2
Cross-Cultural
Business
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
What is Culture?
Set of values, beliefs, rules, and institutions held by
a specific group of people
Ethnocentricity
Cultural literacy
Belief that one’s own
ethnic group or culture
is superior to that of
others
Detailed knowledge of a
culture that enables a
person to function
effectively within it
X
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
√
2-2
Culture Matters:
Creating a Global Mindset
Cultural
Adaptability
Bridging
the Gap
Building
Global Mentality
Flexibility
Is Key
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2-3
National Culture
Nation states build museums and monuments to
preserve the legacies of important events and people
Filmmaking
and
Broadcasting
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
Guggenheim
and
Hong Kong Disney
2-4
Subculture
People who share a unique way of life within a larger
culture (language, race, lifestyle, attitudes, etc.)
EXAMPLES
Goth, Punk, Emo
China’s Dialects
Groups in U.S.
Arabs Globally
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2-5
Components of Culture
Physical
environments
Education
Aesthetics
Culture
Personal
communication
Values &
attitudes
Manners &
customs
Social structure
Religion
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2-6
Aesthetics
Music
Painting
Dance
Drama
Architecture
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2-7
Values and Attitudes
Values
Ideas, beliefs, and
customs to which people
are emotionally attached
• Freedom
• Responsibility
• Honesty
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
Attitudes
Positive or negative
evaluations, feelings, and
tendencies people hold
toward objects or concepts
• Time
• Work
• Cultural change
2-8
Manners and Customs
Manners
Customs
Appropriate behavior,
speech, and dressing
in general
Traditional ways or
behavior in specific
circumstances
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2-9
Customs
Folk
Popular
Gift Giving
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2 - 10
Social Structure
Social group
Two or more people who identify and
interact with each other
Social stratification
Process of ranking people into social layers
Social mobility
Ease of moving up or down a culture's
"social ladder"
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2 - 11
World Religions
Christianity
Islam
Hinduism
Buddhism
Origin of
Human Values
Confucianism
Judaism
Shinto
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2 - 12
Language Blunders
 Japanese knife manufacturer labeled its exports to the United States
with “Caution: Blade extremely sharp! Keep out of children.”
 English sign in a Moscow hotel read, “You are welcome to visit the
cemetery where famous Russians are buried daily, except Thursday.”
 Sign for non-Japanese-speaking guests in a Tokyo hotel read, “You
are respectfully requested to take advantage of the chambermaids.”
 Sign in English at Copenhagen ticket office read, “We take your bags
and send them in all directions.”
 Braniff Airlines’ English-language slogan “Fly in Leather” was
translated into “Fly Naked” in Spanish.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2 - 13
Lingua Franca
¿Hola?
Guten Tag?
Ni Hao?
Bonjour?
Hello??
Hello!!!
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2 - 14
Mixed Signals
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2 - 15
Education
Cultures pass on traditions, customs, and values through
schooling, parenting, group memberships, etc.
Education level
Well-educated attract high-paying jobs, while poorly educated
attract low-paying manufacturing jobs
Brain drain
Departure of highly educated people from one profession,
geographic region or nation to another
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2 - 16
Problem of Illiteracy
Source: Based on World Development Indicators, World Bank Web site (www.worldbank.org).
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2 - 17
Physical and Material Culture
These influence a culture’s development and pace of change
Topography
Physical features characterizing the surface of a geographic region
Climate
Weather conditions of a geographic region
Material Culture
Technology used to manufacture goods and provide services
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2 - 18
Hofstede Framework
Individualism
vs. collectivism
Power
distance
Uncertainty
avoidance
Achievement
vs. nurturing
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
Long-term
orientation
2 - 19
Power Distance &
Individualism vs. Collectivism
Source: Geert Hofstede, “The Cultural Relativity of Organizational Practices and Theories,” Journal of International Business Studies, Fall 1983, p. 82.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2 - 20
Power Distance &
Uncertainty Avoidance
Source: Geert Hofstede, “The Cultural Relativity of Organizational Practices and Theories,” Journal of International Business Studies, Fall 1983, p. 84.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2 - 21
Descargar

Cross-Cultural Business - Mid