Calvinism  Institutes of the Christian Religion
 Predestination.
• Good works could not save those predestined for hell.
• No one could be certain of their spiritual status.
• Gnawing doubts led to constantly seeking signs of
 Want to totally reform [purify] the Church of England.
 Grew impatient with the slow process of Protestant
Reformation back in England.
Separatist Beliefs:
 Puritans who believed only “visible saints” [those
who could demonstrate in front of their fellow
Puritans their elect status] should be admitted to
church membership.
 Because the Church of England enrolled all the king’s
subjects, Separatists felt they had to share
churches with the “damned.”
 Therefore, they believed in a total break from the
Church of England.
James I (1603 - 1625)
•James I was the son of Mary, Queen of
Scots. He had become James VI of
Scotland after Mary lost her head, and he
became James I when he took over
•He was the first to call himself "King of
Great Britain." James struggled with
Parliament - he thought he ruled by divine
•There was a new English translation of
Bible - the "King James Bible.“
•He persecuted Pilgrims because they
would not recognize him as the religious
leader of the Church of England.
•So, they became a political risk as well.
Sources of Puritan Migration
The Mayflower
1620  a group of 102
people [half Separatists]
 Negotiated with the
Virginia Company to
settle in its
 Non-Separatists
included Captain Myles
Plymouth Bay way
outside the domain of the Virginia Company.
 Became squatters without legal right to land & specific
authority to establish a govt.
•41 Male passengers on the
Mayflower formed into a
“civil body politic”, signed a
compact promising to write
and obey "just and equal
laws ... for the general good
of the colony."
•The compact brought an
element of democracy to
America and was an example
of the practice of selfgovernment in the colonies.
•All the colonies practiced
some form of selfgovernment…………
The Mayflower Compact
November 11, 1620
Written and signed before the Pilgrims
disembarked from the ship.
Not a constitution, but an agreement to form a
crude govt. and submit to majority rule.
 Signed by 41 adult males.
Led to adult male settlers meeting in assemblies
to make laws in town meetings.
•Difficult winter (44 out of 102 survived)….
•First year went through a “starving time”
•Developed friendly relations with Indian tribes
•Squanto befriended settlement
•Plymouth settlement survived under the
leadership of Gov. William Bradford
•First Thanksgiving
That First Year….
Winter of 1620-1621
 Only 44 out of the original 102 survived.
None chose to leave in 1621 when the Mayflower
sailed back.
Fall of 1621  First “Thanksgiving.”
 Colony survived with fur [especially beaver], fish, and
Plymouth stayed small and economically
 1691  only 7,000 people
 Merged with Massachusetts Bay Colony.
William Bradford
Self-taught scholar.
Chosen governor of Plymouth 30
times in yearly elections.
Worried about settlements of
non-Puritans springing up nearby
and corrupting Puritan society.
Pilgrims merge with
the Puritans to form
Massachusetts Bay
Charles I (1625 - 1649)
•Son of James I and ruled by divine right.
•Conflicts with Parliament = much
resistance to his policies.
•Forced to sign the Petition of Right
•no taxes without Parliament’s consent;
•civilians didn't have to house soldiers;
•no military law in peacetime
•Due process of law
•In 1629, Charles dissolved Parliament and ruled until 1640.
•Persecuted Puritans led to the Puritan Migration.
•1642–1651: English Civil Wars, "Cavaliers" (Anglicans,
royalists, nobility, Catholics) vs. the "Roundheads" (Puritans
and Middle Class).
•Charles I was beheaded in 1649-------Oliver Cromwell became
Lord Protector of the English Commonwealth.
The MA Bay Colony
1629  non-Separatists got a royal charter to form the
MA Bay Co.
 Wanted to escape attacks by conservatives in the Church
of England.
 They didn’t want to leave the Church, just
its “impurities.”
1630  1,000 people set off in 11 well-stocked ships
 Established a colony with Boston as its hub.
