Chapter 26:
The New Power Balance
What new technologies and industries appeared between 18501900, and how did they affect the world economy?
Railroads
The same data emphasizes the absolute increase in
railroads during the period
Steamships and Telegraph Cables
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size & speed of
oceangoing vessels
increased
Iron, then steel for hulls,
propellers- more efficient
shipping lines created
used submarine
telegraph cables to
coordinate the
movements of their
ships around the globe
The Steel and Chemical Industries
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Steel: reduced cost
Chemicals: large-scale
manufacture of chemicals
Explosives: (Alfred Nobel
invented dynamite)
more powerful/accurate
firearms
Science/technology
interacted daily
gave advantage to Germany
Pollution increased due to
waste products from steel
and chemical production
Electricity
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efficient generators
turned mechanical
energy into electricity
Powered arc lamps,
incandescent lamps,
streetcars, subways,
electric motors for
industry
street cars alleviated
urban pollution caused
by horse-drawn vehicles
World Trade and Finance
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Between 1850-1913, world trade
expanded tenfold, cost of freight
dropped
cheap/ heavy products like
agricultural products, raw materials,
and machinery were shipped around
the world
Trade/ close connections between
industrial economies brought greater
prosperity
more vulnerable to swings in
business cycle
One main cause of growing
interdependence was financial power
of Great Britain
Non-industrial areas also tied to the
world economy
Non-industrial areas more vulnerable
to swings in the business cycle- they
depended on the export of raw
materials
How did Social Structures of the industrial
countries change during this period?
Social Changes:
Population/Migration
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Europe-rapid population
growth
 emigration spurred
population growth in US,
Canada, Australia, New
Zealand, Argentina
 Reasons:
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a drop in the death rate
improved crop yields
More grain
Better nutrition
Asians migrated
 indentured laborers
 Caribbean, Brazil, and
California
Urbanization/Urban Environments
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European, North American, Japanese cities grew in
population and size
towns fused into one another, creating new cities
Urban growth accompanied by changes in character of
urban life
Technology changed urban life for rich (later for the
working class)
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mass transportation networks
sewage and water supply systems
gas and electric lighting
police and fire departments, sanitation and garbage removal,
building and health inspection, schools, parks, and other
amenities
Urbanization/Urban Environments
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New neighborhoods/ cities built (older areas often
rebuilt) on rectangular grid pattern-broad boulevards &
modern apartment buildings
 Cities divided into industrial, commercial, residential
zones
 residential zones occupied by different social classes
 air quality worsened
 Coal for fuel polluted the air
 Horse manure in streets until horses replaced by
streetcars & automobiles in early 20th century
Middle-Class Women’s
“Separate Sphere”
Middle-Class Women’s
“Separate Sphere”
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most important duty of middle-class women was to
raise children
 girls received education different from boys
 Governments enforced legal discrimination against
women throughout 19th century
 society frowned on careers for middle-class women
 Women excluded from jobs that required higher
education
 teaching was permissible career
 expected to resign when married
 Some middle-class women not satisfied w/ home lifechose to volunteer or joined women’s suffrage
movement
Working-Class Women
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Working-class women led lives
of toil and pain
 became domestic servants-long
hours of hard physical labor
 Many young women worked in
factories-relegated to poorly paid
work in textiles & clothing trades
 Married women expected to stay
home, raise children, do
housework,- contribute to family
income by taking in boarders,
sewing or other piecework jobs,
or by washing other people’s
clothes
How did Industrialization contribute to
the socialist and labor movements?
Socialism
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began as intellectual movement
 Karl Marx (1818–1883) along w/ Friedrich
Engles (1820–1895) wrote Communist
Manifesto (1848) & Das Kapital (1867)
 Marx saw history as series of clashes between
social classes
 Marx’s theories provided intellectual
framework for dissatisfaction w/ unregulated
industrial capitalism
Labor Movements
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industrial workers formed unions to defend their interests in
negotiations with employers.
sought better wages, improved working conditions, & insurance
During 19th century, workers brought into electoral politics as right
to vote was extended to all adult males in Europe & North
America.
