Higher Education in India:
Issues and Concerns
By
Poonam Bhushan
School of Education
IGNOU, Maidan Garhi
New Delhi-68
1
Table : Number of Institutions
C: Higher Education Institutions
Type of Institutions
Numbers
I. Universities
1. Central Universities
18
2. State Universities
275
3. Institutions established under States
Legislature Act
5
4. Institution deemed to be University
96
5. Institutions of National Importance
13
6. Research Institutes
136
Total
543
2
Typology of Higher Education Institutions
(2004-2005)
Type
Ownership
Financing No. of
No. of
Institutions students
Univ. under the Govt.
Public
Public
239
Private Universities
Private
Private
11
10,000
Deemed Universities
(aided)
Private or
Public
Public
38
40,000
Deemed Universities
(unaided)
Private
Private
72
60,000
Colleges under the
Government
Public
Public
4225
2,750,000
Private Colleges (aided)
Private
Public
5750
3,450,000
2750000Private Colleges
(unaided)
Private
Private
7650
3,150,000
Foreign Institutions
Private
Private
150
Total
18123
1,00,000
8,000
3
10,468,000
Table 5: Public Expenditures on Higher Education
Year
Expenditure Expenditure on
Expenditure on
on Edn. as % Higher Edn.as % of Higher Edn as
of GDP
Expenditure on Edn % of GDP
1981-1990
3.59
15.6
0.34
1991-2000
3.77
19.3
0.72
2001-02
3.82
17.9
0.69
2002-03
3.80
18.5
0.70
2003-04
3.50
17.8
0.62
2004-05 (RE)
3.68
18.0
0.66
4
Students Enrolment by Academic
Discipline (2002-2003)
S.
No.
Faculty
1.
Arts
41,58,606
45.07
2.
Science
18,34,493
19.88
3.
Commerce/Management
16,60,238
17.99
4.
Education
1,32,572
1.43
5.
Engineering/Technology
6,92,087
7.50
6.
Medicine
3,00,669
3.25
7.
Agriculture
55,367
0.60
8.
Veterinary Science
14,765
0.16
9.
Law
2,98,291
3.23
10.
Others
80,745
0.88
Total
Enrolment
92,27,833
%age of
Total
5
100.00
Table 1 : Enrolment Rate 2004-05
Rural, Urban – 2004-05
Total
10.84
Rural
6.74
Urban
19.88
6
ER for Graduate and above 2004-05
(Rural & Urban)
19.88
20
10.84
6.74
10
0
Total
Rural
Urban
7
Enrolment Rate –
Male, Female - 2004-05
Male
Female
12.42
9.11
8
ER- Male, Female - 2004-05
12.42
9.11
15
10
5
0
Male
Female
9
ER-Social Groups – 2004-05
Social Groups
Total
ST
6.57
SC
6.52
OBC
8.77
Others
17.22
Total
10.84
10
ER- Social Groups - 2004-05
17.22
20
15
10
6.57
6.52
ST
SC
8.77
10.84
5
0
OBC Others Total
11
Table : GER by Income Level –
2004-05
Income Level
Total
Less than 359.1
1.46
359.11 to 461.14
3.37
461.17 to 587.33
4.88
587.38 to 830.44
9.81
More than 830.5
27.43
Total
10.84
12
GER for Graduate and above by by Income
Level - 2004-05
27.43
30
20
9.81
10
0
1.47
> 359.1
3.37
359.11461.14
10.84
4.88
461.1 587.33
587.38 - < 830.5
830.44
Total
13
University Grants Commission (UGC)
The UGC Act, 1956, Ministry of HRD
www.ugc.ac.in
Statutory
Mandate
Coordination and determination of standards
in higher education and research in the
country
Primary
Function
Release of grants to universities and colleges
Other
Functions
Recognition of Universities and colleges
(including eligibility for central grants)
specification of degrees; Minimum standards
of instruction, common pay scales, common
facilities and institutional accreditation through
NAAC
14
Distance Education Council (DEC)
Sec. 25 of IGNOU Act, 1985, Ministry of HRD
www.ignou.ac.in/dec/
Statutory
Mandate
Primary
Function
Other
Functions
Promotion, coordination and
determination of standards of the
open universities and distance
education systems in the country.
Release of grants to open
universities and correspondence
course institutes
Initiated assessment and
accreditation activities
15
All India Council for Technical Education
(AICTE) AICTE Act, 1987, Ministry of HRD,
www.aicte.ernet.in
Statutory
Mandate
Primary
Function
Other
Functions
Planning and coordinated
development of technical
education in the country
Approval of degree and diploma
programs in engineering,
architecture, pharmacy and hotel
management
Funding for institutional and
faculty development, pay scales
and qualifications of teachers
accreditation through NAAC
16
Medical Council of India (MCI)
MCI Act, 1953, Ministry of Health,
www.mciindia.org
Statutory
Mandate
Primary
Function
Other
Functions
To establish standards in medical
education and to define medical
qualifications in India and abroad
Registration of medical
practioners and recognition of
medical institutions
Eligibility criteria for admissions;
exam. for recognition of foreign
qualifications for practice in India.
17
The Council of Architecture (COA)
The Architects Act, 1972,
Ministry of Urban Development, www.coa-india.org
Statutory
Mandate
Regulate profession and practice of
architects and town planners in India
Primary
Function
Registration of architects, maintaining
standards of education, recognized
qualifications and standards of practice
Other
Functions
Maintaining the register of architects and
make recommendations with regard to
recognition and de-recognition of a
qualification.
18
Indian Nursing Council (INC)
The INC Act, 1947,
Ministry of Health, www.mohfw.nic.in
Statutory
Mandate
Uniform standards of training
for Nurses
Primary
Function
Accepts qualifications
awarded by universities within
and outside India
Other
Collection and compilation of
Functions data relating to nurses,
midwives, health visitors.
19
Rehabilitation Council of India (RCI)
RCI Act, 1992,
Ministry of Social Justice, www.rehacouncil.nic.in
Statutory
Mandate
Primary
Function
Other
Functions
Standardize and regulate the
training of personnel and
professions in the field of
rehabilitation and special
education.
Recognition of institutions for
physiotherapy and related fields.
Registration of professionals,
assessment and accreditations;
promotion of barrier free
environment.
20
National Council For Teacher Education
(NCTE) NCTE Act, 1993,
www.ncte-in.org
Statutory
Mandate
Planned and Coordinated
development of the teacher
education in the country.
Primary
Function
Recognition of teacher education
institutions.
Other
Functions
Lay down norms and standards
21
Indian Council for Agricultural Research
(ICAR) Not a statutory body, Ministry of
Agriculture, www.icar.org.in
Statutory
Mandate
Coordinate agricultural
research and education
Primary
Function
Coordinate and fund
agricultural education and
research in 30 state and 1
central and several deemed
universities for agriculture.
Accredit agriculture universities,
hold joint admission tests.
Other
Functions
22
Bar Council of India (BCI)
The Advocates Act, 1962, Ministry of Law
www.barcouncilofindia.nic.in
Statutory
Mandate
Lay down standards of professional
conduct and standards of legal
education.
Primary
Function
Lay down standards of professional
conduct and standards of legal
education.
Listing of members of bar; listing of
foreign universities whose
qualifications are approved in India.
Other
Functions
23
Quality and Quality Assessment
 In order to evaluate performance of an
institution and bring about a measure of
accountability a mechanism of accreditation has
been developed by UGC. This is an
autonomous council under UGC called National
Accreditation and Assessment Council (NAAC)
with a purpose to carry out periodic assessment
of universities and colleges. NAAC has evolved
a methodology of assessment which involves
self-appraisal by each university/college and an
assessment of the performance by an expert
committee.
24
Contd.
 Similarly, for technical education, AICTE
has established its own accreditation
mechanism for its institutions through
the National Board of Accreditation
(NBA).
25
NAAC
•
NAAC has identified the following seven
criteria to serve as the basis of assessment
procedures:







Curricular Aspects
Teaching-learning and Evaluation
Research, Consultancy and Extension
Infrastructure and Learning Resources
Student Support and Progression
Governance and Leadership
Innovative practice
26
Higher Education : Some Concerns
•
India has significant advantages in the 21st
century knowledge race:



It has a large higher education sector — the
third largest in the world in student numbers,
after China and the United States.
It uses English as a primary language of
higher education and research.
It has a long academic tradition. Academic
freedom is respected.
27
Contd.
•
•
There are a small number of high quality
institutions, departments, and centres that
can form the basis of quality sector in higher
education.
The fact that the States, rather than the
Central Government, exercise major
responsibility for higher education creates a
rather cumbersome structure, but the system
allows for a variety of policies and
approaches.
28
Large under-funded Institutions
•
•
•
Large, under-funded, ungovernable
institutions
Politics has intruded into campus life,
influencing academic appointments and
decisions across levels.
Under-investment in libraries, information
technology, laboratories, and classrooms
difficult to provide top-quality instruction or
engage in cutting-edge research.
29
Faculty Concerns
•
•
•
•
•
Freeze on new appointments
Affects morale in the academic profession.
Lack of accountability means that teaching
and research performance is seldom
measured.
Few incentives to perform.
Bureaucratic inertia hampers change.
30
Influence of English
•
•
•
•
For an elite section, a stream of English
medium schools are run followed by an elite
set of colleges.
Indian languages to be used as medium of
instructions have failed to undertake
translations on a large scale.
Sciences, Technology and selective
institutions remain firmly anchored to English.
Society remains divided between the upper
classes with takes advantage of English and
the lower classes or rural people who have to
do with regional language.
31
Research and Creativity
•
•
Weak research base
A chain of laboratories outside the university
system has developed causing a diversion of
human and material resources to the system
of laboratories and institutes.
32
Science and Technology
•
Institutions like IITs are criticized because :



Industry has not tended to profit from the
technological institutions;
Their graduates often prefer foreign
employment since the developed countries
have a demand for their services and Indian
industry has not picked up high technology
areas of operation;
The industry itself has relied much more on
foreign and imported technology than
indigenous efforts to correct its weaknesses.
33
Content of education
•
•
Two themes are important : Indigenousness
and Relevance.
The tradition of subservience and inactivity in
the methods in institutional discipline as well
as in the learning processes are criticized.
34
Methods of Teaching
•
Large sized classes resulting from expansion,
inadequately backed by resources and an
external examination system which is easy to
negotiate with small amounts of
unimaginative work perpetuate in teaching
and learning.
35
Public Policies and Practices
•
•
The most recent initiative for making Higher
Education more inclusive:
An Act of Parliament which came into force in
early January 2007.
Reserves an additional quota of 27% of
intake in institutions of higher education
maintained by the federal government to
marginalized social groups listed in the
Constitution as “Backward Castes”.
36
Public Policies and Practices
• An Act of Parliament which
•
•
•
came into
force in early January 2007.
Decline in Public Budgets
Non-recruitment of Teachers
Cost Recovery
 Fees
 Loans
• Privatisation
37
• Decline in Philanthropy
• Virtual halt of State-aided private sector
• Rapid growth in Self-financing private
•
sector, leading to diminution of public
sector
Growth in self-financing courses in
public universities/colleges.
38
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Higher Education in India: Issues and - East