1660-1715
CHAPTER
4
African Enslavement:
The Terrible
Transformation
CREATED EQUAL
JONES  WOOD  MAY  BORSTELMANN  RUIZ
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“to live in ease and plenty by the toil
of those whom violence and cruelty
have put in our power” was clearly
not “consistent with Christianity or
common justice.”
John Woolman, Some Considerations
on the Keeping of Negroes, 1754
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TIMELINE
1619
1625
1640
1652
1662
1664
1665
1672
1676
1691
Dutch warship brings 20 African men and women to Virginia
Brazil major importer of slaves
Virginia’s General Court sentences John Punch to servitude
for the rest of his life
Rhode Island passes law limiting all involuntary service to
no more than 10 years
Virginia law makes slavery hereditary
Maryland law regarding religion and slaves, making slavery
race-based.
The Great Plague in Europe
The Royal African Company chartered
Bacon’s Rebellion
Virginia law outlawing interracial marriages
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TIMELINE
1712
1713
1723
1731
1733
1739
1741
1750
1754
New York City Revolt
England contracts to deliver Africans to Spanish colonies
Virginia statues prevent free people of color from voting, unfair
taxes, and outlaws their holding firearms
New Orleans slave plots
Savannah, Georgia established by Oglethorpe
Stono Rebellion
New York Slave Plot
Blacks make up 60% of South Carolina’s population
Georgia permits slavery
Georgia becomes a royal colony
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THE TERRIBLE
TRANSFORMATION Overview
 The Descent into Race Slavery
 The Growth of Slave Labor Camps
 England Enters the Atlantic Slave
Trade
 Survival in a Strange New Land
 The Transformation Completed
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THE DESCENT INTO
RACE SLAVERY
 The Caribbean Precedent
 Ominous Beginnings
 Alternative Sources of Labor
 The Fateful Transition
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The Caribbean Precedent
 Native population declined through epidemics
and slave trade expanded
 Gold in Mexico and Peru
 Asiento (contract allowed slave imports to Spanish
colonies)
 Portuguese purchased Africans for sugar plantations
in Brazil
 Christian dilemma of slave trade resolved by
considering Africans infidels
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Ominous Beginnings
 1619: Dutch brought 20 African men
and women to Virginia.
 1640: African sentenced to unending
servitude “for the time of his natural
life” and a law passes prohibiting
blacks from bearing arms.
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Alternative Sources of Labor
 Captured Native
Americans
Impoverished
Europeans
 Succumb to epidemics
 Integral player in deerskin trade
 Wilderness diplomacy
undermined
 Conflicts on the frontier
Kidnapping outlawed
Indentured servants and
“freedom dues”
“Feedback loop” enabling
prospective immigrants to know
of mistreatments
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The Fateful Transition
 1662: Virginia accorded slave status based
on whether the mother is free or enslaved
(slavery inherited).
 1664: Maryland law changed consideration
of slavery from religious status to skin
color.
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THE GROWTH OF SLAVE
LABOR CAMPS
 Black involvement in Bacon’s
Rebellion
 The Rise of a Slaveholding Tidewater
Elite
 Closing the Vicious Circle in the
Chesapeake
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Black Involvement in
Bacon’s Rebellion
 Chesapeake region in 1676
 Freed, indentured servants in search of land
backed Bacon’s Rebellion
 Slaves also recruited with the promise of
liberty from Bacon
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The Rise of a Slaveholding
Tidewater Elite
 Divide and Conquer
 Improve the poor whites’ conditions and
reduce the legal status of Africans
 Longer lives make freed indentured servants
competitors to plantation owners; slaves work
lasted a lifetime
 Plantation owners reap large profits
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Closing the Vicious Circle in
the Chesapeake
 Expanded slave-trading made slaves
available and affordable
 Land bonus to anyone who purchased
an African arrival
 1691: Virginia banned interracial
marriage
 1705: Virginia’s Negro Act
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ENGLAND ENTERS THE
ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE
 Trade Ties Between Europe and Africa
 The Slave Trade on the African Coast
 The Middle Passage Experience
 Saltwater Slaves Arrive in America
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 Regions of the African Slave Trade
in 1700
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Trade Ties Between
Europe and Africa
 Portuguese trading posts on African’s west
coast
 Africans traded in gold and ivory for
European textiles and alcohol
 Africans also traveled to Europe to gain
knowledge of European languages, ideas,
and religion.