“Great Migration” of the 1630s
 Turmoil in England [leading to the English Civil War] sent
about 70,000 Puritans to America.
 Not all Puritans  20,000 came to MA.
Pilgrims merge with
the Puritans to form
Massachusetts Bay
Communities well
Established towns
Protestant Work Ethic
Family values
John Winthrop
Well-off attorney and manor
lord in England.
Became 1st governor of
 Believed that he had a “calling”
from God to lead there.
 Served as governor or deputygovernor for 19 years.
We shall be as a
city on a hill..
•John Winthrop, founder of the Massachusetts Bay Colony
•Middle class settlers, educated and organized
•Successful as fur traders, fishermen and shipbuilders
•Ruled as “Bible Commonwealth” or theocracy
•New England Way
= Puritan covenant with God
•To establish holy society----”city upon a hill”
Covenant Theology
“Covenant of Grace”:
 between Puritan communities and God.
“Social Covenant”:
 Between members of Puritan communities with each
 Required mutual watchfulness.
 No toleration of deviance or disorder.
 No privacy.
Authoritarian male father figures controlled
each household.
Patriarchal ministers and magistrates controlled
and household
 Franchise (right to vote) extended to “freemen”
– adult Puritan men of Congregational church
(about 40% of men in the colony ~ higher
percentage than in England)
 However, in town government, all propertyowning males could vote in town meetings
 Direct democracy----self government
 Since idea of government was to enforce God’s
laws, religious leaders (e.g. John Cotton) were
very influential
 Clergy were barred from formal political office –
early “church/state separation”
 Puritan ideas: “calling” to God’s work, Protestant
work ethic, limited worldly pleasures, fear of hell
Social harmony when only Puritans,
but that didn’t last
Quakers: fines, floggings,
banishments, executions
Anne Hutchinson: truly saved don’t
need to obey (“antinomianism”
the theological doctrine that by faith
and God's grace a Christian is freed
from all laws (including the moral
standards of the culture)
 Banished from Mass. Bay
 Travels to Rhode Island with her
children and helps organize this
Anne Hutchinson’s Trial
1638  she confounded the Puritan leaders for days.
Eventually bragged that she had received her beliefs
DIRECTLY from God.
Direct revelation was even more serious than the
heresy of antinomianism. WHY??
Puritan leaders banished her  she & her family
traveled to RI and later to NY.
 She and all but one member of her family were killed in an
Indian attack in Westchester County.
 John Winthrop saw God’s hand in this!
Puritan “Rebels”
Young, popular minister in
 Argued for a full break
with the Anglican Church.
 Condemned MA Bay
Did not give fair
compensation to Indians.
 Denied authority of civil
govt. to regulate religious
Roger Williams
1635  found guilty of preaching new & dangerous
opinions and was exiled.
Rhode Island
1636  Roger Williams fled there.
 MA Bay Puritans had wanted to exile him to England to
prevent him from founding a competing colony.
 Remarkable political freedom in Providence, RI
• Universal manhood suffrage  later restricted by a property
Opposed to special privilege of any kind  freedom of
opportunity for all.
RI becomes known as the “Sewer” because it is seen by
the Puritans as a dumping ground for unbelievers and
religious dissenters  More liberal than any other
New England Spreads Out
 1635: Hartford (Conn.) founded by Dutch/English
settlers. Some Puritans moved westward to
Connecticut with Rev. Thomas Hooker
 1639: Fundamental Orders – modern constitution
established democratic government
 1641: New Hampshire taken over by overly
aggressive Bay Colony
 1679: Annoyed by greed of Bay Colony, king
arbitrarily separates it, becomes royal colony
Characteristics of New England
Low mortality  average life expectancy was
70 years of age.
Many extended families.
Average 6 children per family.
Average age at marriage:
 Women – 22 years old
 Men – 27 years old.
