HIGHER EDUCATION OVERVIEW
FORT HARE UNIVERSITY
12 APRIL 2012
Overview
• Big picture – national and international context of HE
– Distance between institutional/local and national/global
• Economic growth and development
• Higher education and development
• Higher education in Africa
• New policy responses currently underway
• Key issues
2
Economic Growth and Human Development
A substantial body of academic and technical literature provides evidence of the
relationship between informationalism, productivity and competitiveness for
countries, regions and business firms. But, this relationship only operates
under three conditions: information connectedness, organizational change in
the form of networking; and enhancement of the quality of human labor,
itself dependent on education and quality of life. (Castells and Cloete, 2011)
The structural basis for the growing inequality, in spite of high growth rates in
many parts of the world, is the growth of a highly dynamic, knowledgeproducing, technologically advanced sector that is connected to other similar
sectors in a global network, but it excludes a significant segment of the
economy and of the society in its own country. The lack of human
development prevents what Manuel Castells calls the ‘virtuous cycle’, which
constrains the dynamic economy. (Castells and Cloete, 2011)
Connecting growth to human development – trickle down don’t work
3
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita vs Human Development Index (HDI)
Country
GDP per capita (PPP,
$US) 2007
GDP ranking
HDI Ranking (2007)
GDP ranking per
capita minus HDI
ranking
Botswana
13 604
60
125
-65
Mauritius
11 296
68
81
-13
South Africa
9 757
78
129
-51
Chile
13 880
59
44
+15
Costa Rica
10 842
73
54
+19
Ghana
1 334
153
152
1
Kenya
1 542
149
147
2
802
169
172
-3
Uganda
1 059
163
157
6
Tanzania
1 208
157
151
6
Finland
34 256
23
12
11
South Korea
24 801
35
26
9
U.S.A.
45 592
9
13
-4
Taiwan (China)
Mozambique
4
Economic Growth in Post Apartheid SA
During the first decade of the post-apartheid era in South Africa, gross domestic
product (GDP) grew at a ‘modest rate’, averaging one percent, though edging
up to around three percent. Nevertheless, this has been the longest period of
positive growth in its history.
The envisaged post-1994 economic policies for the development project stated
that the economy would require steering onto a new development path which,
amongst others, would reduce dependence on resource sectors through
industrial deepening and diversification (Bhorat 2010).
Mohamed (2009, 2011) states that we experienced the ‘wrong type’ of economic
growth from the end of apartheid and particularly during the five years prior to
the 2008 financial crisis. Economic growth was not only associated with high
unemployment and growing inequality, it was unsustainable because it
required growing private sector indebtedness and was accompanied by decline
in productive services and manufacturing
5
Economic Growth and the 2008 Financial Crisis
The worst impact of the 2008 crisis, resulted in at least a million job losses is
associated with:
• structural industrial weaknesses and de-industrialization as a result of
development centred around mining and minerals
• continued reliance on extractive mining and minerals exports
• consumption led growth and increased investment in services sectors, such as
finance and retail
• speculative asset bubbles in real estate and finance and increased construction
(mainly around the 2010 Soccer World Cup) and car sales
• the role of the financial sector which has emulated the behaviour of US
financial institutions in increasing leverage and misallocation of capital in SA
economy. (Mohamed 2009)
6
Economic Growth and Change of Skills Profile
A major change in the South African economy is the change in the skills profile.
