Nation Building & Reform
Imperial Russia
Crimean War defeat pushes Alex II Reforms
emancipation of serfs - Edict March 3, 1861
“better to abolish from above than below”
Serfs given land (not the best) expected to pay back
1864 zemstvos - local assemblies
property based elections favor wealthy
Imperial Russia
1864 - legal reform judicial code - equality before law
Populism movement - wanted greater reform
People’s Will, radical group - assassinated Alex II 1881
son Alex III - reactionary
Alexander III - reactionary
secret police expanded, social reform/trade
unions persecuted
Russification - Russian language in all schools,
pogroms - organized violence against jews
Alex III dies in 1894 - son Nicholas II weak
tried to follow father’s policies
Nicholas II increased father’s push for ind
Sergei Witte, minister of finance 1892-1903
encouraged foreign capital to build factories
35,000 miles of rail lines including 5,000
mile Trans-Siberian
1898 Social Democratic Party underground
growing nationalism among Poles and
Ukranians - not happy w/ conditions and
Russian territorial expansion brought into
contact w/ Japan - humiliating defeat in RusoJapanese War 1904
Bloody Sunday &
Revolution of 1905
Growing discontent group of workers petition
to Winter Palace St. Petersburg Jan 9, 1905
troops fire on crowd killing hundreds
workers strike and riots through October
October Manifesto - Nich II granted civil
liberties and agreed to establish Duma
By 1907 dismissed Duma & returned to
authoritarian rule through army and
Reichstag - universal male suffrage but no
ministerial responsibility
2 barriers to real democracy: army & Biz
Germany Army - defenders of monarchy and
aristocracy - officers Junkers
Biz - serves as chancellor til 1890
Biz - domestic policies
kulturkampf - attack on Catholics - distrusted loyalty to
new Germany: closed seminaries, abolished religious
priests ignored, jailed, paid fines - growing Catholic
shifts policy 1878 - economic problems needs growing
Catholic party to stop growing socialist party SPD
antinationalistic, anticapitalistic, antimonarchial
Persecution of SPD welfare state
1878 Biz pushed laws banning SPD
Tries to woo socialists w/ socialism
sickness, accident, disability benefits and social
security system
Failed to slow growth of socialists * remember
largest party by eve of WWI
Biz planned more restrictive measures but canned
by William II 1890
William II
reversed policies of outlawing socialism to win
over workers - no more success than Biz
Industrialization led to expansion of SPD but
less revolutionary more revisionist
William II turns to active foreign policy expansionism to divert from democratization
3rd Republic France
After defeat of Nap III 1870 - Biz forces
elections on universal male suffrage
French elect a monarchist majority to NA
1871 radical republicans form Commune
Apr 1871 fighting breaks out in Paris
20,000 killed another 10,000 deported
3rd Republic cont.
NA could not agree on who to select as king
1875 - constitution republican form of gov
76/77 elections add more republicans
1889 avoids Boulanger Crisis
strengthens support for republicans
Dreyfus Affair
Jewish Republican Alfred Dreyfus court-martialed by
royalist officers
declared guilty of selling military docs to Germany life in prison
1906 exonerated - turns out it was a Catholic
Effects - move to more democratic society
Break from Catholic Church - religious orders leave
Monarchist officers removed from army
anti-Semitism discredited
Gained support for republicanism
GB: Victorian Age
had not experienced rev troubles of 1848
Reform Act of 1832 opened politics to middle
real wages increase 25% from 1850-70
stable monarch Queen Vic 1837-1901
era of political compromising between 2 parties
Disraeli & Gladstone
Whigs (now called Liberals)
Responsible for Reform Act of 1832
William Gladstone
Tories (now called Conservatives)
would be responsible for Act of 1867
Benjamin Disraeli
Disraeli & Reform Act of 1867
Act of 1867 lowered monetary requirements for
voting - enfranchised male urban workers
Backfires on Disraeli - liberal victories 1868
brings Gladstone in as PM
both parties must take into account workers
Liberal Policies of
Gladstone 1868-1874
competitive civil service exams rather than patronage