New England
good harbors
small farms and towns
trade centered around harbors
hilly, forested and shallow soil
cities: Boston
• 15,000 – 1750
fishing, lumber
and trapping
Family, religion and community
New Hampshire
Rhode Island
Population of the New England
Puritans vs. Native Americans
Indians especially weak in New England  epidemics
wiped out ¾ of the native popul.
Wampanoags [near Plymouth] befriended the settlers.
 Cooperation between the two
helped by Squanto.
1621  Chief Massasoit signed
treaty with the settlers.
 Autumn, 1621  both groups
celebrated the First Thanksgiving.
The Pequot Wars: 1636-1637
Pequots  very
powerful tribe
in CT river valley.
1637  Pequot
 Whites, with
Indian allies,
attacked Pequot
village on Mystic
 Whites set fire
to homes & shot fleeing survivors!
 Pequot tribe virtually annihilated an uneasy peace lasted
for 40 years.
King Philip’s War (1675-1676}
Only hope for Native
Americans to resist
white settlers was to
Metacom [King Philip to
white settlers]
 Massasoit’s son united
Indians and staged
coordinated attacks
on white settlements throughout New England.
 Frontier settlements forced to retreat to Boston.
Massasoit’s son,
Metacom (King
Phillip) formed Indian
alliance – attacked
throughout New
England, especially
English towns were
attacked and burned unknown numbers of
Indians died
1676: War ended,
Metacom executed,
lasting defeat for
•Charles II was the son of
Charles I.
•Because his father had been
killed, Charles II had the ravens
caged so they couldn't leave.
•He was a "Merry Monarch," a
very popular king.
•Charles II encouraged religious
Charles II
(1660 - 1685)
•The “Restoration Colonies”
were settled during his reign.
• Bring colonies under
England’s rule
• Defend colonies from French
& Indians
• Stop colonial smuggling
Sir Edmund Andros, King’s
Representative restricted
• Town meetings, the press, &
• Revoked land titles
• Taxed without consent of the
Forced by King James I
All NE Colonies, NJ & NY
Collapses after Glorious
Person Responsible
William Bradford
Plymouth Colony
Mass. Bay Colony
John Winthrop
•Plymouth merges
with Mass. 1691
Rhode Island
Roger Williams
•Formed from Mass.
•Exiled from Mass.
Anne Hutchison
•Exiled from Mass.
•Formed from Mass.
Rev. Thomas
New Hampshire
John Mason
Sir Ferdinando
•Formed from Mass.
Why Founded
Religious freedom,
avoid religious
persecution, to start
a “city upon a hill”,
and to begin a new
Mayflower Compact
General Court
Royal Colony
•Dissatisfied with
Mass. Bay Colony
•Religious freedom
•Consent of the
Religious freedom,
exploring the frontier
and settling new
Part of Mass. Bay
Colony and set up for
greater opportunity in
frontier---trade goods,
fur, fishing & lumber
Fundamental Orders
of Connecticut
Royal Colony
•James II was Charles' son, a
•He had a Protestant daughter,
Mary, and a Catholic son.
•Parliament didn't want his son
taking over, so they gave the
crown to Mary and her husband,
William III of Orange.
James II
(1685 - 1688)
•This was known as the
"Glorious Revolution."
(Revolution because they
overthrew the last Catholic
monarch, Glorious because
no one died.)
• Parliament put more
restrictions on the
•The king couldn't make or
suspend laws, have an
army during peacetime,
and the king couldn't
interfere with freedom of
speech in Parliament.
•English Bill of Rights
Person Responsible
New Netherland
Henry Hudson for
New York—1664
Duke of York of
England names it
New York
New Jersey---1702
Indian land---Dutch
and Swedish gift
from King Charles II
to brother James--gives to his friends
Lord John Berkeley
& Sir George
William Penn
Lord Baltimore
Why Founded
English fleet takes
New Amsterdam from
Dutch in 1664 and
becomes New York
City---Good harbor for
New Netherlands
was an autocracy
1689---English Bill of
Representative Govt
Royal Colony
Attract new settlers
for Dutch and
Swedish colonists
Royal Colony
Penn founded for
religious freedom for
the Quakers---Holy
all people
Representative govt
Religious toleration—
those who believed in
persecuted Catholics
to settle in Maryland
Representative govt
Royal Colony
Proprietary Colony
Old Netherlanders at
New Netherlands
1600s  Golden Age of Dutch
 Major commercial and naval power.