The National Planning Commission Diagnostic Report (NPC 2011) shows that
job growth between 1995 and 2009 saw a 50% increase in high-skilled jobs and
a 20% decrease in low-skilled jobs. Using data for the period 1970–2005, and
updated to 2009, Bhorat (2010b:20) argue that “… this growth path has been
built on a rising demand for skilled labour with a steady erosion in the demand
for unskilled or under-skilled workers. The modern era in the South African
economy has thus been defined by a growth path with a constant increased
demand for educated workers at the expense of those with lower level of
human capital”
7
Poverty Reduction in Post Apartheid SA (1)
The stated goal of the post-apartheid economic policy was to reduce poverty,
inequality and unemployment. A 2% growth should lead to a 1-7% reduction in
poverty, depending on the country – meaning the success of redistributive
policies (Bhorat 2010a). In South Africa, poverty declined from 52% in 1995 to
49% in 2005 and in the lower poverty group a 7% decline (31% to 24%). In
addition, there were definite gains in poverty reduction, particularly in African
female-headed households (Bhorat 2010a). All people, regardless of race,
experienced increases in expenditure, meaning that growth was ‘pro-poor’.
Despite the modest gains in poverty reduction, the inequality gap did not
decrease; instead, it increased amongst all groups. This led Bhorat (2010a) to
conclude that in 1994 South Africa was ‘one of the world’s most unequal
societies, but by 2005 it may have become the world’s most unequal’.
8
Poverty Reduction in Post Apartheid SA (2)
While spending on education and health remained fairly constant in real terms,
recipients of social grants (excluding administration) now consumes 3.2% of
GDP, up from 1.9% in 2000/01. The total number of beneficiaries increased
from 3 million in 1997 to 15 million in 2010 (Woodard and Rembrandt 2011).
The share of households in the first income deciles with access to grant income
increased from 43% in 1995 to almost 65% in 2005 and that even for
households in the sixth deciles grant income increased from 19% in 1994 to
50% in 2005. According to Bhorat (2010a) this suggests that grant income does
not only support the very poor, but also a large number of households in the
middle income distribution.
More recent estimates suggest that 25% of the population are on social grants and
40 per cent of household income in the poorest quintile (Woolard and
Leibbrandt 2011).
Post-1994 South African democratic redistribution model operates through
extensive social grants at the bottom end, few benefits at the middle of the
distribution curve and the main growth is at the de-racialising top end. Based
on this growth path, both Bhorat (unequal income distribution) and Mbeki (the
disempowerment of welfarism) express concern for the future of democracy.
9
Higher Education and Development
• SA has a development model crisis
• The small “productive” sector is increasingly globally connected
while the majority remain disconnected, but is “maintained”
through social welfare which should be supplemented by service
delivery – but this is not Productive nor Empowering
• We need more and broader growth which connects Growth to
Human Development
• Castells project of Finland, Chile, Taiwan, Costa Rica, SA and
California
• Higher education, and ICT, has a crucial role to play in virtuous
growth - Knowledge production (growth), broadening medium
level skills and participation (equity)
• Basic link is education and employment (linked)
10
The relationship between scientific
excellence and economic development
GDP per capita (current US$)
Predicted GDP per capita (current US$)
United States
Economic development
Australia
Japan
UK
High
Germany
Italy
Korea
Mexico
Brazil
Low
Argentina
South Africa
Tunisia
China
Egypt
India
Low
High
Influence of Scientific Research
(R = 0.714, P = 0.218)
