TTS IN HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS
AN EVALUATION OF IMPLEMENTATION OF
TENURE TRACK SYSTEM (TTS) IN HIGHER
EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS OF PAKISTAN
A CASE STUDY OF GC UNIVERSITY
LAHORE
By: Prof.Dr.Nasira Jabeen, Phd
& Tayyeb Ali Khan, MPhil.
1st International Conference on Business Management 2011
Tuesday March 29, 2011
CONTRIBUTORS
1. Tayyeb Ali Khan
M.Phil in Management
Institute of Administrative Sciences,
University of the Punjab, Lahore
Research Interests: Human Resource Management,
Organizational Behaviour, Public Sector Reforms
Email: [email protected]
1st International Conference on Business Management 2011
March 29, 2011
CONTRIBUTORS
2. Dr. Nasira Jabeen
Professor of Public Administration
Director, Institute of Administrative Sciences,
University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
Post-Doctorate
South Asia Institute, University of Austin at Texas, USA.
Research Interests: Governance, Human Resource
Development, Public Sector Reforms.
1st International Conference on Business Management 2011
March 29, 2011
CONTENTS
1
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
2
METHODOLOGY
3
RESULTS
4
DISSCUSSION
5
CONCLUSION
1st International Conference on Business Management 2011
March 29, 2011
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The main purpose of the study was to review the of
implementation status of TTS in higher education
institutions of Pakistan and to investigate factors
that facilitate or impede implementation of TTS as
part of administrative reform.
Since GCU is the first among General Universities of
the Punjab which adopted TTS and implemented
the scheme in 2005 it was selected as a case in point
for the study.
1st International Conference on Business Management 2011
March 29, 2011
STUDY QUESTIONS
The study attempts to provide insights to the following
questions:
 What were the perceived and actual constraints for adopting
tenure track system in higher education institutions of
Pakistan?
 What were the various problems faced by the public
universities in adopting the system and how were they
handled ?
 What were the major challenges of the TTS in terms of
performance measurement, quality improvement, and
evaluation of teaching, research and administrative services?
 What improvements can be made to the system? Is there any
alternative to the system?
1st International Conference on Business Management 2011
March 29, 2011
JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
 Presently, public sector universities in Pakistan are
confronted with the challenge of adopting Tenure Track
System (TTS) as a new performance based system towards
improving performance of faculty and quality of higher
education institutions.
 Other universities can learn from the example of GC
University for implementation of tenure track system in
their respective universities.
 This study will help the stakeholders towards
strengthening the system and remove its constraints at an
early stage.
1st International Conference on Business Management 2011
March 29, 2011
METHODOLOGY
 Since the basic aim of the study was to capture meanings
and significance rather than measuring or quantifying
aspects of implementation effectiveness. Participants’
experiences and subjective interpretations were utilized to
reach the findings of the study.
 Both primary and secondary sources of information were
utilized for collection of data while secondary sources of
information included examination of tenure track
statutes, written correspondence of HEC with universities,
primary sources consisted of semi structured interviews
with respondents.
1st International Conference on Business Management 2011
March 29, 2011
RESULTS
 The findings of the study revealed that tenure track system
had been dominated by few universities.
 Out of 110 higher education institutions and centers, six
institutions has 61% of total tenure faculty.
 COMSATS has the highest number of tenure track faculty
(19%) and they have increased their tenure track faculty
almost six times in the year 2007-08 as compared to the year
2006-07.
 This allows us to make generalization that the focus of TTS
is on limited universities.
 The operational difficulties experienced by many
implementing agencies were not anticipated, that is why we
see many versions of TTS statutes over the time.
1st International Conference on Business Management 2011
March 29, 2011
RESULTS
 Gender wise breakup of the TTS reflected that overall
representation of women on tenure track has been quite low
as compared to their male counterparts. This also indicates
inherit bias in the system which have few women at senior
academic/administrative rank(s) in universities as is
exhibited in given below table:
Table 2.0
TTS faculty (2006-07)
Male Female Total
Total
94
28
122
Percentage 77% 23%
TTS Faculty gender wise breakup
TTS faculty (2007-08)
Male Female
Total
324 43
367
88% 12%
1st International Conference on Business Management 2011
TTS faculty (Total)
Male Female Total
418
71
489
85% 15%
March 29, 2011
RESULTS
 The basic assumption of TTS is that it will promote a culture
of quality and performance in Higher Education Institutions
of Pakistan.
 It went through lot of revisions due to the various concerns
of the existing faculty, who did not want to disturb the
equilibrium of power within their departments and
universities.
 Almost all the tenure track faculty perceived that number of
research publications was the only criteria on which their
performance would be judged in future.
 Somehow, the link of awarding tenure track with the
performance of tenure track faculty was missing.
1st International Conference on Business Management 2011
March 29, 2011
RESULTS
 Due to many uncertainties associated with the scheme,
most of the tenure track faculty perceived it as a short term
incentive.