Purchase of military officer’s commission abolished
secret ballot for voting
Ed Act of 1870 - gov responsible for elementary
schools for all children
Disraeli & Conservatives
Pubic Health Act - duty of states to interfere w/
private property to protect health
Artisan Dwelling Act - gov provided housing
for working class
Gladstone reelected in 1880
2nd Ministry of Gladstone
Reform Act of 1884 vote to all men paid rents
or taxes - 2 million more voters
Home Rule & Irish Question:
1801 Act of Union
1860s Irish push for independence
1886 Gladstone home rule bill voted down
Irish Question put off by WWI
Liberalism - welfare state
David Lloyd George - People’s Budget
National Insurance Act of 1911 - sickness
and unemployment benefits
Legislation - pension for retirees - programs
to be paid for by increase tax on wealthy redistribution of wealth
Liberals abandoned laissez-faire for social
programs steps towards future British welfare
Austrian Empire
Emancipation of serfs only lasting effect of 1848 Revolt
- return to autocratic rule
Industrialization - working class combined w/ defeat in
Austro-Prussian War - changes
forced to deal w/ Hungarian nationalists
Ausgleich - Compromise of 1867 - Dual Monarchy
did not satisfy other minority nationalities
Nationalistic minority groups still a problem
ethnic Germans only 1/3 of pop in Austria
Czechs, Poles & other slavs want change
Emperor Francis Joseph and Catholic Church
unifying factors holding empire together
Universal male suffrage in Austria 1907 only
fans the fire - prime ministers ignore
Magyars in Hungary push for separation 1903,
Francis Joseph threatens to grant universal
male suffrage in Hungary - Hungary falls in
Spain & Italy
Sp - Parliamentary gov dominated by wealthy
Generation of 1898 for pol/social reform
w/ ind. more attracted to socialism & anarchism
military crushes violence 1909 Barcelona - tough to
mess w/ tradition: Catholic, landowners, army
IT - united geographically 1870 but loyal to family, town,
sectional diff: Ind - N Ag - S, CC not accept Italy
Socialism and 2nd IR
Influence of Marx
Industrialization on continent picks up 18501870
workers & trade unions not able to combat
factory owners
Influence of Marx in 1870s = formation of
socialist parties and socialist trade unions
Publication of The Communist Manifesto 1848
Marx Ideas - class struggle throughout history
“the working men have no country”
Radical, revolutionary overthrow of gov
proletariat would reorganize means of
classless society would emerge
Marx cont.
Also wrote Das Kapital - critique on the
capitalist economic model
spent the latter years of his life helping
organize the International Working Men’s
Association or “First International”
would fail in 1872, brought back 1889
“La Belle Epoque”
Beautiful Era or Golden Age 1895-WWI
Peace in Europe
New technology and scientific discoveries
Economic prosperity
World’s Fair Paris 1900
2nd IR
2nd IR 1870-20th century
1st IR - dominated by GB and focused on
textiles, railroads, iron & coal
2nd IR - Germany would lead the way focus
on steel, chemicals, electricity and oil
Advances Made
lightbulb, telephone, radio, internal combustion
engine give way to car and plane, assembly
line production
Rise in wages - europeans could spend more consumer economy - department store, leisure
European Economic
Western Europe and N. Italy industrialized
while areas S and E little industry
Set pattern for modern European economic
model - affects seen in post WWII
Increase In Industry on
Continent = socialism
trade unions had been restricted across Europe until
1860s - had little impact helping workers
German Social Democratic Party (SPD) forms 1875
Wilhelm Liebkecht & August Bebel
Marxist in rhetoric but organized politically
1890 SPD 35 seats in Reichstag, 1912 largest party
in Germany
Evolution of Socialism
Bizmark tried to persecute and stop socialism in
Germany but no luck
Socialist parties would emerge across Europe
end of 19th c - in Russia 1898
1889 Second International - May Day (May 1)
Challenge to orthodox Marxisism
Eduard Bernstein - influenced by moderate English
socialism (Fabian Socialism)
Evolutionary Socialism - capitalism had not broke down
must continue to use democratic means not rev.
