American Southwest
by: Natalie Demaayer, Jenna
Anderson, Mia Abouhamad, and Will
All of the Southwest Tribes
Kiowa Apache
Tewa Pueblos
Navajo dwelling
Child of the Apache tribe
One of the main tribes in the North
American Southwest was the Pueblo
(Anasazi) tribe.
The Pueblos were located in the area where
New Mexico, Utah, Arizona, and Colorado
borders meet today.
The Pueblos history can be recorded from
100 AD to 1600 AD.
The Pueblo time period that was in their
heyday was the “Basketmaker III” period.
The pueblo people improved life
signifacantly by domesticating animals
and beginning to cultivate the bean crop.
With the major advances in agricultural
techniques the Pueblos also developed
irrigation systems to support the new
farms and the rising population.
Belief systems
For the Pueblo people Kachina was the most practiced religion.
Kachina was a spirit being in their tribe
Men would dress as Kachinas fro religious ceremonies
Kachina dolls were made as wooden dolls to educate the Pueblo youth on
how the world came to be
Kachinas can represent anything in nature or the universe ; insects, sun,
water, moon, or fire
Political structure
● All Pueblo tribes have the clan
system. Some have as many as
twenty or more clans
● Each pueblo is an independent
● Each has its own chief.
Before colonization there were between 70 and
100 pueblos. When the europeans arrived that
number reduced to 19
European Interaction
The first European interaction the natives had
was with the Spanish. Spain took control of their
land, destroyed their places of worship and
imprisoned,or tortured those who resisted Spanish
rule. In 1680 Pope (a religious leader) got tribes
to combine forces and take back their land from
the Spaniards. It took the Spaniards 14 years, and
4 military assaults to regain control.
For thousands of years,
Native Americans took to the
trails in the name of the
harvest, the hunt, commerce,
plunder, warfare, religious
fervor and celebration
Navajo Code Talkers
Magnas Coloradas Cochise
Geronimo Goyaale
Important figures
Geronimo was an Apache native American, and was born in June 1829. He lead the Apache people against the US
Army to defend and keep the Apache land free of American buildings and to keep the land safe and healthy. He
was captured in 1886 and turned into a celebrity as people wanted to see him, even though he was a prisoner of
war. He died in 1909,
Pope was a religious leader of the Tewa native Americans, when the Spanish started conquering what is the
current American Southwest. In response, he lead the most successful revolt lead by Native Americans in history,
which took 14 years to suppress. He and his 17,000 followers of different tribes destroyed Catholic churches,
tortured and mutilated priests, and destroyed all relics of Christianity.
Cochise was an Apache leader who fought alongside Mangas Coloradas in the fight against the United
States army. The Apache were winning until the US started using new & advanced forms of weaponry
such as artillery fire. They then lost to the United States Army and were forced to evacuate the area.
Magnas Coloradas was an Apache leader who helped Cochise to fight the United States Army;
sadly, the Apache lost the battle and the Apache lost their land.
The Navajo Code Talkers created codes in WWII that helped the US Army defeat communist
Japan. Without these uncrackable codes, Japan would’ve defeated the USA.
Historical events
1540 - Francisco Vasquez invaded Mexico and a little bit north o the Rio Grande, took pueblos, committed
crimes, and burned indians at the stake when they complained about him not being punished for his
1540-41- Vazquez fought a war with the Tiwa Indians
1542 - encomienda system established, which lets Indians become slaves to owners
1546 - encomienda system strengthened, due to laws prohibiting Indian enslavement were barred
1590 - Castano de sosa attacks pueblos in Pecos
1599 - Spanish attack pueblo settlements in late January
1600s - Spanish began converting Native Americans to Catholicism by force
1630 - Around 50 friars serving Native Americans
1680 - Various tribes revolt against the Spanish, but are repressed by the government
1700s - Spanish continued to dominate the land, while the English colonies fought for freedom from
Early 1800s - Spanish continued to control the area & the Indians, while USA gradually expanded more
towards the Spanish Frontier
1846-1848 - American-Mexican War
1847 - Battles occur on Pueblo land
1849 - Gold rush begins in California
1850 - Spanish lose control over all land north of the Rio Grande
1858 - Pueblo lands secured under a grant from Congress
1862 - Cochise fights US troops who try to take Apache land
1862 - Homestead act passed by congress, which grants Native American land to non-native people
late 1860s - Native Americans in Southwest lose battles to US Army and are turned into prisoners
1880s - Assimilation schools begin to turn Native Americans into “civilized” people
1900s - Native Americans have to be innovative in ways they can survive in America without their old land
they’ve known for so long
1975 - Indian Reserves are created and Indians can now govern themselves without American taxes
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