SUBSTANCE ABUSE
AND HIV
IN RUSSIA
RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Country Description







Official name Russian Federation
Ranks eighth in the world in population
The world's largest country, almost twice
the territory of the next-largest country,
Canada. Country size: 6.5 million sq. miles.
Spreads over all climate zones except
tropical
The Russian language is the only official
state language
Individual republics have often made their
native language co-official next to Russian.
Cyrillic alphabet is the only official script:
these languages must be written in Cyrillic
in official texts.
Demographics Of Russia






Population
145,934,000
Life expectancy men: 58 years old
Life expectancy women: 66 years old
Life expectancy in Russia is 12 years less
than in the United States
.(http://www.noticias.info/asp).
Projected population growth: -11.57%
Since 1992 population has fallen by 6
million people, and if current low birth and
high death trends continue, the country will
lose approximately 18 million people by
2025. (http://www.cdi.org)
Legal AODs(Alcohol and Other
Drugs) In Russia
Numbers




Legal AODs in Russia are Alcohol and
Tobacco
Legal age to use light alcohol is 18, for
strong alcohol 21
Legal age to buy tobacco products is 18
Average consumption of alcohol is 14.6
liters per capita annually, or 2 the WHO
«health risk» level
Legal AODs In Russia: Alcohol



Alcohol production in
Russia rose by more than
10% year-on-year in
2002 with the production
of vodka and other liquor
rising by 6%
The volume of alcohol
production amounted to
131.3m decalitres in
Russia in 2001, which is
7.2% more compared to
2000
The trend of production
increase continues
Number of Alcoholics In Russia




Experts conclude that there are:
8 million male alcoholics
2 million female alcoholics
500,000 children alcoholics (under
15)
Alcoholism Among Youngsters


Alcoholism among the young is
becoming a national disaster in Russia
Children begin drinking at age 7
Tobacco Facts



70% Russian males and 30% females use
tobacco regularly
According to WHO, 14% of all deaths in
former Soviet Union is traceable to tobacco
smoking
Multi-national tobacco companies are
seeking to increase production in Russia
Tobacco Facts



The tobacco challenge is
illustrated by the fact that
tobacco market in Russia is
estimated at 6 billion US dollars,
the market of pharmaceuticals –
at 2.5 billion, and federal budget
income - at 18 billion.
Smoking is allowed in most
public places
Age of tobacco initiation is 7
years old, sometimes even erlier.
Illegal Drugs





The same substances considered illegal in
the US are also illegal in Russia
Most popular drugs are different in
different parts of country: European
Russia (West of the Urals) is more likely
to use heroin, cocaine and synthetic
drugs
Siberia is a borderline: all kind of drugs
are rampant in it (Siberia has the highest
addiction rate in the country)
Far East of Russia is more likely to use
homemade opioids
Cannabis is popular among people in the
entire country
Use Of Illegal Drugs



Non—medical usage of drugs has increased
20 times during the last 10 years and
continues to increase.
17% aged from 18 to 35 tried drugs at least
once (8% among all groups of population).
Researches conducted in provincial regions
of Russia showed that the real level of drug
abuse among the youth is much higher.
Drug Abuse



«Threat to the Russian society»
13 to 25 years old: one third of the next
generation is under threat
Average life expectancy among drug addicts
in Russia is 4-4.5 years after initiation.

About 500,000 registered drug addicts

Multiply by 10 per police reports
Addiction Numbers



From 2000 to 2005 number of drug users in
Russia grew by 400%
3-5 million drug addicts according to
different sources.
Age span for drug addicts is 13 to 25 years
old
Increase in Drug Abuse Over the
Last Decade

Among adults 18 and up: 8 times

15-17 years old: 18 times

0-14 years old: 24 times
HAVE YOU EVER TRIED
ILLEGAL DRUGS?
Effects of Drug Abuse

HIV and Other Health Risks

Congenital Health Problems in Newborn

Great Social Costs

Decline in Life Expectancy

Child Neglect and Crime
HIV and Drug Abuse



Russia has the highest growth of HIV
infection in the world, outside of SubSaharan countries
HIV is mainly transmitted by intravenous
drug users sharing needles
Registered HIV cases are doubling every 12
months (Russian Federal AIDS Center)
HIV: Comparison Russia to the
US

Total population:
United States: 288.4 million
Russia:
144 million

Total infected (among IDU):
US:
74,017 (through December 2001)
Russia:228,245 (through December 2002)
Ages
No. of HIV infected /
(Percentage of infected
population)
United States (0-12)
Russia (0-14)
3,923 (2.3%)
5,712 (2.5%)
United States (13-29)
Russia (15-29)
59,178 (34%)
186,379 (81.7%)
United States (30-49)
Russia (30-49)
99,079 (56.9%)
United States (50-64)
Russia (50-69)
10,429 (6%)
1,798 (0.8%)
United States (65 and older)
Russia (70 and older)
1,408 (0.8%)
168 (0%) (less than one-tenth
of 1 percent)
34,188 (15.0%)
Includes only data from parts of United States that have confidential HIV reporting.
Also excludes nine cases where the sex of the person infected is not known.
Copyright © 2003 Newsday, Inc.
Children born to HIV-infected
mothers in Russia
1999: 211 of 2.1 million births
2000: 390 of 2.2 million births
2001: 1,139 of 2.3 million births
2002: 2,777 of 2.3 million births
SOURCES: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
U.S. Census Bureau; Russian Federal AIDS Center, Russian
State Statistical Committee
Drug Addiction Treatment




