Discovering the Americas The Peoples from Asia • Cross the land bridge over the Bering Strait. – Disappears when the glaciers covering N. America melt. • Brought the first dogs • Weapons – Clubs, stone-tipped arrows, – Killed animals for food and clothing • Followed the Rocky Mountains southward. Native Americans • Early peoples of the Americas. • Tribes- natives divided into different tribes speaking over 1000 different languages. • Culture- way of life (hunting, fishing, etc.) • Civilizations- Advanced cultures (towns) – People who settle down and live. Mayas of Yucatan • Richest civilization in Central America. • City- religious centers with massive temples. • Artisans- artists to decorate the buildings with murals and sculptures. • Scholars- developed method of writing. • Scientists- used sun to create a calendar. • Astronomers- careful observation of planets and stars to predict eclipses. Decline of the Mayas • Population increased so fast that there was not enough food available. • Some died, moved, or joined other tribes. • Maya civilization becomes extinct before the first Europeans come to America. The Incas • Located in Peru • Organized a rich and powerful empire by conquering neighboring tribes • Cuzco- capital city – Located in the Andes Mountains. The Incas • Farmers • Used llamas and alpacas for work and food. • Used wool for clothing. • Artisans- fashioned gold and silver from the mines for jewelry and religious icons. Inca organization THE INCA The Sun God Noble class- priests Farmers, laborers •All power flowed from the Inca through the nobles to the peasants. The Aztecs • Located in Central America from Mexico to southern North America. • Merchants traveled all over trading precious stones, cacao beans, gold, and silver. • Tenochtitlan- capital city. The North American Indians • Located in U.S. and Canada. • Territory- tribes would band together for support, trade, and protection, but stayed in their own territory. – An empire crossed over into other territories. • Culture area- A region in which most of the tribes had same sort of culture. Southwest Indians • Pueblo- Spanish for “town” because of their apartmentstyle homes made of adobe. – A sun dried brick. • Navajos- Farmers, weavers, etc. – Hogan- home made of adobe and logs. • Apaches- Wandering hunters – Hunted deer for food and clothing. – Wickiups- circular huts of brush that were built in minutes. Plains Indians • Sioux, Pawnees, Dakotas, Comanches, Kiowas, and Osages. • Buffalo hunting for food, clothing, shelter, tools, fuel. – During the summer months. – Pishkun- buffalo jump • Tepee- cone-shaped tents made of buffalo hide stretched over lodge poles. • Chiefs- chosen for specific purposes – Religious, hunting, warrior Shoshone, Pima, Nez Perce • Inhabited the western Great Plains – Mountain Indians • “Seed Gatherers”depended on food of seeds, berries, and roots. Mound Builders • Inhabited the Eastern United States. • Built huge ceremonial mounds in the form of birds, bears, etc. Algonquins, Iroquois, Creek, and Cherokee Indians • Independent tribes of Eastern N. America. • First known organized form of government in North America. • First tribes to encounter the white men. Indian Beliefs Harmony with Nature • Heart of social, economic, and religious practices. • A sacred trust existed between man and nature. • As long as we care for nature, it will supply us w/ all we need. Pride • Proud of tribes and community. • Very little individualism. Tribe Family Individual European Exploration 1500’s-1600’s Exploration • Renaissance- a time for European people to turn to exploration of the sea and the arts. • Crusades- allowed Europeans to discover the spices and India. • Trade develops to pay for spices. – Wool, gold, silver • Camel caravans carry products overland. – Desire to finder faster ways to move goods. • Italian merchants create a monopoly – exclusive control of trade. • Commercial Revolutionexpansion of trade in Europe. Prince Henry “The Navigator” • Portugal • Financed many Portuguese sailors. • Trade develops with African nations – Traded bowls and beads for fresh water and food. Bartolomeu Dias • Portuguese • 1487- rounded the southern tip of Africa. Vasco da Gama • Portuguese • 1498- Sails around the Cape of Good Hope, Africa to India. Christopher Columbus • Italian sailor • Gets Spanish money to sail westward in search of Asia. • Believed the earth was round. • Nina, Pinta, Santa Maria • October 12, 1492- Lands in Bahamas believing he has reached India. • Establishes Spanish claims in N. America. Leif Erickson • Norse- Norwegian peoples first to reach the America’s in 1000 BC. • Eric the Red- discovers Greenland • Leif Erickson- explores the northeast coast of North America – “Vinland”- named for the grape vines. John Cabot • Italian • 1497- Explores northeast North America for England. • Discovers Nova Scotia. • Gives England its first claim to North American land. Giovanni da Verrazano • French explorer. • Sets out to find a “Northwest Passage” to Asia through N. America. Jacques Cartier • • French explorer 3 voyages to N. America. 