appointed to government
posts
• Writers helped with the unification by recording China’s
history
• Sima Qian was called the Grand Historian for his work
for putting China’s history in books from ancient
dynasties to Wudi (emperor of Han)
Women’s Roles:
wives, nuns, and scholars
• During the Han Dynasty, women were quiet and
lived their lives at home
• Women dedicated their lives to their families
based off of the Confucian teachings’ but they
worked in the fields as well
• Women with money held great power, earned an
education, ran shops , and practiced medicine
Political Instability Grows
• 32 B.C. to A.D. 9, inexperienced emperors replaced one another,
creating chaos in the palace
• Wang Mang- Confucian scholar and member of the court took the
imperial title for himself and overthrew Hanin in A.D 9
• He decided that a strong rule was needed to restore order and
control
• Minted new money; set up public granaries to feed China’s poor.
Took away large landholdings from rich and planned to give the land
back to farmers who lost their land
• Powerful landowners disagreed
• The wealthy gathered together to rebel against Wang’s
land policy
• A.D. 23, Mong was assassinated
• Soldiers and merchants were sent westward to regain
control of posts along the Silk Roads
• The same economic imbalance occurred in China within
a century after peace was restored to China
• Han Dynasty divided into three rival kingdoms by 220
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