(R = 0.961, P = 0.002)*
Data source: Thomson Reuters InCitesTM (21 September 2010); The World Bank Group (2010)
11
Vuyani Lingela, 24 November 2011
Participation Rate and Development Indicators
Gross tertiary
education
enrolment rate
Quality of
education
system ranking
Overall global
competitive
ranking
(2008)
(2009-2010)
(2010-2011)
Ghana
6
71
114
Kenya
4
32
106
2
81
131
Tanzania
2
99
113
Uganda
4
72
118
20
48
76
26
50
55
17 (8.5)
130
54
94
6
7
98
57
22
82
26
4
Country
Stage of
development
(2009-2010)
Mozambique
Botswana
Mauritius
South Africa
Stage 1:
Factor-driven
Transition from
1 to 2
Stage 2:
Efficiency-driven
Finland
South Korea
United States
Stage 3:
Innovation-driven
12
BRICS: Selected higher education and economic development indicators (WEF 2010)
Country
Stage of
development
(2009-2010)
GDP per capita
(USD)
(2009)
Tertiary
education
enrolment rate
(2008)
Global
Competitiveness
Index ranking
(2010–2011)
Brazil
Stage 2:
Efficiency-driven
8 220
35
58
Russia
Stage 2:
Efficiency-driven
8 694
77
63
India
Stage 1:
Factor-driven
1 031
14 (2007)
51
China
Stage 2:
Efficiency-driven
3 678
23
27
South Africa
Stage 2:
Efficiency-driven
5 824
17
54
13
Gross participation rates in SA higher education by Race, 1986 - 2009
70%
60%
% Participation Rate
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
1986
1995
2000
2005
2009
African
5%
9%
10%
12%
13%
Coloured
9%
10%
9%
13%
15%
Indian
32%
35%
40%
51%
45%
White
61%
61%
57%
60%
58%
Average
11%
14%
14%
16%
17%
14
Effective Participation: Throughput rates of general academic first-B-degrees
Graduated in regular time (3 years) - general academic first Bdegrees, excluding Unisa
Black
White
52%
All
43%
43%
35%
33%
29%
24%
28%
24%
21%
11%
11%
13%
14%
Source: Fisher and Scott, 2011
13%
Structure of the South African Education System (2010)
Universities
UG diplomas & certificates
UG degrees
Total undergraduates
PG to M
Masters
Doctors
Total postgraduate
Occasional students
Total enrolment
Private Universities
FET Colleges
986,559
285,948
440,934
726,882
80,321
46,699
11,590
138,610
27,444
892,936
93,623
404,849
N1 – N3
N4 – N6
NC(V)
NSC
Occupational
24,937
144,837
130,039
3,916
23,160
Total Public
Private FET Colleges
326,889
77,960
Public and Independent Schools
2,460,961
GET Band
9,742,078
Total
B degree/ Masters/ PhD
Gr 12 + dipl/cert
Gr 12 with/without exemption
Gr 10 less than Gr 12
Less than Grade 10
11,552
72,588
696,992
990,794
1,009,259
12,644,208
FET Band
OTHER
Not in Education, Employment or Training
(18 to 24 year olds)
2,781,185
comprising persons with the following
qualifications:
7,441
12,260,099
ECD
279,476
Special Schools
104,633
Public ABET (2011)
312,077
South Africa and Brazil
Brazil Education, 2009
South Africa Higher Education and Post-Secondary
Provisioning, 2010 Provisional Headcounts
Public state (10%)
Knowledge Production – High (8%)
650 000
Public federal (12%)
89 581
Knowledge Production – Medium (55%)
301 554
292 464
752 000
Public municipal (2%)
Total: 594 018
Knowledge Production – Low (19%)
118 000
Private Higher Education (60%)
210 319
3 764 000
Post-Secondary (10%)
Private PG (mainly business schools) (3%)
180 000
109 482
Private Higher Education (8%)
Distance (13%)
81 596
838 000
NEET with Grade 12/ STD 10/ NTCIII 1 000 000 (NEET's with matric)
Contact Institutions
Population: 49 000 000
HE Participation rate: 17%
White PR: 58%
African PR: 13%
Distance Provider
Source: CHET
Private
Students in system : 6 302 000
Total population : 193 million
Private students : 63%
Participation Rate : 35%
17
Gini Coefficient - South Africa compared to Brazil
Brazil
South Africa
0.75
0.70
0.67
0.67
0.60
0.60
0.69
0.68
0.68
0.65
0.60
0.59
0.57
0.55
0.50
0.54
A low Gini coefficient indicates a more
equal distribution of income or wealth,
with 0 corresponding to perfect equality,
while a higher Gini coefficient indicate
more unequal distribution, with 1
corresponding to perfect inequality.