1. Gulf of St. Lawrence 2. St. Lawrence River 3. St. Lawrence River to Montreal • Tries to establish a settlement, but failed. Spain and Portugal • Conquistadors- Spanish soldiers or “conquerors” • Spain and Portugal leaders in the exploration of the Americas. – Spain- conquers the new western lands – Portugal- explores Africa Line of Demarcation • Drawn by Pope Alexander VI – All new lands explored west of the line were to belong to Spaineast of the line, Portugal. • Cabral- Portuguese explorer gets blown off course while sailing around Africa and discovers Brazil. Treaty of Tordesillas Amerigo Vespucci • Discovers the South American continent. • A European geographer proposes that the new find be named after Vespucci – “America” Vasco Balboa • Spanish Explorer • 1513- Explores the Isthmus of Panama and finds another ocean. – “South Sea”=Pacific Ocean Ferdinand Magellan • Spanish explorer • Sails around the world. • Discovers the Strait of Magellan on the southern tip of South America. • Discovers and names the Pacific Ocean • Killed in the Philippines – 18 of the 237 men actually return to Spain. Magellan’s Route Hernando Cortes • Spanish conquistador • Conquers the Aztecs. – They believe him to be the god, Quetzalcoatl returning as promised. – Moctezuma- Aztec emperor murdered by Cortes. Francisco Pizarro • Spanish conquistador • 1531- Conquers the Incas • Kidnaps The Inca, collects a ransom of gold and silver, and then murders the “Sun God.” Ponce de Leon • Spanish conquistador • Explores Florida in search of gold and the “Fountain of Youth.” • Finds neither. Panfilo de Narvaez • Spanish explorer. • Expedition of 250 men survive a major hurricane near Cuba. • Discover and explore the western coast of Florida in 1528. – Many men die in attack by Indians. • Ship leaves them stranded. • Narvaez and crew build 5 rafts and sail for Mexico. – 3 rafts sink and Narvaez dies. • 15 survivors wander throughout the Southwest for 8 years before arriving in Mexico City. Hernando de Soto • Spanish conquistador • 1539- Explores the SE United States • Found no gold, but discovers the Mississippi River. Francisco Coronado • Spanish conquistador • Explores SW United States in search of “cities paved with streets of gold.”- El Dorado. • Finds no treasure, but discovers the Grand Canyon. Spanish Colonial Society • Society • Colony- land settled by – Spaniards born in people from another country Spain that remains under the control of the country. – Creoles- Spanish born in the New World – Portugal- Brazil – Mestizos- Spanish and – Spain- S. America, Indian mix Mexico, Caribbean. – Indians- natives – Mulattoes- black and Spanish mix – Zambos- Indian and black mix. Spanish Colonies • Bring new plants, seeds, language, tools, and domestic animals. • Establish sugar plantations. • Enslave the native Indians to work on the plantations. – Disease wipes out – Forced to look to Africa for workers. • Send all gold and silver back to Spain. • Eventual decline in gold/silver supply leads to decline in Spanish power. – Wars and rebellions cost money. The Pirates of the Caribbean • Sea Dogs- English and Dutch sailors attack Spanish ships and steal treasures. • John Hawkins- Used to transport slaves, but made more money stealing from Spanish ships. • Francis Drake- Sails around South America and raids Spanish ships- then sails around the world. • Henry Morgan- Amasses a wealth of over $70,000 in one year. Spanish Decline • King Philip II of Spain attacks Queen Elizabeth’s England with the Spanish Armada. • 1588- Entire Armada destroyed in the English Channel by a fierce storm. • Replaced by the English Royal Navy – “Mistress of the Seas” English Settling of America • Sir Walter Raleigh – 1587- given permission to start a colony in Virginia. – Roanoke- first colony in America. – Spanish prevent supplies getting to colony. – 1591- supplies arrive, but colony is gone. • “Lost Colony” The Companies • Charter- official grant given by kind of certain rights, powers, and privileges. • Plymouth Company and London (Virginia) Company given charters by King James I in 1606. • Magna Charta- limits King James’ powers and guaranteed English freedoms. Jamestown • • Started by London Company in 1606. 3 reasons for bad start 1. Ship blown off course 2. Established on a low island in a river near a marsh full of malaria carrying mosquitoes. 3. Had to drink dirty river water. • 3 reasons why London Company failed Jamestown 1. Made discovery of gold a priority. 2. Settlers not allowed to own anything. 3. Failure to send workers to develop the area. John Smith • Becomes leader of Jamestown. • Orders men to dig wells, build shelters, clear the land, and plant food. – Corn from the Indians. • “No work, no food” – Smith’s basic rule. • Winter of 1609-1610- “the starving time” – Colonists ready to abandon by Spring, 1610. – English ships arrive with loads of supplies. Jamestown Survives • Smoking habit spreads in England and Europe. – Tobacco becomes a cash crop for Jamestown, Virginia. • John Rolfe learns to grow and cure tobacco. – Gives Jamestown a cash crop to sell. – Eventually marries Indian princess Pocahontas and returns to England with her. Jamestown Government • House of Burgess – Becomes the first lawmaking body in America on July 30, 1619. – First step toward representative government in America. Jamestown • African slaves are brought in to work the plantations in Virginia. • 60 unmarried women sent to the colonists. • March, 1622- 347 settlers killed by Indian raid – Settlers retaliate and poison 250 Indians. Jamestown • 1624- King James I decides to revoke the London Company charter for Jamestown. • Creates a royal colony ruled by the king and his governor. – Governor has power to reject laws made by the House of Burgesses. – Colonists allowed to elect House members, but not the governor.