Education in Pakistan
Dr. Waseem Anwar
Contents
PART - I
•
Definition of Education
•
Constitution of Pakistan
PART – II
2
•
Education Scenario
•
Education Policy
Definition of Education
The definition of education in common
usage,
that
delivery
of
education
is
knowledge,
merely
the
skills
and
information from teachers to students, is
inadequate to capture what is really
important about being and
educated.
3
becoming
The proper definition of education is the
process of becoming an educated person.
Being an educated person means you
have access to optimal states of mind
regardless of the situation you are in.
4
Constitution of Pakistan
5
Constitution of the Islamic Republic of
Pakistan, 1973 – Article 37-b
“The State shall remove illiteracy and
provide free and compulsory
secondary education within
minimum possible period”
6
Concurrent Legislative List:
Curriculum, syllabus, planning,
policy, centers of excellence,
standard of education & Islamic
education
7
PART – II
EDUCATION SCENARIO
8
Human Development Index
Country
Ranking
(out of 177 countries)
2005 2006 2007
9
Iran
99
96
94
Sri Lanka
93
93
99
Maldives
96
98
100
India
127
126
128
Bhutan
134
135
133
Pakistan
135
134
136
Bangladesh 139
137
140
Nepal
138
142
136
Literacy Rates
Literacy Definition
(As in 1998 Census)
“The ability of a person who
can read a newspaper and
write a simple letter in any
language”
10
Literacy Rates
• PAKISTAN = 55 % (Male = 67 %,Female = 42%)
Province Literacy Rate
11
• Punjab=
60.2%
• Sindh =
57.7%
• NWFP =
49.9%
• Balochistan =
48.8%
Educational Institutions by Level
Level
Pre-primary
Mosque school
Primary
Middle
Secondary
British System
NFBE
Total
Public
Private
Vocational
Deeni Madaris
1,081
14,123
122,349
38,449
25,090
281
4,831
1,882
116
1257
3,059
12,153
287
14,035
105,526
14,334
10,550
11
2,008
1,025
59
426
916
354
794
88
16,823
24,115
14,540
270
2,823
857
57
831
2,143
11,799
Others
3,120
2,241
879
Inter & Degree Colleges
Universities
Technical/ Professional
12
Institutions by Medium of Instruction
13
Type # of Institutions
Urdu
English Sindhi
Total
227,791
14806
Public
151,744
103,186 3,035 33,384
Private
76,047
43,347 21,29 3,521
2277
3416
Others
22779
12,139
9,886
EDUCATION POLICY OF PAKISTAN
14
Challenges
• Weakened Governance
− Fragmentation
− Lack of Clarity in Inter-Tier Relationships
• Poor Quality of Teachers & Managers
• Quality of curriculum, textbooks & exams
• Low level of literacy
• Out of school children
• Dropouts
15
Challenges
•
•
•
•
•
Public Private Partnership
In-adequate financing
Gender Equity
Poor monitoring & evaluation
Imbalance in primary, middle & secondary
schools
• Inconvenient school location
16
SALIENT FEATURES OF NATIONAL
EDUCATION PLAN
• Universal and Free Primary and Secondary Education
• Promotion of Equity
• Minimum National Standards
• Relevance to Labour Market
• Sector Planning
• Financial allocation of 7% of GDP by 2018
• Encourage Private sector
• Link Allocations to Definition of Free Education
• Improve Planning, Management and Implementation Capacity
• Donor Harmonisation
• Overcoming Fragmented Governance
17
SALIENT FEATURES OF NATIONAL
EDUCATION PLAN
• Bridging the Public Private Divide
• Improved Examination System
• Introduction of Early Childhood Education (3-5 years) &
inclusive education.
• Achieve the MDG goals.
• All Primary schools shall be upgraded to Middle level
• Well developed plan for expanding school facilities.
• High priority to reducing drop out rates
• Improved school environment
• Career Counselling at higher secondary level
• Develop national literacy curriculum
• Enhance qualifications for employment as teachers
18
SALIENT FEATURES OF NATIONAL
EDUCATION PLAN
• Pre-service & in-service teacher training
• Accreditation and certification of teachers
• Merit based teacher recruitment, professional
development, promotions & postings
• Curriculum development
• Competitive publishing of textbooks and learning
materials
• District Education Boards to be established for
managing schools
• Separate management & academic cadres
19
Allocation of Funds to Education:
Year 2009-10
Non-Development
(Rs. in million)
Development
Total
1. Ministry of Education
1,824.426
3,122.459
4,946.885
2. Higher Education
Commission
7,045.608
9,104.436
16,150.044
3. Major Projects under Ministry of Education
a. Madaris Reforms (Teaching of formal subjects in Madaris)
b. Education Sector Reforms Program
c. Establishment of 82,000 Community Schools in Pakistan
1449.000
800.00
170.510
AJK and FATA
d. Science Education Project (Phase-II) ADB assisted FCU
84.670
e. National Education Assessment System (NEAS)
71.530
f. Establishment of Cadet College Zhob at Qilla Saifullah
50.000
20
Continue…
(Rs. In million)
21
g. Establishment of Cadet College Panjgur
50.000
h. Upgradation of FG Secondary Educational Institutions
to the level of Islamabad Model Colleges
45.000
i. Upgradation of FG Elementary Educational Institutions
to the level of Islamabad Model Schools
40.000
j. Establishment of 350 Community Schools in hard to
reach areas of FATA (NORAD assisted)
39.329
Future Plans for Education in Pakistan
1. Tripartite Partnership:
 The role of family, the community and the State. All
need to be mobilized.
2. Free Education Upto Matriculation:
3. Provision of Free Textbooks:
4. Grant of Scholarships and Incentives to Girl
Students:
5. Availability and Accessibility of Schools
Particularly in Rural Areas.
22
Continue…
6. Teacher’s Status and Recruitment of Female
Teachers:
 Better status and pay for teachers.
 Experience has demonstrated that schools with female
teachers function well particularly at Primary level.
7. Improvement in Learning Environment:
 Better infrastructure through School Management
Councils.
8. Technical / Vocational Education:
 It is important to provide demand related skills.
9. Instructional Methods:
23
 Emphasis must be given on development of analytical
faculties of the students.
Continue…
10. Teachers’ Training and Knowledge:
 To improve teachers’ knowledge of the subject
and equip them with a wide repertoire of teaching
skills.
11. English Language:
 Introduction of English from Class – I.
 Future policy reforms will emphasize the teaching
of science subjects in English at public secondary
schools.
24
Thank You All
25
Descargar

Document