Source: CHET
0.45
1993
1997
2001
2005
2009
Knowledge Economy
Globally Central role of knowledge in government
policies
Focus in Knowledge Policies on:
1. Global economic competitiveness
2. Innovative capacity of societies
3. High Level Skills and Competencies of Labour
force (Knowledge workers)
Claus Swabe (WEF) Not Capitalism, but Talentism
International Knowledge Policies – Maassen
Starting point = New conditions in the global economy
Growing focus of national (regional – supranational) policy makers
and other central socio-economic actors on the university as a
driver for economic growth through its role as source for innovation
and job creation.
Consequence = Two new university governance aspects
First targeted policies for and investments in universities’ research
capacity are assumed to be needed in order to improve the global
competitiveness of a specific economy.
Second, targeted policies for and investments in connecting the
enhanced research capacity of universities to the knowledge needs
of society (incl. private and public sector companies and
organisations) in order to ensure the link of new knowledge to
economic growth (innovation & new jobs ).
«Balancing academic excellence with economic relevance»
HERANA: 8 African Countries and Flagship Universities
Higher Education Research and Advocacy Network in Africa
• Starting point is to increase understanding of the complex links/interactions
between higher education and economic development – at national and
institutional levels
• Three successful systems – Finland, South Korea and North Carolina (USA)
• Eight African countries and their national universities: Botswana, Ghana,
Kenya, Mauritius, Mozambique, South Africa (Nelson Mandela Metropolitan
University/UCT), Tanzania, Uganda
• Network consists of 50 people from 15 countries, include Manuel Castells,
Peter Maassen (Oslo) John Douglas (Berkeley) and Pundy Pillay (Wits)
Funded by: Ford, Carnegie, Rockefeller, Kresge and Norad
Findings from Three Successful Systems
Finland, South Korea, North Carolina (USA)
• As part of reorganising their ‘mode of production’, a pact was reached about a
knowledge economy (high skills and innovation) as development driver
• Close links between economic and education planning
• High participation rates with differentiation
• Strong ‘state’ steering (projects)
• Higher education linked to regional development
• Responsive to the labour market
• Strong coordination (prime ministers office) and networks
Pundy Pillay (2010) Linking higher education to economic development:
Implications for Africa from three successful systems (CHET)
HERANA Findings on 8 African Countries and Flagship Universities
1. There is a lack of agreement (pact) between national and university
stakeholders about a development model, and about the role of higher
education in development
2. Only one of the eight countries (Mauritius) has accepted knowledge, and the
associated human capital and research development, as a key driver for
economic growth
3. Linking higher education to development requires considerable coordination
within government, and between government, the university and external
funders, and all three must contribute
4. The absence of a pact about the role of the university in development affects
negatively implementation and resource allocation – which raises the
possibility that we a have double problem; lack of capacity and a lack of
agreement
23
New policy responses currently underway
• New policy frenzy reminiscent of 1995
• Economic, environment, labour and even constitution
• Focus on:
– National planning Commission
–
DHET Green Paper
• Focus on knowledge policies, participation and differentiation
24
National Planning Commission (Nov 2011): Functions of HE (1)
Higher education is the major driver of the information-knowledge
system, linking it with economic development...Universities are
key to developing a nation. They play three main functions in
society:
Firstly, they educate and train people with high-level skills for the
employment needs of the public and private sectors.
Secondly, universities are the dominant producers of new
knowledge, and they critique information and find new local and
global applications for existing knowledge. Universities also set
norms and standards, determine the curriculum, languages and
knowledge, ethics and philosophy underpinning a nation's
knowledge-capital. South Africa needs knowledge that equips
people for a society in constant social change
25
NPC: Functions (2)
"Thirdly, given the country's apartheid history, higher education
provides opportunities for social mobility and simultaneously
strengthens equity, social justice and democracy. In today's
knowledge society, higher education underpinned by a strong
science and technology innovation system is increasingly
important in opening up people's opportunities." (p262)
For the first time knowledge production and equity are linked by
stating that "high quality knowledge production cannot be fully
realized with a low student participation rate" (p274).
