Theme routes in tourism- and spatial development Gonda, Tibor Raffay, Zoltán The role of tourism in world economy • • • • • • Continuous, almost uninterrupted growth since the 1950s 1950: 25 million tourist arrivals 2007: 860 million; 2010: 935 million; 2012: over 1 billion! Average annual growth rate is above average growth rate of world economy WTO forecast by 2020: international arrivals at 1.6 billion, average annual growth rate at 4%, incomes from international tourism reach 2,000 billion USD “Industry of the 21st century”, “industry of peace” The role of tourism in Hungarian economy • Over 5% of Hungarian GDP directly from tourism (agriculture: 4%; construction industry: 4.6% in 2007) • Of all employment: 7.9% in tourism Indirectly: • Appr. 10% of GDP • 12.6% of employment Tourism trends • Local (tourism) developments are more likely to succeed if they meet international trends in tourism • Tourists more active physically and intellectually than before • Traditional 3S/4S tourism giving way to special demand, niche markets • Back to the roots, nostalgia • Pilgrimages to holy places • Increased awareness about health(y environment) • Shorter visits but more frequently than before → new destinations can join in tourism, all year round • Growing role of silver generation in tourism • More informed tourists insist on value for the money • More tourists are sensitive environmentally and socially • Professional management needed → theme routes From scattered attractions to real experience • Basic tendency: tourists want to have more fun, experience – and knowledge on the visited sites • More interest in local products, traditional gastronomy (a reply to globalisation and food scandals?) • Rapid spread of non-mainstream tourism forms • Many tourists seek new places, ones not visited by tourists before • Far-away places and ones that were not considered as tourism destinations may get a new chance • Today’s tourists can choose from a variety never seen before • New attractions must exceed ever higher thresholds Study path of socialist architecture, Dunaújváros Theme parks and theme routes • Basic difference: theme parks entertain (mass tourism), theme routes educate (alternative tourism) • Forbes Traveler, 50 Most Popular Tourist Attractions In The World: – Entertainment facilities: 18, with 139.4 million visitors – Architectural complexes, squares: 6, with 88.7 million visitors – Monument buildings: 12, with 65.29 million visitors – Museums: 10, 45.6 million visitors – Natural sights of interest and national parks: 4, with 31.04 million visitors – Total: 370.03 million visitors – 38% in fun facilities! Theme parks • The predecessors were the entertainment – fun – parks • First park of this type established in 1550, “garden of entertainment” • Oldest theme park of the world near Copenhagen (since 1583) • 19th century: first heyday of entertainment parks: 1843 in Copenhagen the Tivoli park was opened, and in a few years it became the most visited entertainment facility in the world • Late 19th century: first seaside entertainment centre in Blackpool, still one of the most popular attractions in thge UK • Real heyday of the theme parks is dated to the second half of 20th century • Disney Empire: 1955, still the number one • Theme parks address segments with different motivations, interests, demographic an social characteristics • Heritage parks mostly for domestic tourists, Aquaparks also for international ones Theme routes • Already in the ancient times • Pilgrimage routes in ancient and medieval times • New era: nobility and well-off bourgeois class travelled to famous destinations of Western Europe (Grand Tour) • 1st half of 20th century: hiking trails all over Europe (e.g. Blue Trail) • Wine routes: Germany, early 20th century • 1st cultural route: El Camino to Santiago de Compostela, declared by the Council of Europe as a theme route in 1987 (same year: European Institute of Cultural Routes, based in Luxembourg) Theme routes • Culture and heritage – Historical past, monuments (“Castle route”) – Intellectual heritage (“Palóc route”) – Traditional handicrafts Traditional products – Cheese, asparagus, tobacco, fruits (Plum route”) – Wine, beer, cider Theme routes • Most recently: – Film tourism (Sex and the City, Lord of the Rings) – Geotourism: Geopark network – Gastronomy: wine, plum, mineral waters • Anything that may be interesting Impacts of theme parks and theme routes – environment Theme parks 1. Transportation Large, concentrated traffic Theme routes More even traffic in space, search for alternative solutions (e.g. Greenway) Large new capacity 2. Energy demand needed No new capacity needed 3. Demand for capital Not significant, local communities can participate Large. Requires external resources Impacts of theme parks and theme routes – economy 1. Tourism indices (e.g. guest nights) 2. Local