Canadian History 11
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Aboriginal groups like in groups called tribes
• Each exhibited different traditions & living
styles.
• Tribes were subdivided into bands or villages
of a few families.
Communities had similarities in language,
culture and political organization.
Some groups were nomadic (constantly
moving) while others were famers (settled
down)
Land and weather played an important role in
shaping the lives of the people.
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52 aboriginal languages spoken in
Canada
• Common ancestral language
• Language can be grouped into 11 families
(relation)
• Ex: Athapaskan, Algonquian and Iroquoian.
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Video =
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ULyRP
pYHxdo&feature=related
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Woodlands had: deer, bear, moose, caribou,
fish and even seals and whales on the coast.
• Algonquian tribes had great hunting skills
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Gathered wild food like:
• rice and berries
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Had to move around live in wigwams
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Maritime Provinces
Algonquian
Nomadic (according to the seasons)
◦ Spring, summer and fall: Lived by the
seashore (salmon, eel, lobster, clams, seals)
◦ Winter: Lived more inland to hunt (moose,
caribou, bear…)
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Southern Ontario
Hurons lived north of Lake Ontario and the Iroquois
confederacy lived south of the lake.
Huron-Iroquois word Kanata = village or
community.
Iroquois named after an animal.
Expert farmers : corn, tobacco, squash and beans.
They would trade their farmed goods for animal
pelts and porcupine quills with tribe of the north.
Corn, beans and squash = Three Sisters
Towns of 2500 people and shared large
“longhouses”
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Lived north of Lake Ontario
Successful traders
• Wanted a monopoly
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Transportation: birch bark canoes
Rivals with Iroquois confederacy
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Bison’s were at large (60 million)
Important to the tribes :(Blackfoot, Cree
and the Sioux).
Culture surrounded the survival of the
bison.
Food, tipis, clothing, containers and
tools.
Later, horses became very important to
their culture.
• Walked on foot
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Plain Tribe in Alberta
Religious belief: Medicine bundle and the Sun Dance
• Protection against harm
• Rawhide bag: medicine pipe, eagle feather or owl, sweet grass,
chokecherry wood, pieces of tobacco, stones etc.
The Sun Dance:
• Early summer
• Relieve bad luck
Shaman would make cuts in person’s chest or back
looped leather strips from the skin to the pole.
Danced around the pole gazing into the sun
Scars = badge of courage
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From British Columbia
Depended on the Fraser and the Thomson River.
(full of salmon) Used the rivers for
transportation.
Source of food: Deer, caribou, elk, and
mountain sheep
Made log huts covered with bark for shelter.
Plateau Tribes: Interior Salish, Kootenay, and
Athapaskan.
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Known as the salmon people
The Haida, Tlingit and the other groups
from that area.
Food was plentiful: deer and bear to
ducks, seals and fish, fruits and plants.
Made totem poles
They moved to where the food was
however, they always had a home base.
Communities had 2 groups – nobles and
commoners.
• Born into one group or the other.
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Found throughout Canada.
Tribes= the Gwich’in up in the Yukon, the
Dene in the northwest, The Cree and Ojibwa
in the East. (spread out)
Dependant on the migrating herds.
Harsh living conditions groups would work
together to survive.
They would trade food and medicine.
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Groups would follow the
herds, thus making them
nomadic.
Bands(groups) worked
together a lot to help each
other survive.
Groups would be assigned
certain tasks to help out.
They would also trade food
and medicine.
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Inuit culture is quite different from other
groups
There are no trees, lots of deep snow and
thick ice, and unique animals, such as seals,
walrus, whales and caribou
Developed tools: hunting gear, (harpoons;
they had dog sleds and kayaks to get
around.
Built temporary shelters igloos and sod
house
Oral history.
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