World Civilizations
The Global Experience
AP* Sixth Edition
Chapter
31
Western Society and
Eastern Europe in the
Decades of the Cold War
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Western Society and Eastern Europe
in the Decades of the Cold War
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
After World War II: A New International Setting
for the West
The Resurgence of Western Europe
Cold War Allies: The United States, Canada,
Australia, and New Zealand
Culture and Society in the West
Europe After World War II: A Soviet Empire
Soviet Culture: Promoting New Beliefs and
Institutions
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Western Society and Eastern Europe
in the Decades of the Cold War
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Western Society and Eastern Europe
in the Decades of the Cold War
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
After World War II: A New
International Setting for the West
• Europe and Its Colonies
– Most colonies abandoned
 hostility
 force necessary
• force eschewed
– Vietnam
 French forced out, 1954
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
After World War II: A New
International Setting for the West
• Europe and Its Colonies
– Algeria
 independence, 1962
– Egypt
 Britain, France attack
 U.S., Russia force them to withdraw
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
The Cold War
• Eastern block formed
– Czechoslovakia, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria,
Hungary, East Germany
• Marshall Plan, 1947
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
The Cold War
• Germany
– allies rebuild, from 1946
– Russian blockade, 1947
– American airlift
– split, 1948
• NATO, 1949
• Warsaw Pact
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Soviet and Eastern European
Boundaries by 1948
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
The Spread of Aryan Settlement
• Aryans are named for their use of Sanskrit
and other languages included in the IndoAryan family of languages
• Arrived in waves from either central Asia
or the Iranian plateau, mixed with local
people and moved eastward to the
Ganges by 1000 B.C.E.
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Germany After World War II
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
The Resurgence of Western
Europe
• The Spread of Liberal Democracy
– Christian Democrats
 social reform
• Federal Republic of Germany
• France
– Fifth Republic, 1958
• Portugal, Spain
– democratic, parliamentary systems
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
The Resurgence of Western
Europe
• The Welfare State
– Western Europe
 United States, Canada later
 unemployment insurance
 medicine
 housing
 family assistance
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
The European Union
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
New Challenges to Political
Stability
• Civil rights movement
• Feminism, environmentalism
– Green Movement
• The Diplomatic Context
– European Economic Community, 1958
 Common Market
– Single currency, 2001
 euro
– European Community, 2002
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Economic Expansion
• Economic growth
• High unemployment elsewhere
– workers into Europe, U.S.
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Women at Work
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Cold War Allies: The United States,
Canada, Australia, and New Zealand
• The Former Dominions
– Canada
 welfare policies
 French/English division
 1982, new constitution
– Australia, New Zealand
 defense pact with U.S., 1951
 take part in Korean War
 Australia supports U.S. in Vietnam
 from 1970s, more independent
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
The "U.S. Century"?
• 1950s
– policy of containment against Soviet Union
• Vietnam, 1960s
– U.S. withdraws, 1975
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Culture and Society in the West
• Social Structure
– White-collar sector expands
– Crime rates increase
– Racism, anti-immigration conflict
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Culture and Society in the West
• The Women's Revolution
– 1950s
 more education
 job opportunities
 access to divorce
 reproductive rights
– Simone de
 The Second Sex, 1949
 Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Culture and Society in the West
• Western Culture
– "Brain drain" to U.S.
– Genetics, nuclear, space research
– Pop art
– Pablo Picasso
• A Lively Popular Culture
– Vitality in popular culture
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Europe After World War II:
A Soviet Empire
• The Soviet Union as Superpower
– Expands in Pacific
 Pacific Islands, North Korea
– Influence via aid
 Chinese, Vietnamese communism
 Nationalists in Africa, Middle East, Asia
– Cuba
 alliance
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
The New Soviet Empire in
Eastern Europe
• Dominance of all but Greece, Albania,
Yugoslavia
• East Germans protest, 1953
– suppressed
– Berlin Wall, 1961
 to stop flight to west
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
The New Soviet Empire in
Eastern Europe
• After 1956, death of Stalin
– Hungary, Poland
 moderate regimes
 Hungary crushed
– Czechoslovakia
 liberal regime
 suppressed, 1968
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
The New Soviet Empire in
Eastern Europe
• Poland
– Army takes control, 1970s
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Evolution of Domestic Policies
• Cultural isolation
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Soviet Culture: Promoting New
Beliefs and Institutions
• Orthodox Church
– state control
• Jews restricted
• Party ideals dictate art
– literature retains vitality
– Alexander Solzhenitsyn
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Economy and Society
• Industrialization by 1950s
– state control
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Economy and Society
• De-Stalinization
– Kruschev, 1956
– attacks Stalinism
– followed by stagnation
• Space, arms race
• Rift with China, 1950s
• Invasion of Afghanistan
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Global Connections:
The Cold War and the World
• The cold war dominates much of the
history of the period from1945 to 1992
– Some countries profit
• Commonalities
– Secularism
– Emphasis on science
– Challenges to social conventions
World Civilizations: The Global Experience, AP* Sixth Edition
Stearns • Adas • Schwartz • Gilbert
Copyright ©2011, ©2007, ©2004 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Descargar

Slide 1