 Aniaga of Guinea
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The Slave Trade on the
African Coast
 Sugar production in America spurred more slave
trading on the African coast. Local servants
bartered and/or war captives traded.
 By 1670s, 15,000 people traded into slavery per
year.
 Congo-Angola supplied 4.5 million Africans to
slave trade during the entire life of slave trading.
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The Middle Passage
Experience
 The 5 stages
 Capture and deportation
 Sale and imprisonment
 The Middle Passage: crossing the Atlantic
 The selling process
 Time of seasoning
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Saltwater Slaves Arrive
in America
 “Saltwater slaves”
 Newly arrived slaves from Africa, as opposed
to “country-born slaves”
 Time of seasoning
 Time to heal from voyage, begin learning a
new language
 Adapt to strange foods, environment, and to
their forced bondage
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SURVIVAL IN A STRANGE
NEW LAND
 African Rice Growers in South
Carolina
 Patterns of Resistance
 A Wave of Rebellion
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 Enslaved
People Living
in North
America in
1750:
Distribution by
Colony,
Percentage of
Total
Population
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African Rice Growers in
South Carolina
 South Carolina: the highest proportion of slaves.
A black majority and a white minority.
 Sullivan’s Island’s quarantine reduced epidemics.
 South Carolina closer to Africa and Caribbean
 Subtropical climate favorable to African crop of rice.
First used by slaves for their own food, it enriched
the plantation owners as export to England (for rice
pudding) and European countries as cheap grain for
soldiers, orphans, and peasants.
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Patterns of Resistance
 Running away, burning the harvest,
killing masters and overseers
 New York Slave Revolt of 1712
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A Wave of Rebellion
 1731: New Orleans slave plots
 1739: Stono River uprising near
Charleston
 1740: Charleston slave plot and great
fire
 1741: New York City slave plot
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THE TRANSFORMATION
COMPLETED
 Uncertain Voices of Dissent
 Is This Consistent “with Christianity or
Common Justice”?
 Oglethorpe’s Antislavery Experiment
 The End of Equality in Georgia
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Uncertain Voices of Dissent
 Restriction of manumissions (grants of individual freedom
by masters) in Virginia
 1723: additional statutes prevented free people of color from voting, taxed
them unfairly, and prevent them from owning or carrying firearms
 The North became economically and legally committed to
slavery making it difficult for blacks to gain their
freedom.
 1700: Judge Samuel Sewell, The Selling of Joseph
 1706: Cotton Mather, The Negro Christianized
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Is This Consistent “with Christianity or
Common Justice”?
 Thomas Bray
 1701: established the Society for the Propagation of the
Gospel in Foreign Parts (SPG)
 Christian Priber
 1735: attempted to establish a multiracial “Paradise” in
southern Appalachia
 1743: arrested and brought to jail, but died before trial
 John Woolman
 Quaker who questioned fellow Quakers on their purchasing of
slaves
 1754: Some Considerations on the Keeping of Negroes
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Oglethorpe’s Antislavery
Experiment
 1733: Governor James Oglethorpe and 114 settlers
established Savannah in Georgia.
 1735: Law enacted that prohibited slavery and
excluded free blacks from the colony.
 Oglethorpe impressed with the fighting he
encountered from ex-slaves proclaims: embittered
slaves “ would be either Recruits to an Enemy or
Plunder for them.”
 1785: Oglethorpe dies opposing the slave trade.
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The End of Equality
in Georgia
 1742: Spain invaded Georgia
 Battle of Bloody Marsh on St. Simon’s Island
 Malcontents in Savannah and merchants pushed for the
legalization of slavery to overcome Georgia’s hardships
(climate, poor soil, restrictive land policies, lack of
representative government)
 1750: Trustees allowed acreage to be bought and sold
freely
 January, 1, 1751: slavery permitted in Georgia
 1754: Georgia became a royal colony
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 English-Spanish
Competition and the
Expansion of Slavery
into Georgia
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CHAPTER 15