CHAPTER ELEVEN
The Americas on the Eve of Invasion
World Civilizations, The Global Experience
AP* Edition, 5th Edition
Stearns/Adas/Schwartz/Gilbert
*AP and Advanced Placement are registered trademarks of The College Entrance Examination Board,
which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product.
Copyright 2007, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman
Chapter 11: The Americas on the Eve of Invasion
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I. Postclassic Mesoamerica, 1000-1500 C.E.
II. Aztec Society in Transition
III. Twantinsuyu: World of the Incas
IV. The Other Peoples of the Americas
Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Chapter 11: The Americas on the Eve of Invasion
Postclassical
Mesoamerica, 10001500 C.E.
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Teotihuacan – central Mexico – collapse 700s
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Toltec Empire - central Mexico - c. 968
– Capital - Tula
– Rule extended to Yucatan - Maya lands
– Commercial trade w/ American
Southwest & possibly Mississippi &
Ohio valleys
Toltec collapse - c. 1150 - Caused by
northern nomads?
Aztecs Rise to Power – early 14th C
Capital moves to Mexico valley
Lakes used for fishing, farming,
transportation
– Begin as mercenaries
– 1325 - founded Tenochtitlan
– Dominate the central valley by 1434
Central Mexico and Lake Texcoco
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Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Chapter 11: The Americas on the Eve of Invasion
Aztec Society
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Based on hierarchical structure
Service of gods pre-eminent
Sacrifice increased over time
– Source of political power
Moctezuma II - head of state and religion
Religion and the Ideology of Conquest
– Spiritual and natural world seamless
– Hundreds of deities (3 groups)
1. Fertility, agriculture, water
2. Creator gods
3. Warfare, sacrifice
Huitzilopochtli – Aztec tribal god – identified w/
sun god
Sacrifice - motivated by religion or terror?
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Aztecs believed in a cyclical view of history
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What was the most
significant ramification of
the Aztec belief in cyclical
history?
Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Chapter 11: The Americas on the Eve of Invasion
The Economy of the
Aztec Empire
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Agriculture - Chinampas - man-made floating
islands – resulted in high yields; farming
organized by clans
Markets – Regulated by state
Society became increasingly hierarchical membership in clans changed to social classes
based on residence, talent & wealth
Calpulli - Aztec citystates divided into diff.
calpullis - inhabitants collectively responsible
for different tasks – Distribute land & labor
– Maintain temples & schools
– Basis of military organization
Noble class develops from some calpulli
Military virtues give them status
Serf-like workers on their lands
Merchant Calpulli - pochteca – controlled daily
market at Tlatelolco
Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Chapter 11: The Americas on the Eve of Invasion
Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Chapter 11: The Americas on the Eve of Invasion
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Technological Constraints - no agricultural
tools
 Women - various roles
– Could own property
– No public roles
– Elite polygamy; most ppl monogamous
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A Tribute Empire
Speaker - One rules each city-state
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Great Speaker - Ruled Tenochtitlan
 Prime Minister powerful
 Subjugated states could remain autonomous
– Owe tribute - labor
Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Chapter 11: The Americas on the Eve of Invasion
Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition
Olmec Head
Chichen-itza
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Chapter 11: The Americas on the Eve of Invasion
Ruins of Teotihuacan,
Mexcio City, Mexico
Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Chapter 11: The Americas on the Eve of Invasion
Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Chapter 11: The Americas on the Eve of Invasion
Twantinsuyu: World of the Incas
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The Inca Rise to Power - Cuzco area
– Quechua-speaking clans (ayllus)
– by 1527 – the Twantinsuyu empire
extends from Colombia to Chile &
Bolivia to Argentina
 "Split inheritance“ - Power to successor
BUT wealth & land to EACH male
descendant
 Result is continual conquest – Each
male heir must produce new wealth
 Inca - Ruled from Cuzco
– 4 provinces ruled by governors
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Central Bureaucracy includes local rulers
– curacas
Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition
Inca Expansion
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Chapter 11: The Americas on the Eve of Invasion
Inca Military Organization
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Every male Inca had to take part in war at least once
The armor used by the Incas included:
– Helmets made of wood, cane or animal skin
– Round shields made of palm and cotton
– Cotton cloaks & metal plates above the
breast/shoulders
– Armor for protection from darts and arrows
The Inca weaponry included:
– Bronze or bone-tipped spears or lances
– Knobbed Clubs
– Two-handed wooden swords with serrated edges
(notched with teeth, like a saw)
– Clubs with stone and spiked metal heads
– Wooden slings and stones
– Stone or copper headed battle-axes
– Bolas or Ayllos - stones tied to ends of rope to be
swung at enemies (also used in hunting)
Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Chapter 11: The Americas on the Eve of Invasion
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Inca Religion
Sun god supreme - represented by ruler (Inca)
 Temple of the Sun - Cuzco
 Local gods survive - Huacas
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System of roads, way stations (tambos), storehouses
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Economy based on conquest, expansion & trade
 Building of urban centers; irrigation projects
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WOMEN - Gender cooperation
– Ideology of complementarity of sexes
– Also seen in cosmology
Inca's senior wife links state to moon
Inca Cultural Achievements
Metallurgy
Knotted strings (quipu) used for
accounting
Monumental architecture
Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Chapter 11: The Americas on the Eve of Invasion
Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Chapter 11: The Americas on the Eve of Invasion
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World Population, c. 1500
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Comparing Incas & Aztecs
Similarities:
– Built on earlier empires
– Excellent organizers – gov’t
– Intensive agriculture under state
control
– Economy based on trade
– Kinship transformed to hierarchy
– Ethnic groups conquered allowed to
keep their gov’t/religion, etc. - Paid
tribute
to empire
Differences:
– Aztecs better developed trade
markets
– Aztecs – sacrifice
Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Chapter 11: The Americas on the Eve of Invasion
Other Peoples of the
Americas
 Great variety
 Not all - Neolithic
pattern
 Use irrigation for
agriculture
 Formed no states
 200 languages - N.A.
 Technologically
behind Europeans
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Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition
World Population, c. 1500
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
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