26
Also universities are not mainly fro individual mobility or for
equity redress - equity is mentioned last and transformation
in the Castells sense
NPC: Knowledge Enthusiasm
The NPC is so enthusiastic about knowledge that it declares that
"knowledge production is the rationale of higher education"
(p271) - indeed a radical departure from the traditional
'rationale' of higher education in Africa, that is, disseminating
(teaching) knowledge from somewhere else.
Posters outside Parliament for Thursday’s State of the Nation:
Knowledge Economy and Development Opportunities.
At ANC 100th Zuma said: “Education and skills are the key priority
for our people”
These are huge steps away from HE as individual mobility and an
equity instrument – but in State of Nation President announced
the biggest infrastructure project in history – not a word of KE
27
NPC Knowledge Policies
1. the notion of knowledge production consists of a combination of
PhD education and research output.
2. a target of tripling the number of doctoral gradates from 1,420 to
5,000 per annum, and increasing the proportion of academic staff
with PhDs from 34% to 75%
3. a number of world-class centres and programmes should be
developed within the national system of innovation and the higher
education sector.
4. a new future scholars programme needs to be developed, both to
increase the proportion of staff with PhDs and to meet the
increasing demand for professional PhDs in the non-university
research, financial and services sectors
5. role of science councils should be reviewed in light of the worldwide tendency to align, or merge, research councils with universitie
28
NPC: Differentiation
1. deals with the worldwide policy debate about the
concentration of resources by proposing world-class centers
and programmes across institutions (High science - Ska)
2. advises the Ministerial Committee for the Review of the
Funding of Universities that such revisions should be based on
the needs of a differentiated system with adequate provision
for both teaching and research
3. requires flexible pathways for student mobility between
institutions
4. the Higher Education Quality Committee should finally start
developing a core set of quality indicators for the whole
system;
29
Differentiation: Key Issues
1. Differentiation a process – diversity and hierarchy
2. Concentration:
30
•
Institutions – world class/underclass
•
Programmes – skills
•
Institutional profiles – faculties
•
Special centers/networks - (High science - Ska), Networks,
Institutes
DHET Green Paper
Research and innovation
1. Economic depends on innovation and technology absorption
2. While investment in research has tripled, there has not been a
commensurate increase in personnel
3. Total knowledge output has increased 64% (2000-2009) but the
system must become more productive
4. Poverty is a significant constraint on masters and Phd studies –
students under pressure to obtain jobs??
5. Drastically increase number and quality of masters and PhD’s
6. Need for increased coordination between DHET and DST
7. Caliber and workload of academic staff must be addressed
8. Long term plan for renewing the academic profession doctorates for academics and professions
31
Ministers Presentation to HESA (3 April 2012)
Research
The research output of 2010, 57% of accredited research in the
sector takes place at five institutions. These are all institutions
with a historical research focus. In contrast with this, less that
10% of total research takes place at another eleven institutions.
These eleven includes all Universities of Technology and many of
the previously disadvantaged institutions.
When looking closely at these eleven institutions, output per staff
member is the lowest here and that, in general, the percentage
of staff with Doctoral qualifications is also the lowest.
32
Ministers Presentation to HESA (3 April 2012)
Research
The fact is that Government cannot afford to develop all higher
education institutions to become research intensive. Our
institutions have different missions and agendas, and rightly
so. It is, therefore, important for institutions to identify their
mission and develop their strengths accordingly.
This does not exclude institutions from engaging in research at all.
All universities must conduct research. It is only the nature and
quantity of research that will differ.
It would not benefit society if research were to be developed to
the detriment of quality teaching and learning.
33
NPC and DHET: The Good, the Bad and the Incomprehensible
1. Differentiation (whatever form) is official
2. Knowledge production (PhD and research output must increase – different
counts of research outputs) – at last recognising the knowledge producing
role of the university
3. Big focus on doctorate – for academics (target more than 60%), professions
research councils and other sectors (finance)
4. Good quality undergraduate education – including infrastructure funds for
labs, libraries, housing
5. Improvement of through put – efficiency
6. Dramatic increase in participation rate – mainly in FET sector
7. Mission and profile differentiation
8. Improved Coordination between DSHT and DHET (HESA meeting)
9. More funding for higher education
34
10.Shift from Transformation to Development
The rise of doctorates
45.0%
40.0%
40.0%
Major expansion of higher education has
boosted PhD output in many countries,
shown here as average annual growth of
doctoral degrees across all disciplines.