 An important lesson learnt was that in case of any
fundamental change to be introduced in universities, the
existing cultural context and authority structure of the
implementing universities need to be studied carefully.
 Why did the universities hired more professors on tenure
track? One possible explanation drawn from the findings
was that those professors normally hold important
authority positions in universities, and in order to maintain
their authority structure they were given preference while
granting TTS.
1st International Conference on Business Management 2011
March 29, 2011
RESULTS
Rank
200607
200708
% increase in 2007- Total
TTS
08
faculty till Year
2008
Professor
52
108
108%
160
Associate Professor
31
35
13%
66
Assistant Professor
39
224
474%
263
Total
122
367
201%
489
1st International Conference on Business Management 2011
March 29, 2011
DISSCUSSION
 The major theme that emerged about perceived and actual
constraints about implementation of TTS revealed that
financial funds were not adequate for the scheme. The
scheme future totally depends on financial condition of
HEC.
 All respondents were agreed that university had autonomy
for implementing TTS.
 Some faculty members criticized the scheme that it created
a class culture in the university.
 GCU was a young university and implemented the system as
its university systems were in stage of transitions.
 GCU has a centralized system and this fact supported the
swift implementation of TTS as compared to the other
universities.
1st International Conference on Business Management 2011
March 29, 2011
DISSCUSSION
 Pay was the main motivation for almost all TTS faculty for
joining the scheme.
 Most of the TTS faculty agreed that it improved
performance of teachers in the area of research.
 The theme emerged that Tenure Track Faculty was
dissatisfied with the existing evaluation criteria with its
narrow focus on publications. This dissatisfaction is quite
high in social sciences and languages faculty.
 Most of the respondents were of the view that evaluation
methods were not clearly communicated. The university
should conduct an orientation on evaluation methods of
tenure track faculty and clearly communicate performance
expectations.
1st International Conference on Business Management 2011
March 29, 2011
DISSCUSSION
 Culture of dependence generally prevails in our higher
education institutions, especially those who are financially
weak. GCU was not able to support the scheme through
their own funds.
 The need of recognition was largely felt in the faculty
including TTS and non TTS members.
 It is recommended that financially weak universities should
not be included in this scheme as it would disturb their
whole reward system.
1st International Conference on Business Management 2011
March 29, 2011
CONCLUSION
 Furthermore, TTS statutes should be concrete and flexible
in terms of accomplishing the objectives.
 Different universities have different contexts and may
develop different labor contract arrangements. By saying
TTS is the only reward model for future hiring might put
the institutions in a straitjacket.
1st International Conference on Business Management 2011
March 29, 2011
CONCLUSION
It was observed during the study that
absence of adequate university support system,
 reluctance of universities for committing resources for the
scheme,
 inadequate financial support,
 ignoring large number of existing faculty,
 lack of trust among stakeholders
 insufficient government funding,
 and changes in government priorities
also pose serious hindrances in the path of successful
implementation of the system.

1st International Conference on Business Management 2011
March 29, 2011
CONCLUSION
 To sum up, in order to make the scheme successful, it
should be perceived as equitable with the same rewards
forthcoming for the same effort.
 More coordination and feedback mechanism need to be
established between HEC and universities.
 Separate titles for research and teaching can be used in
order to differentiate their performance standards.
 The dimension of practice can be incorporated for practical
disciplines like medicine and business. This can be added as
another dimension for awarding tenure track.
 The university support systems should be improved to
reduce wastage of faculty time. Weak work systems affect
the working of teachers.
1st International Conference on Business Management 2011
March 29, 2011
CONCLUSION
 Scales of teaching should be separated from civil servants
scale. And in case of using the same scale, similar facilities,
perks and benefits should be offered to the academic
community.
 Universities may come up with their own reward system for
their teachers based on equity, fairness and clear outcomes
linked with performance only then the system is expected to
come up to the desired outcomes of quality and
performance on a continued basis.
 Role of Dean has been changed, now it involves many
administrative activities. Therefore they should be
evaluated accordingly.
 A specialized human resource department is a need of the
day. This department will look into modern HR practice and
help the university in its process of implementation.
1st International Conference on Business Management 2011
March 29, 2011
PRESENT OUTLOOK OF TENURE TRACK
SYSTEM (TTS)
 The current statistics cited in given below tables
highlighted the fact that this scheme gradually gained
grounds at the ranks of Assistant Professors. The number
of tenure track faculty increased from 489 (Dec 2008) to
906 (Jan 2011).(Asst. Prof. from 263(Dec 08) to – 727
(Jan2011))
 This was initial focus of the scheme and it was designed to
attract young PhDs to join this scheme.
 This scheme is now slowly getting its momentum among
young academia and its sustainability depends on various
factors which have been before.