Instead of seeking violent overthrow of bourgeois class, socialists
used voting power to force concessions from government & even
win elections
Working-class women had little time for politics & were not
welcome in male-dominated trade unions or in radical political
parties-difficult to reconcile demands of workers with those of
women
How was nationalism transformed from a
revolutionary to a conservative ideology?
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Used by governments to unite & mobilize
population to common goals
“Russification”
Spanish government made Spanish language
compulsory in Basque & Catalan speaking
provinces
Immigrants to US expected to learn English
Weakened diverse nations
Strengthened homogeneous nations
Nationalism
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Language was usually the crucial element in creating a feeling of
national unity, but language and citizenship rarely coincided.
The idea of redrawing the boundaries of states to accommodate
linguistic, religious, and cultural differences led to the forging of
larger states from the many German and Italian principalities, but
it threatened to break large multiethnic empires like AustriaHungary into smaller states.
Until the 1860s, nationalism was associated with liberalism, as in
the case of the Italian liberal nationalist Giuseppe Mazzini.
After 1848, conservative political leaders learned how to preserve
the social status quo by using public education, universal military
service, and colonial conquests to build a sense of national
identity that focused loyalty on the state.
The Unification of Italy, 1860–1870
The Unification of Germany,
1866–1871
The West Challenges Japan
The West Challenges Japan
Meiji Restoration: Modernization of Japan,
1868–1894
Nationalism and Social Darwinism
The Great Powers of Europe, 1871–1900
Germany at the Center of Europe

International relations revolved around united
Germany-isolated France & forged loose
coalition w/ Austria-Hungary & Russia
 Bismarck used mass politics & social
legislation to gain popular support & to
develop strong sense of national unity & pride
among German people
 Wilhelm II (r. 1888–1918) dismissed Bismarck
& initiated German foreign policy that placed
emphasis on the acquisition of colonies
The Liberal Powers: France
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second-rate power
population and army
smaller than Germany
divided between
monarchist Catholics
and republicans with
anticlerical views
cohesive societyadvantage or
disadvantage?
The Liberal Powers: Great Britain
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Problems:
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Irish
economy lagging
behind U.S. & Germany
enormous empire was
expensive to administer
& defend
preoccupation w/ India led
British to exaggerate Russian
threat to Ottoman Empire &
to Central Asian approaches
to India
ignored rise of Germany
The Conservative Powers: Russia and
Austria-Hungary
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Forces of
nationalism
weakened Russia
& AustriaHungary
Ethnic diversity
contributed to
instability in
Russia
Attempts to foster
Russian
nationalism & to
impose the
Russian language
on diverse
population was
divisive
The Conservative Powers: Russia
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In 1861, serfs emancipated
few skills-little capital.
Tsars Alexander III & Nicholas
II opposed all forms of social
change
middle class remained small &
weak
land-owning aristocracy
dominated court &
administration.
Defeat in Russo-Japanese
War (1904–1905) &
Revolution of 1905
demonstrated Russia’s
weakness
Tsar Nicholas introduced
constitution & parliament (the
Duma)
soon reverted to traditional
despotism
China in Turmoil
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China weak from
Taiping Rebellion-British
& French demanded
Treaty ports for trade
Empress Dowager Cixi
opposed efforts to
facilitate foreign trade
internally
Chinese officials secretly
encouraged rebellion
against foreign
technology- weakened
resistance to western
economic pressure
Japan Confronts China
Sino-Japanese War 1905
Conclusion
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Industrialization combined with the introduction of electricity,
steel, new chemicals, and global communication served to
increase the economic power of western nations and East Asia.
The problems of pollution were somewhat relieved
Working women entered factories
Elite women became protected within separate spheres
Socialism became an intellectual movement
Labor unions gained recognition
Universal male suffrage became the law in United States & parts
of Europe
Conservatives made use of nationalism to unify nations such as
Germany and Italy
Meiji Restoration gave regained power to the emperor in Japan
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Chapter 26: The New Power Balance