Two structures:
Govermental: free, effect is very low, mainly
detoxification.
Private: more expensive, different kinds of
treatment programs, but, as usually,
shortime, so effect is low as well.
No cooperation exists between public and
private sectors.
Connection to Terrorism



Drug trafficking originates in Afghanistan,
Iran and Pakistan
Drugs are brought in by way of Tajik-Afghan
border
Russia became a transit point for the world
of drug trafficking from East to West and
back
Drug Trafficking Routes


The “green triangle”: Afghanistan, Pakistan
and Iran supply the majority of drugs to the
Russian black market.
China is the close second, especially in
ephedrine, amphepramon, phenfluramine
imports.
From Report Of Interior
Minister Rashid Nurgaliyev




248,000 crimes connected to illegal drug
trafficking were registered in JanuarySeptember 2004.
In the same period of 2003, 220,000 drug
crimes were registered.
62 Interior Ministry's officers involved in
drug dealing were revealed in 2004, with 37
of them being found by the Interior Ministry.
In January-November 2004 2.9 tons of
heroin were seized on Russian territory,
while in 2003 only 1.4 tons of this drug
were seized.
Russian Far East
Far Eastern Region is the largest in
Russian Federation with the fewest
population (7 million)
10% (!) of young people are
regular drug users
Khabarovsk Krai

Far East of Russia is on the first place in
the country in drug problem.
Description








Political status: Krai
Federal district: Far Eastern
Population: ranked 35th
Total: est. 1,427,050 (2004)
Density: est. 1.7/km²
Area: total 788,600 km²
water- 1.2%
Borders: Magadan Oblast (Russia) on the north, Sakha
Republic (Russia) and Amur Oblast (Russia) on the
west, People's Republic of China and Primorsky Krai
(Russia) on the south, the Sea of Okhotsk on the east.
Taiga and tundra in the north, swampy forest in the
central depression, and deciduous forest in the south are
the natural vegetation in the area.
Demographics- Minorities
There are some aboriginal peoples of the
Manchu-Tungus language family: Evenks
and Evens to the north and some Manchu
peoples to the south of the Amur river.
Some Nivkhs (Gilyak), an indigenous fishing
people with an isolated language, still live
around the Amur river delta.
Regional Problems






The population is aging as fertility rates
decline.
Growing HIV/AIDS epidemic plus
tuberculosis and diphtheria divert resources
from productive investment.
Social problems such as substance abuse,
suicide, domestic violence, and homicide are
on the rise.
Migration from China to the Russian Far East
is particularly problematic.
The Russian Far East is important
international transshipment node for
transnational trafficking in drugs, women,
migrants, timber, and fish due to the
proximity of international borders.
Lack of enforcement capacity; corruption;
and presence of criminal networks.
Drugs And HIV



Near one million people in Russia are now living
with HIV.
Majority of new HIV infections in Russia (up to 80
% or more) are transmitted by injecting drug use
(IDU).
Every third student in Khabarovsk and 13% of all
teenagers in the Khabarovsk Region admitted to
having have tested drugs; 2.5% among them are
drug users.
Drugs And HIV

In Khabarovsk, almost 90 percent of the IDUs are
estimated to be between 16 and 30 years old. The
users’ average age is said to be 22.

The crime rate in connection with illegal drug
trafficking increased drastically during the last 5
years and is now 4.5 times as high as it was in 2000.

The HIV-rate in the region is (yet) not extremely high
as compared to the rest of the country. However,
73% of the people infected with HIV in the region are
drug users.
Special Local Drugs



Marijuana (plan, anasha, shmal, white, folly,
green, marijuana, mahra, shala, grass). It’s
not only smoked, also it can be boiled in
milk ("milk"), "kasha" was made out of it by
frying on a frying pan on any fat.
(Neighboring Chuyskaya valley occupying
Kazahstan and Kirgizstan territory - one of
the largest natural hemp and poppy
plantations)
Jeff (mulka, marcefal) is a home-made
stimulator. It is produced by the method of
chemical treatment of ephidrine containing
drugs ("solutan") with acetone and
manganese adding. It is one of the first
home-made drugs in the country.
Vint - is a home-made drug, containing
pervitin. Also can be produced out of
ephedrine containing medical drugs. Its
effect was longer and stronger then jeff's.
Special Local Drugs



Heroine is not common, it is expensive (the
value of 3-5g of heroine can be compared
with average salary of an experienced
specialist and more often exceeds it a lot)
and there is a tough competition between
poppy straw and heroine sellers. If large
rich cities' market - Moscow, Saint
Petersburg - is fully occupied by heroine
sellers, in regions it is still being held by
straw sellers.
"Cherniashka" ("black", "hanka“, "shirka").
Home made opioid from poppy straw.
Barbiturates (barbiture) -is a medications
containing phenobarbital, soporific and
antispasmodic stuffs. Usually they used in
combination with other drugs and alcohol.
Special Local Drugs


Medications (tablets, wheels, tabls).
Relanium, cyclodolum (parkopane-5: a
cheap medication, prescribed as
parkinsonism effects corrector, led to
hallucinations ), dimedrol (antihistamine
medication). Tablets very wide-spread, they
were cheap and quite easily to achieve by
forgery or theft of a prescription.
Toluol containing medications, glue, petrol were used to achieve hallucinogenic effects
though vapour inhalation. Used mostly by
the drug users from lower socioeconomic
groups and children and adolescents, as
those medications were very cheap and
available .
Descargar

SUBSTANCE ABUSE IN RUSSIA