1998 - 2006
35.0%
30.0%
25.0%
20.0%
17.1%
15.0%
10.0%
10.0%
8.5%
7.1%
6.4%
6.2%
6.2%
6.1%
5.2%
5.0%
2.5%
1.0%
0.0%
0.0%
-2.2%
-5.0%
China
Mexico Denmark
India
Korea
South
Africa
Japan
Australia Poland
Source: Nature. International weekly journal in Science
United
Kingdom
United
States
Canada Germany Hungary
HERANA - Total PhD enrolled and total PhD graduates, 2001 - 2007
7,000
6,080
6,000
5,000
4,000
3,000
2,000
1,759
1,103
1,000
931
187
299
34
126
0
Botswana
Makerere
6
0
Eduardo
Mondlane
854
674
648
83
Ghana
47
*Mauritius
163
90
Nairobi
Dar es
Salaam
203
NMMU
University of
Cape Town
* Mauritius enroll large numbers of students as MPhil students, and depending on their performance only some graduate as PhD
students
Graph 1 offers summaries for the 15-year period 1996-2010.
Doctoral enrolments were 1.3% of national total of 893 000 students in 2010.
1 8000
1 6000
1 4000
1 3449
1 4184
14673
1 5423
1 5809
1 5936
1 3098
1 2000
1 0000
4 000
2000
9800
9 939
8003
8 353
1100
1 182
8 790
7763
8 000
6 000
5 164
5622
6 85
1 6684 Permanent
academics
5 528
5456
7 61
6 394
5 936
9 61
6483
6 660
9 69
1 104
11468 Doctoral
enrolments
9748
Research
publications
1 421
0
1996
1998
Doctoral enrolments
2000
2002
Doctoral graduates
2004
2006
R esearch publications
2 008
Doctoral
graduates
2010
Permanent academics
37
Graph 4 shows how the % of doctoral enrolments by race group changed
between 1996 to 2010. African doctoral students rose from 13% in 1996 to
33% in 2004, and 44% in 2010.
9 0%
8 0%
78%
7 0%
62%
55%
6 0%
49%
5 0%
41%
4 0%
33%
13%
13%
12%
10%
2004
2 008
1 0%
0%
42%
African
White
25%
3 0%
2 0%
44%
14%
Coloured+Indian
9%
1996
2 000
African
White
2010
Coloured +Indian
38
Enrolments
South African Universities – PhD graduates by
nationality
South African
International
100%
80%
29%
30%
34%
34%
71%
70%
66%
66%
60%
40%
South African International
2007
7 195
2 853
2008
6 959
3 035
2009
7 213
3 316
2010
7 841
3 749
Graduates South African International
2007
900
374
2008
829
353
2009
908
470
2010
931
489
South African PhD students graduation rate by
20%
15%
nationality
South African
International
14%
2007
2008
2009
2010
Norwegian Universities - PhD graduates by nationality
Norwegian
International
Graduation Rate
0%
13%
13%
23%
25%
26%
28%
33%
77%
75%
74%
72%
67%
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
20%
0%
12%
13%
13%
12%
11%
2007
60%
40%
13%
12%
100%
80%
Total
10 048
9 994
10 529
11 590
Total
1 274
1 182
1 378
1 420
2008
2009
2010
It is important to note that the two countries
produce almost the same number of PhD
graduates but that South Africa’s population is in
the order of 48 million whilst Norway’s population
is 4.8 million
Graduates
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
Norwegian
789
937
851
858
889
International
241
308
297
326
438
Total
1030
1245
1148
1184
1327
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