SUBSTANCE ABUSE AND HIV IN RUSSIA RUSSIAN FEDERATION Country Description Official name Russian Federation Ranks eighth in the world in population The world's largest country, almost twice the territory of the next-largest country, Canada. Country size: 6.5 million sq. miles. Spreads over all climate zones except tropical The Russian language is the only official state language Individual republics have often made their native language co-official next to Russian. Cyrillic alphabet is the only official script: these languages must be written in Cyrillic in official texts. Demographics Of Russia Population 145,934,000 Life expectancy men: 58 years old Life expectancy women: 66 years old Life expectancy in Russia is 12 years less than in the United States .(http://www.noticias.info/asp). Projected population growth: -11.57% Since 1992 population has fallen by 6 million people, and if current low birth and high death trends continue, the country will lose approximately 18 million people by 2025. (http://www.cdi.org) Legal AODs(Alcohol and Other Drugs) In Russia Numbers Legal AODs in Russia are Alcohol and Tobacco Legal age to use light alcohol is 18, for strong alcohol 21 Legal age to buy tobacco products is 18 Average consumption of alcohol is 14.6 liters per capita annually, or 2 the WHO «health risk» level Legal AODs In Russia: Alcohol Alcohol production in Russia rose by more than 10% year-on-year in 2002 with the production of vodka and other liquor rising by 6% The volume of alcohol production amounted to 131.3m decalitres in Russia in 2001, which is 7.2% more compared to 2000 The trend of production increase continues Number of Alcoholics In Russia Experts conclude that there are: 8 million male alcoholics 2 million female alcoholics 500,000 children alcoholics (under 15) Alcoholism Among Youngsters Alcoholism among the young is becoming a national disaster in Russia Children begin drinking at age 7 Tobacco Facts 70% Russian males and 30% females use tobacco regularly According to WHO, 14% of all deaths in former Soviet Union is traceable to tobacco smoking Multi-national tobacco companies are seeking to increase production in Russia Tobacco Facts The tobacco challenge is illustrated by the fact that tobacco market in Russia is estimated at 6 billion US dollars, the market of pharmaceuticals – at 2.5 billion, and federal budget income - at 18 billion. Smoking is allowed in most public places Age of tobacco initiation is 7 years old, sometimes even erlier. Illegal Drugs The same substances considered illegal in the US are also illegal in Russia Most popular drugs are different in different parts of country: European Russia (West of the Urals) is more likely to use heroin, cocaine and synthetic drugs Siberia is a borderline: all kind of drugs are rampant in it (Siberia has the highest addiction rate in the country) Far East of Russia is more likely to use homemade opioids Cannabis is popular among people in the entire country Use Of Illegal Drugs Non—medical usage of drugs has increased 20 times during the last 10 years and continues to increase. 17% aged from 18 to 35 tried drugs at least once (8% among all groups of population). Researches conducted in provincial regions of Russia showed that the real level of drug abuse among the youth is much higher. Drug Abuse «Threat to the Russian society» 13 to 25 years old: one third of the next generation is under threat Average life expectancy among drug addicts in Russia is 4-4.5 years after initiation. About 500,000 registered drug addicts Multiply by 10 per police reports Addiction Numbers From 2000 to 2005 number of drug users in Russia grew by 400% 3-5 million drug addicts according to different sources. Age span for drug addicts is 13 to 25 years old Increase in Drug Abuse Over the Last Decade Among adults 18 and up: 8 times 15-17 years old: 18 times 0-14 years old: 24 times HAVE YOU EVER TRIED ILLEGAL DRUGS? Effects of Drug Abuse HIV and Other Health Risks Congenital Health Problems in Newborn Great Social Costs Decline in Life Expectancy Child Neglect and Crime HIV and Drug Abuse Russia has the highest growth of HIV infection in the world, outside of SubSaharan countries HIV is mainly transmitted by intravenous drug users sharing needles Registered HIV cases are doubling every 12 months (Russian Federal AIDS Center) HIV: Comparison Russia to the US Total population: United States: 288.4 million Russia: 144 million Total infected (among IDU): US: 74,017 (through December 2001) Russia:228,245 (through December 2002) Ages No. of HIV infected / (Percentage of infected population) United States (0-12) Russia (0-14) 3,923 (2.3%) 5,712 (2.5%) United States (13-29) Russia (15-29) 59,178 (34%) 186,379 (81.7%) United States (30-49) Russia (30-49) 99,079 (56.9%) United States (50-64) Russia (50-69) 10,429 (6%) 1,798 (0.8%) United States (65 and older) Russia (70 and older) 1,408 (0.8%) 168 (0%) (less than one-tenth of 1 percent) 34,188 (15.0%) Includes only data from parts of United States that have confidential HIV reporting. Also excludes nine cases where the sex of the person infected is not known. Copyright © 2003 Newsday, Inc. Children born to HIV-infected mothers in Russia 1999: 211 of 2.1 million births 2000: 390 of 2.2 million births 2001: 1,139 of 2.3 million births 2002: 2,777 of 2.3 million births SOURCES: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Census Bureau; Russian Federal AIDS Center, Russian State Statistical Committee Drug Addiction Treatment Two structures: Govermental: free, effect is very low, mainly detoxification. Private: more expensive, different