community 3. Inclusion of local products and services Theme parks Theme routes Significant impact, usually new accommodation capacities as an effect No major impact. Profit goes to investors. Decisions made outside Significant but hardly measurable impact, tourists evenly distributed in space Economic benefit realised by the locals. Decisions made in the area Not typical. Procurement from the globalised market Typical. Local goods and services marketed at good prices Many jobs for locals but 4. Employment also many “guest impact workers” Support keeping and creating local jobs Impacts of theme parks and theme routes – society and culture Theme parks Theme routes No. Having gone Significant contribution to 1. Value creation out of fashion even discovery, development and and preservation environmental preservation of values problems may arise 2. Social cohesion 3. Impact on education, training, culture No Strengthening social cohesion, often leading to birth of NGOs. Strengthening local identity No or weak Promotes survival of traditional skills and professions, passing on traditions Impact of main tourism trends on the development of theme routes • Developments are more likely to succeed if they meet trends in tourism • Tourists more active physically and intellectually than before → activity routes (theme routes for bikers, new pilgrimage routes, new hiking trails etc.) • Traditional 4S tourism giving way to special demand, niche markets → nature, flora and wildlife, historical sites, cultural models, hobby groups (birding, geocaching, angling etc.) Impact of main tourism trends on the development of theme routes • Back to the roots, nostalgia → especially to countries from where mass emigration was typical • Pilgrimages to holy places → new routes in addition to the already popular ones • Increased awareness about health(y environment) → healing and prevention, special new therapies (wine therapy etc.) • Shorter visits but more frequently than before → more destinations can join in tourism all year round, including many formerly considered as unattractive Impact of main tourism trends on the development of theme routes • Growing role of silver generation in tourism → growing and solvent demand for health services, tranquillity and clean, healthy environment • More informed tourists insist on value for the money → professional management needed • More tourists are sensitive environmentally and socially → poorly organised destinations with environmental and social problems are avoided Theme routes in the Leonardo NewTrailJobs project • 15 projects analysed – Italy (3) – Lithuania (3) – Spain (3) – USA (3) – Germany (1) – UK (1) – UK, Finland, Spain, Estonia, Greece, Cyprus (1) Theme routes in Leonardo NewTrailJobs project Key issues addressed: • heritage, traditions (10) • events (7) • employment, job creation (7) • local economy (5) • local products, producers, projects (5) • activities (4) • learning, training (4) • marketing (4) • job creation for young people and women (3) • rural tourism (3) • local cultural and historical locations (3) • common awareness, common goals and objectives, engagement (3) • local development in rural areas (3) Theme routes in Leonardo NewTrailJobs project Key issues addressed: • local roads (2) • beer and food (2) • networking (2) • rural Communities (2) • local and regional identity (2) • entrepreneurs (2) • information • integration of different cultures • different seasons • selling of products, services • modernist works • renovate the industrial zones • weekly markets • business services to rural entrepreneurs Conclusions and recommendations • Preservation and of development of traditions, specialities (foods, beverages, habits) • Events all year round to ease peak season stress • All efforts should be made to keep development local: support for local entrepreneurs, training schemes, new business skills, marketing • Joint efforts! Integration of various stakeholders • Preservation of regional identity: a growing value in our globalised world Conclusions and recommendations • Harmony of developments (with the inclusion and economic benefits of locals) • Right proportions of preservation and development • Environmental assessment (ecological or archaeological values, preservation of biodiversity) • Assessment of carrying capacities • Planning: alternatives for the use of the attractions, right interpretation tools (practical and creative instead of expensive and complicated) Conclusions and recommendations • Visitor management and flow models • Assessment of environmental, and socio-cultural impacts • Organisation form most suitable for the management of the attraction, including training of the staff • Financial and economic analysis, estimation of costs or operation and incomes • Marketing plan • Regular trainings for local people Thank you for your attention!