American Southwest by: Natalie Demaayer, Jenna Anderson, Mia Abouhamad, and Will Darden All of the Southwest Tribes ● Apache ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Comanche Havasupai Hopi Jemez Kiowa Kiowa Apache Lipan Maricopa Mohave Navajo Paiute Papago Panamint Pecos Pima Pueblo Shoshoni Sobaipuri Tewa Pueblos Ute Walapai Yavapai Yuma Zuñi Navajo dwelling Child of the Apache tribe Culture One of the main tribes in the North American Southwest was the Pueblo (Anasazi) tribe. The Pueblos were located in the area where New Mexico, Utah, Arizona, and Colorado borders meet today. The Pueblos history can be recorded from 100 AD to 1600 AD. The Pueblo time period that was in their heyday was the “Basketmaker III” period. The pueblo people improved life signifacantly by domesticating animals and beginning to cultivate the bean crop. With the major advances in agricultural techniques the Pueblos also developed irrigation systems to support the new farms and the rising population. Belief systems For the Pueblo people Kachina was the most practiced religion. Kachina was a spirit being in their tribe Men would dress as Kachinas fro religious ceremonies Kachina dolls were made as wooden dolls to educate the Pueblo youth on how the world came to be Kachinas can represent anything in nature or the universe ; insects, sun, water, moon, or fire Political structure ● All Pueblo tribes have the clan system. Some have as many as twenty or more clans ● Each pueblo is an independent community ● Each has its own chief. Pre-European Before colonization there were between 70 and 100 pueblos. When the europeans arrived that number reduced to 19 European Interaction The first European interaction the natives had was with the Spanish. Spain took control of their land, destroyed their places of worship and imprisoned,or tortured those who resisted Spanish rule. In 1680 Pope (a religious leader) got tribes to combine forces and take back their land from the Spaniards. It took the Spaniards 14 years, and 4 military assaults to regain control. Maps For thousands of years, Native Americans took to the trails in the name of the harvest, the hunt, commerce, plunder, warfare, religious fervor and celebration Navajo Code Talkers Magnas Coloradas Cochise Pope Geronimo Goyaale Important figures Geronimo was an Apache native American, and was born in June 1829. He lead the Apache people against the US Army to defend and keep the Apache land free of American buildings and to keep the land safe and healthy. He was captured in 1886 and turned into a celebrity as people wanted to see him, even though he was a prisoner of war. He died in 1909, Pope was a religious leader of the Tewa native Americans, when the Spanish started conquering what is the current American Southwest. In response, he lead the most successful revolt lead by Native Americans in history, which took 14 years to suppress. He and his 17,000 followers of different tribes destroyed Catholic churches, tortured and mutilated priests, and destroyed all relics of Christianity. Cochise was an Apache leader who fought alongside Mangas Coloradas in the fight against the United States army. The Apache were winning until the US started using new & advanced forms of weaponry such as artillery fire. They then lost to the United States Army and were forced to evacuate the area. Magnas Coloradas was an Apache leader who helped Cochise to fight the United States Army; sadly, the Apache lost the battle and the Apache lost their land. The Navajo Code Talkers created codes in WWII that helped the US Army defeat communist Japan. Without these uncrackable codes, Japan would’ve defeated the USA. Historical events 1540 - Francisco Vasquez invaded Mexico and a little bit north o the Rio Grande, took pueblos, committed crimes, and burned indians at the stake when they complained about him not being punished for his actions 1540-41- Vazquez fought a war with the Tiwa Indians 1542 - encomienda system established, which lets Indians become slaves to owners 1546 - encomienda system strengthened, due to laws prohibiting Indian enslavement were barred 1590 - Castano de sosa attacks pueblos in Pecos 1599 - Spanish attack pueblo settlements in late January 1600s - Spanish began converting Native Americans to Catholicism by force 1630 - Around 50 friars serving Native Americans 1680 - Various tribes revolt against the Spanish, but are repressed by the government 1700s - Spanish continued to dominate the land, while the English colonies fought for freedom from England Early 1800s - Spanish continued to control the area & the Indians, while USA gradually expanded more towards the Spanish Frontier 1846-1848 - American-Mexican War 1847 - Battles occur on Pueblo land 1849 - Gold rush begins in California 1850 - Spanish lose control over all land north of the Rio Grande 1858 - Pueblo lands secured under a grant from Congress 1862 - Cochise fights US troops who try to take Apache land 1862 - Homestead act passed by congress, which grants Native American land to non-native people late 1860s - Native Americans in Southwest lose battles to US Army and are turned into prisoners 1880s - Assimilation schools begin to turn Native Americans into “civilized” people 1900s - Native Americans have to be innovative in ways they can survive in America without their old land they’ve known for so long 1975 - Indian Reserves are created and Indians can now govern themselves without American taxes Works cited "American Journeys Background on Revolt of the Pueblo Indians of New Mexico and Otermín's Attempted Reconquest, 1680-1682 [volume 9--excerpt]." American Journeys Background on Revolt of the Pueblo Indians of New Mexico and Otermín's Attempted Reconquest, 1680-1682 [volume 9--excerpt]. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Aug. 2015. "Ancestral Pueblo Culture | North American Indian Culture." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 27 Aug. 2015. "Cochise." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 27 Aug. 2015. <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cochise>. "Geronimo." Bio.com. A&E Networks Television, n.d. Web. 27 Aug. 2015. <http://www.biography.com/people/geronimo-9309607>. "Indian Tribes and Languages of the Southwest." Southwest Indian Tribes and Languages. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Aug. 2015. "Magnas Coloradas." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 27 Aug. 2015. <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mangas_Coloradas>. "Native American Timeline of Events." Native American Timeline of Events. N.p., 2003. Web. 27 Aug. 2015. <http://www.legendsofamerica.com/na-timeline.html>. "Native Americans Trails." - DesertUSA. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Aug. 2015. "Native Americans." Native American Tribes of the Art of Dave McGary. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Aug. 2015. "Native Americans and World War II." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 27 Aug. 2015. <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Native_Americans_and_World_War_II>. "Pope." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 27 Aug. 2015. <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pop%C3%A9>. "Pueblo Indian Tribes - Oldest Cultures in the United States." Pueblo Indian Tribes - Oldest Cultures in the United States. N.p., n.d. Web. "Pueblo Indians." - New World Encyclopedia. N.p., 15 June 2015. Web. 27 Aug. 2015. "Pueblo Indians: Pueblo Tribes, Chieftains, History and Culture Index." Pueblo Indians: Pueblo Tribes, Chieftains, History and Culture Index. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Aug. 2015. <http://www.aaanativearts.com/puebloindians/>. "Scramblin' Thru... Native Americans." Www.nuttyhistory.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Aug. 2015. <http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nuttyhistory.com%2Fnative-americans.html>. "Utah State History." Navajos. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Aug. 2015.