AP European History
I. Congress of Vienna, 1814-15
A. Concert of Europe
1. were guided by the principle of the
balance of power.
B. Congress System (1815-1822)
C. The “Holy Alliance” – RAP
II. Conservatism
A. Reaction to liberalism
1. Klemens von Metternich
2. Austria and the German states
Dominated by Metternich
a. Multi-ethnic Hapsburg Empire:
national self-determination
3. Carlsbad Decrees
a. instituted repressive measures
against liberalism in the German
Peoples of the Hapsburg Monarchy, 1815
III. Liberalism
A. Individual is a self-sufficient being whose
freedom and well-being are sole reasons
for existence of society
1. Political - representative government
2. Classical liberalism
minimal government interference in the
economy, individual freedoms, equality
before the law
IV. Nationalism
A. Characteristics
1. Cultural unity – common language
2. Desire for national border with cultural
3. Immediate origins: French Revolution &
Napoleonic Wars
IV. Utopian Socialism
A. Advocacy of social and economic planning
B. Early French socialists
1. Count Henri de Saint-Simon
“key to progress was proper social
2. Louis Blanc
3. Pierre Joseph Proudhon
“What is Property” – stolen from the
C. Scientific Socialism – Marxism
1. Karl Marx (1818-1883): Communist
Manifesto (1848) w/ Friedrich Engels;
2. Criticism of Utopian Socialist: appeals to the
wealthy to help the poor were naive.
3. Socialism would be established by violent
revolution. “Working men of all countries unite!”