Problems for Socialism
Nationalism - Marx underestimated difference of local
issues and loyalty to state on eve of WWI
Trade Unions - slow to grow but by WWI 3-4 million
Brits, 3 million in Germany - strikes and collective
bargaining was working
As Marxism became less radical - drove some to
anarchism - less ind and less democratic countries
Age of Mass Politics
How to deal w/ lower class?
Extension of voting rights, better standard of
living as real wages increased
Achievements of science and tech had
improved transportation and communication
Changing family dynamic, leisure time,
recreation = mass society
Women & Mass Politics
1840s & 50s beginning of women’s rights
Liberal Millicent Fawcett - pushed for
democratic means of reform
Emmeline Pankhurst & daughters (Christabel
and Sylvia) Women’s Social & Political Union
radicals labeled “suffragettes” - chained to
lampposts, egged officials, smashed
windows of department stores
Women’s Movement
1913 Emily Davison martyred at Epsom Derby
Only Finland, Norway and few Am states
granted women vote before 1914
gain traction after WWI
Jews & Mass Politics
Since Middle Ages had been quartered off in ghettos
By 1867 Jews granted citizenship across Europe
End of 19th C, Jews become scapegoat again
increase in anti-Semitism esp. Aus, Ger, Rus
Vienna mayor Karl Lueger blamed Jews for corruption
of German Culture - Adolph Hitler
Russia - pogroms - massacre and forced migration of
hundreds of thousands of Jews - calls for zionist
Old vs New
Old Imperialism - Result of Commercial
Revolution 16th - 18th c
Trade routes - settlements - rule
New Imperialism - Result of Ind Rev 18701914
cheap raw materials - markets for goods exploit
Nationalism - glorify state, divert attention from
democratic reform
Racism - belief 1 race superior to another
Social Darwinism - survival of fittest
Religious - “white man’s burden” to civilize
backwards cultures
Economic - tin, oil, rubber
Enabling Forces
External & Internal forces allowed European
conquest of Africa & Asia
External - weapons, railroads/steamships,
cure for diseases
Internal - variety of cultures/languages, low
tech., ethnic strife
Scramble For Africa
Early 1800s GB had begun establishing
control Cape Colony S. Africa
French Company completed Suez Canal 1869
British take over occupation of Egypt 1882
Belgians explore and claim Congo 1876
French & Germans begin scramble
Berlin Conference 1885
European powers meet to set guidelines for
partitioning of Africa
notify claims and prove could control area
treat Africans humanely - yeah right
British violate by chasing Dutch out of S.
Africa - Boer War - significance - continental
powers seek alliances
Imperialism In 34 Years
India - British dominated economic life through
BEIC since 1600s “Jewel of the Crown”
Sepoy Rebellion of 1857 leads to direct
control - Raj
SE Asia - dominated by France through local
elites and economic dependence
1880s - Union of Indochina - later Vietnam,
Laos and Cambodia
By 19th c ruling Manchu dynasty weak in
British Opium Wars 1839-43 forced Treaty of
ceded Hong Kong to GB & opened trade to
European powers - spheres of influence
John Hay - “Open Door Policy” 1899
China cont.
humiliation from foreign influence leads to
revolt - Boxer Rebellion 1899-1900
European forces suppress
1911 Sun Yat-sen overthrows Manchu
dynasty and weak Republic of China formed
Japan Westernization
Avoided western influence til 1853
U.S. Commodore Matthew Perry rolls into
Tokyo Bay pressed for diplomatic privileges
Samurai revolt 1867 Mutsuhito as emperor
adopted Western methods of education,
U.S. industrial and financial methods,
develop strong military state
Defeat of Russia in 1905 proved they could
play the “white man’s” game
Effects of Imperialism
Emergence of a true world economy as
markets extended around globe
Most of the world controlled by industrialized
Competition for land raises competition and
rivalries between European states

Nation Building & Reform