 Challenging England on the seas.
 3 major Anglo-Dutch Wars
 Major colonial power [mainly in the
East Indies].
 1609: Henry Hudson sailing for Dutch East India
Company sails into Hudson river looking for passage
through continent ~ claims area for Dutch
1623-24: Dutch West India Company establishes New
Goal: quick-profit fur trade
“Bought” Manhattan from Indians
Company town: no religious tolerance or free speech,
harsh governors
Henry Hudson’s Voyages
 Colony had aristocratic influence (a
member of a ruling class or of the
nobility) with large feudal estates
(“patroonships” – one larger than
Rhode Island)
 Very diverse population: in 1640s
missionary observed 18 languages
New Netherlands
New Netherlands  founded in the Hudson
River area (1623-1624)
 Established by Dutch West India Company for
quick-profit fur trade.
 Company wouldn’t pay much attention to the colony.
 Manhattan [New Amsterdam]
 Purchased by Company for pennies per (22,000)
New Amsterdam Harbor, 1639
Company town
run in interests
of the
No interest in
toleration, free
speech, or democracy.
Governors appointed by the Company were autocratic.
Religious dissenters against Dutch Reformed Church
[including Quakers] were persecuted.
Local assembly with limited power to make laws established
after repeated protests by colonists.
New Amsterdam, 1660
Characteristics of New Amsterdam:
 Aristocratic  patroonships [feudal estates granted to
promoters who would settle 50 people on them].
 Cosmopolitan  diverse population with many different
New York
Manors &
Land Grants
similar to the fedual
New Netherland&
New Sweden
Swedes in New Netherlands
Mid-1600s  Sweden in Golden Age settled small,
under-funded colony [called “New Sweden”] near
New Netherland.
1655  Dutch under
Peter Stuyvesant
attack New Sweden.
 Main fort fell after
bloodless siege.
 New Sweden absorbed
into New Netherland.
Dutch Residue in New York
Early 20c Dutch Revival
Building in NYC.
New York
Names  Harlem, Brooklyn
Architecture  gambrel roof
Customs  Easter eggs, Santa Claus, waffles, bowling,
sleighing, skating, kolf [golf].
 Dutch cruelties to Indians brought
retaliatory massacres – Dutch built
wall (Wall Street)
 Connecticut rejected Dutch settlers
An Angry Peter Stuyvesant
 English immigration to New Netherland
Duke of York
resulted in 1/2 total population English regarded Dutch as intruders
 Charles II brazenly granted area to his
brother (Duke of York)
 English squadron comes, New
Netherland leader, Peter Stuyvesant,
governor of New York had no defense;
surrendered, renamed New York
 Mid-1600s: religious
dissenters named
Quakers arose in
 Hated by authorities
because they refused
to pay taxes to Church
of England, refused to
take oaths, refused
military service
Urban Population Growth
1650 - 1775
owed a large debt
from the British
Crown. Given a
land grant in 1681.
governs the colony, unusual for a proprietor
Advertised in Europe, promising land & freedoms
Frame of Government (guaranteed elected assembly),
Charter of Liberties (freedom of worship, open
immigration), fair treatment of Native Americans
Penn, more than any other individual
an example
founder or colonist, provedThat
to be
the may be
to the nations
chosen vessel through whichsetthe
of as ... a
demand for respect for individual
was to flow so richly into our American
reservoir of precious ideals.William Penn
All men have a natural and infeasible right to worship
Almighty God according to the dictates of their own
consciences; no man can of right be compelled to attend,
erect, or support any place of worship, or to maintain any
ministry against his consent; no human authority can, in
any case whatever, control or interfere with the rights of
conscience, and no preference shall ever be given by law to
any religious establishment or modes of worship.