kinds of treatment programs, but, as usually, shortime, so effect is low as well. No cooperation exists between public and private sectors. Connection to Terrorism Drug trafficking originates in Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan Drugs are brought in by way of Tajik-Afghan border Russia became a transit point for the world of drug trafficking from East to West and back Drug Trafficking Routes The “green triangle”: Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iran supply the majority of drugs to the Russian black market. China is the close second, especially in ephedrine, amphepramon, phenfluramine imports. From Report Of Interior Minister Rashid Nurgaliyev 248,000 crimes connected to illegal drug trafficking were registered in JanuarySeptember 2004. In the same period of 2003, 220,000 drug crimes were registered. 62 Interior Ministry's officers involved in drug dealing were revealed in 2004, with 37 of them being found by the Interior Ministry. In January-November 2004 2.9 tons of heroin were seized on Russian territory, while in 2003 only 1.4 tons of this drug were seized. Russian Far East Far Eastern Region is the largest in Russian Federation with the fewest population (7 million) 10% (!) of young people are regular drug users Khabarovsk Krai Far East of Russia is on the first place in the country in drug problem. Description Political status: Krai Federal district: Far Eastern Population: ranked 35th Total: est. 1,427,050 (2004) Density: est. 1.7/km² Area: total 788,600 km² water- 1.2% Borders: Magadan Oblast (Russia) on the north, Sakha Republic (Russia) and Amur Oblast (Russia) on the west, People's Republic of China and Primorsky Krai (Russia) on the south, the Sea of Okhotsk on the east. Taiga and tundra in the north, swampy forest in the central depression, and deciduous forest in the south are the natural vegetation in the area. Demographics- Minorities There are some aboriginal peoples of the Manchu-Tungus language family: Evenks and Evens to the north and some Manchu peoples to the south of the Amur river. Some Nivkhs (Gilyak), an indigenous fishing people with an isolated language, still live around the Amur river delta. Regional Problems The population is aging as fertility rates decline. Growing HIV/AIDS epidemic plus tuberculosis and diphtheria divert resources from productive investment. Social problems such as substance abuse, suicide, domestic violence, and homicide are on the rise. Migration from China to the Russian Far East is particularly problematic. The Russian Far East is important international transshipment node for transnational trafficking in drugs, women, migrants, timber, and fish due to the proximity of international borders. Lack of enforcement capacity; corruption; and presence of criminal networks. Drugs And HIV Near one million people in Russia are now living with HIV. Majority of new HIV infections in Russia (up to 80 % or more) are transmitted by injecting drug use (IDU). Every third student in Khabarovsk and 13% of all teenagers in the Khabarovsk Region admitted to having have tested drugs; 2.5% among them are drug users. Drugs And HIV In Khabarovsk, almost 90 percent of the IDUs are estimated to be between 16 and 30 years old. The users’ average age is said to be 22. The crime rate in connection with illegal drug trafficking increased drastically during the last 5 years and is now 4.5 times as high as it was in 2000. The HIV-rate in the region is (yet) not extremely high as compared to the rest of the country. However, 73% of the people infected with HIV in the region are drug users. Special Local Drugs Marijuana (plan, anasha, shmal, white, folly, green, marijuana, mahra, shala, grass). It’s not only smoked, also it can be boiled in milk ("milk"), "kasha" was made out of it by frying on a frying pan on any fat. (Neighboring Chuyskaya valley occupying Kazahstan and Kirgizstan territory - one of the largest natural hemp and poppy plantations) Jeff (mulka, marcefal) is a home-made stimulator. It is produced by the method of chemical treatment of ephidrine containing drugs ("solutan") with acetone and manganese adding. It is one of the first home-made drugs in the country. Vint - is a home-made drug, containing pervitin. Also can be produced out of ephedrine containing medical drugs. Its effect was longer and stronger then jeff's. Special Local Drugs Heroine is not common, it is expensive (the value of 3-5g of heroine can be compared with average salary of an experienced specialist and more often exceeds it a lot) and there is a tough competition between poppy straw and heroine sellers. If large rich cities' market - Moscow, Saint Petersburg - is fully occupied by heroine sellers, in regions it is still being held by straw sellers. "Cherniashka" ("black", "hanka“, "shirka"). Home made opioid from poppy straw. Barbiturates (barbiture) -is a medications containing phenobarbital, soporific and antispasmodic stuffs. Usually they used in combination with other drugs and alcohol. Special Local Drugs Medications (tablets, wheels, tabls). Relanium, cyclodolum (parkopane-5: a cheap medication, prescribed as parkinsonism effects corrector, led to hallucinations ), dimedrol (antihistamine medication). Tablets very wide-spread, they were cheap and quite easily to achieve by forgery or theft of a prescription. Toluol containing medications, glue, petrol were used to achieve hallucinogenic effects though vapour inhalation. Used mostly by the drug users from lower socioeconomic groups and children and adolescents, as those medications were very cheap and available .