 There is a decreasing trend in ranks of Associate Professor
and Professor. (Prof. from 160(Dec 08) to 136(Jan 2011) ,
Associate Prof. from 66(Dec 08) to – 43(Jan 2011))
1st International Conference on Business Management 2011
March 29, 2011
Fe
b09
Ap
r-0
9
Ju
n09
Au
g09
Oc
t-0
9
De
c-0
9
Fe
b10
Ap
r-1
0
Ju
n10
Au
g10
Oc
t-1
0
De
c-1
0
1000
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
De
c
-0
8
number
Tenure Track Faculty Strength according to rank
year
1st International Conference on Business Management 2011
Professor
Associate
Professor
Assistant
Professor
Total
March 29, 2011
PRESENT OUTLOOK OF TENURE TRACK SYSTEM
(TTS)
 Academics at senior ranks are less motivated to join the
scheme as remuneration difference among TTS and BPS
scheme has been reduced.
 This is due to annual increase in salary of BPS faculty, extra
payment to BPS faculty members for their extra
administrative and teaching work whereas TTS scale has not
been revised since 2008.
 Another reason for decline of TTS professor might be that
many professors have reached the age of retirement.
1st International Conference on Business Management 2011
March 29, 2011
PRESENT OUTLOOK OF TENURE TRACK SYSTEM
(TTS)
 According to the
data presented
above, 68.2% of
total funds
released to ten
universities. 46
universities got
TTS funds in
year 2010.
Table : Tenure Track Faculty Appointed in Universities /
Institutes / Centres (September - 2010)
% of
University / Institute /
Tenure Track
total
S.No.
Centre
Funds Released
funds
released
Quaid-i-Azam
1
University, Islamabad
132,810,736
18.3%
COMSATS Institute of
2
IT, Islamabad
78,174,658
10.7%
University of the
3
Punjab, Lahore
76,169,410
10.5%
Government College
4
University, Lahore
48,155,752
6.6%
University of
Agriculture,
Faisalabad
5
35,499,417
4.9%
International Islamic
University, Islamabad
6
33,170,306
4.6%
University of
Balochistan, Quetta
7
26,231,998
3.6%
Hazara University,
Dhodial, Mansehra
8
25,360,752
3.5%
Bahauddin Zakariya
9
University, Multan
22,059,402
3.0%
University of
Veterinary & Animal
10
Sciences, Lahore
18,460,434
2.5%
Total
496,092,865
68%
1st International Conference on Business Management 2011
March 29, 2011
1st International Conference on Business Management 2011
March 29, 2011
AN IDEIGENOUS MODEL FOR
IMPLEMENTATION OF TTS IN HIGHER
EDUCATION INSTITUTION OF PAKISTAN
UNIVERSITY BASED FACTORS
ENDEGENOUS (INTERNAL) FACTORS

ENVIORNEMENTAL FACTORS
GOVERNEMENT BUDGET FOR HIGHER
EDUCATION
HEC BUDGET FOR TTS SYSTEM
1) AGE OF A UNIVERSITY
2) SIZE OF UNIVERSITY IN
TERMS OF NUMBER OF
FACULTY MEMBERS
3) ADEQUACY OF EXISTING
REWARD SYSTEM
4) ADEQUACY OF EXISTING
TTS STATUES
5) PERCEPTION OF FACULTY
ABOUT EVALUATION
METHODS FOR TTS
6) PERCEPTION OF FACULTY
7) ABOUT ELIGIBILITY
CRITERIA FOR TTS
8) LEADERSHIP
9) MISSION AND VISION OF
UNIVERSITY
10) UNDERSTANDING OF TTS IN
CONTEXT OF PAKISTAN
11) UNIVERSITY AUTONOMY IN
TERMS OF DESIGN AND
IMPLEMENTATION OF TTS
12) UNIVERSITY POLITICS
13) ROLE OF TEACHER’S
ASSOCIATION
14) LEVEL OF SUPPORT FOR TTS
15) CAPACITY OF UNIVERSITY IN
TERMS OF ABILITY AND RESOURCES
TO IMPLEMENT TTS
16) ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE
OF UNIVERSITY
IMPLEMENTATION OF TENURE
TRACK SYSTEM (TTS)
EXOEGENOUS (EXTERNAL) FACTORS
1) TTS DESIRED OUTCOMES AS MENTIONED BY HEC
2) ALLOCATION OF DISCRETION TO UNIVERSITY FOR AMENDMENTS IN
STATUES
3) FINANCIAL INCENTIVES FOR IMPLEMENTING TTS
4) OPENNESS OF HEC FOR FEEDBACK ABOUT TTS
5) SUPPORT OF HEC IN TERMS OF RESEARCH FACILITIES, RESEARCH GRANTS,
FINANCIAL BACKUP
1st International Conference on Business Management 2011
March 29, 2011
Descargar

Template