- William Penn, Declaration of Rights
 Penn bought land from
Indians ~
treatment of
them so fair that
went to them unarmed
and even employed Indians as babysitters
 However, as non-Quaker immigrants came, they
were less tolerant of Indians (Scots-Irish)
 Liberal features: elected assembly, no taxsupported church, freedom of worship, only 2
capital crimes
Lord John Berkeley
 James gave 2 friends, Lord John Berkeley and
Sir George Carteret, the section of New York
located between the Hudson River and
Delaware Bay in 1664
 He felt the territory of New York was too large to
 Both proprietors allowed religious freedom
and an assembly in addition to giving generous
land offers to attract settlers
William Penn
 Penn granted the lower 3 counties of
Pennsylvania their own assembly
 Governor was the same as
Pennsylvania’s until the American
Middle Colonies
River systems
Valleys – fertile soil
."bread basket"
large farms surplus food
diverse population
iron mines, glass,
shipyards, and
Cities: New York
and Philadelphia
New York
New Jersey
New York
Settling the Middle
[or “Restoration”] Colonies
New Netherlands Becomes a British Royal Colony
Charles II granted New Netherland’s land to his
brother, the Duke of York, [before he controlled the
1664  English soldiers arrived.
 Dutch had little ammunition and poor defenses.
 Stuyvesant forced to surrender without firing a shot.
Renamed “New York”
 England gained strategic harbor between her northern &
southern colonies.
 England now controlled the Atlantic coast!
Duke of York’s Original Charter
The Quakers
Called Quakers because they “quaked” during intense
religious practices.
They offended religious & secular leaders in England.
 Refused to pay taxes to support the Church
of England.
 They met without paid clergy
 Believed all were children of God refused
to treat the upper classes with deference.
 Keep hats on.
 Addressed them as commoners  ”thees”/“thous.”
 Wouldn’t take oaths.
 Pacifists.
William Penn
Aristocratic Englishman.
1660 – attracted to
the Quaker faith.
Embraced Quakerism
after military service.
1681  he received a
grant from king to
establish a colony.
 This settled a debt the king owed his father.
 Named Pennsylvania [“Penn’s Woodland”].
He sent out paid agents and advertised for settlers  his
pamphlets were pretty honest.
 Liberal land policy attracted many immigrants.
Penn & Native Americans
Bought [didn’t simply take] land from
Quakers went among the Indians unarmed.
BUT…….. non-Quaker Europeans flooded PA
 Treated native peoples poorly.
 This undermined the actions of the
Government of Pennsylvania
Representative assembly elected by landowners.
No tax-supported church.
Freedom of worship guaranteed to all.
Forced to deny right to vote & hold office to
Catholics & Jews by English govt.
Death penalty only for treason & murder.
 Compared to 200 capital crimes in England!
Pennsylvanian Society
Attracted many different people
 Religious misfits from other colonies.
 Many different ethnic groups.
No provision for military defense.
No restrictions on immigration.
No slavery!!
“Blue Laws” [sumptuary laws]  against stage plays,
cards, dice, excessive hilarity, etc.
A society that gave its citizens economic
opportunity, civil liberty, & religious freedom
New Jersey
New Jersey — PA’s Neighbor
1664  aristocratic
proprietors rcvd. the
area from the Duke of
Many New Englanders
[because of worn out soil]
moved to NJ.
 1674  West NJ sold to
 East NJ eventually
acquired by Quakers.
1702  E & W NJ
combined into NJ and
created one colony.
Delaware — PA’s Neighbor
Named after Lord De La Warr
[harsh military governor of VA in
Closely associated with Penn’s
1703  granted its own assembly.
Remained under the control of PA
until the American Revolution.

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