World Civilizations
The Global Experience
AP* Sixth Edition
Chapter
11
The Americas on the
Eve of Invasion
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
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Americas on the Eve of Invasion
I. Postclassic Mesoamerica, 1000-1500 C.E.
II. Aztec Society in Transition
III. Twantinsuyu: World of the Incas
IV. The Other Peoples of the Americas
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Americas on the Eve of Invasion
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
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Postclassic Mesoamerica,
1000-1500 C.E.
• Teotihuacan
– Collapses, 700s
• Toltecs
– Empire in central Mexico
– Capital at Tula, c. 968
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
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The Toltec Heritage
• Rule extended to Yucatan, Maya lands, c.
1000
• Commercial influence to American
Southwest
– Possibly Mississippi, Ohio valleys
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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The Aztec Rise to Power
• Toltec collapse, c. 1150
– Caused by northern nomads?
• Center moves to Mexico valley
– Lakes used for fishing, farming, transportation
• Aztecs in, early 14th century
– Begin as mercenaries, allies
– 1325, found Tenochtitlan
– Dominate by 1434
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Central Mexico and Lake
Texcoco
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
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The Aztec Social Contract
• Transformation to hierarchical society
• Service of gods pre-eminent
– Sacrifice increased
– Source of political power
• Moctezuma II
– Head of state and religion
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Religion and the Ideology of
Conquest
• Spiritual and natural world seamless
– Hundreds of deities
– Three groups
 Fertility, agriculture, water
 Creator gods
 Warfare, sacrifice
• e.g. Huitzilopochtli
– Aztec tribal god
– Identified with sun god
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Religion and the Ideology of
Conquest
• Sacrifice
– Motivated by religion or terror?
• Cyclical view of history
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Feeding the People: The
Economy of the Empire
• Agriculture
– Chinampas, man-made floating islands
 High yield
– Farming organized by clans
• Markets
– Daily market at Tlatelolco
 Controlled by pochteca, merchant class
– Regulated by state
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Aztec Society in Transition
• Society increasingly hierarchical
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
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Widening Social Gulf
• Calpulli
– Transformed from clans to groupings by
residence
– Distribute land, labor
– Maintain temples, schools
– Basis of military organization
• Noble class develops from some calpulli
– Military virtues give them status
– Serf-like workers on their lands
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
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Widening Social Gulf
• Social gaps widen
– Imperial family at head of pipiltin
• Calpulli of merchants
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
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Overcoming Technological
Constraints
• Women have various roles
– Can own property
– No public roles
• Elite polygamy
– Most monogamous
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
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Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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A Tribute Empire
• Speaker
– One rules each city-state
• Great Speaker
– Rules Tenochtitlan
– Prime Minister powerful
• Subjugated states could remain
autonomous
– Owe tribute, labor
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
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Twantinsuyu:
World of the Incas
• Tihuanaco, Huari (c. 550-1000 C.E.)
– After 1000, smaller regional states
• Chimor (900-1465)
– North coast of Peru
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
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The Inca Rise to Power
• Cuzco area
– Quechua-speaking clans (ayllus)
– Huari
– Control regions by 1438, under Pachacuti
• Topac Yupanqui
– Son of Pachacuti
– Conquered Chimor
– Rule extended to Ecuador, Chile
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
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The Inca Rise to Power
• Huayna Capac
– Furthers conquests of Topac Yupanqui
– 1527, death
 Twantinsuyu (empire)
• From Colombia to Chile
• To Bolivia, Argentina
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
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Inca Expansion
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
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City of Chan-Chan
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
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Conquest and Religion
• "Split inheritance"
– Power to successor
– Wealth, land to male descendants
– Result is continual conquest
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
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Conquest and Religion
• Religion
– Sun god supreme
 Represented by ruler (Inca)
 Temple of the Sun at Cuzco
– Local gods survive
 Huacas
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
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The Techniques of
Inca Imperial Rule
• Inca
– Rules from Cuzco
– Governors of four provinces
– Bureaucracy
– Local rulers (curacas)
• Unification
– Quechua
– Forced transfers
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
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The Techniques of
Inca Imperial Rule
• Military
– System of roads, way stations (tambos),
storehouses
• State
– Redistributive economy
– Building, irrigation projects
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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The Techniques of
Inca Imperial Rule
• Gender cooperation
– Ideology of complementarity of sexes
– Also seen in cosmology
 Inca's senior wife links state to moon
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
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The Ancient Cities of Peru
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
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Inca Cultural Achievements
• Metallurgy
• Knotted strings (quipu)
– Accounting
• Monumental architecture
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Comparing Incas and Aztecs
• Similarities
– Built on earlier empires
– Excellent organizers
– Intensive agriculture under state control
– Redistributive economy
– Kinship transformed to hierarchy
– Ethnic groups allowed to survive
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Comparing Incas and Aztecs
• Differences
– Aztecs have better developed trade, markets
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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The Other Peoples of the
Americas
• Great variety elsewhere
– Not all in the Neolithic pattern
 Some use irrigation for agriculture
• Formed no states
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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How Many People?
• Larger densities in Mesoamerica, Andes
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
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Differing Cultural Patterns
• Caribbean islands
– Some similar to Polynesian societies
• c. 1500
– 200 languages in North America
– Mississipian mounds abandoned
– Anasazi descendants along Rio Grande
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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American Indian Diversity in
World Context
• Two great imperial systems by 1500
– Mesoamerica and the Andes
weakened
– Technologically behind Europeans
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Population Estimate for the
Western Hemisphere, 1492
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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World Population, c. 1500
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Global Connections:
The Americas and the World
• Comparison with Afro-Eurasia
– Highlights connectedness of Afro-Eurasia
– Americas isolated
 High achievement
 Success of systems
 But isolation has dire consequences following
contact with the rest of the world in the 1400s
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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