DIFFERENTIATED
INSTRUCTION
Differentiation is responsive teaching
rather than one-size-fits-all teaching.
Tomlinson, C.A.,Teach Me Teach My Brain
HOW WE LEARN
10% of what we READ
20% of what we HEAR
30% of what we SEE
50% of what we SEE & HEAR
70% of what is DISCUSSED with OTHERS
80% of what is EXPERIENCED PERSONALLY
95% of what we TEACH TO SOMEONE ELSE
William Glasser
“Perhaps the greatest idea that
America has given the world is
education for all. The world is
entitled to know whether this idea
means that everybody can be
educated or simply that everyone
must go to school.”
Robert Hutchins
THE CONFLICT IN EDUCATION IN A
DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY
BRAIN RESEARCH
“Three principles from brain
research: emotional safety,
appropriate challenges, and self
constructed meaning suggest that
a one-size-fits-all approach to
classroom instruction is ineffective
for most students and harmful to
some.”
~Carol Ann Tomlinson

No two children are alike

No two children learn in the identical way

An enriched environment for some may not
be enriched for others

Students need to be taught to think for
themselves
Differentiated Instruction Awareness
WHAT IS DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION?
When a teacher proactively plans varied approaches to what
students need to learn, how they will learn it, and or how they can
express what they have learned in order to increase the likelihood
that each student will learn as much as he or she can as efficiently
as possible.
(Tomlinson, 2003, p. 151)
Student
selected
topics of
interest
Modifying
instruction
Increased
achievement
Modifying instruction to draw on student interests is likely to result
in greater students engagement, higher levels of intrinsic
motivation, higher student productivity, greater student autonomy,
increased achievement, and an improved sense of self-competence.
Tomlinson,C.A. (2003)
TRADITIONAL CLASSROOM VS. DIFFERENTIATED
CLASSROOM
1. Assessment at the conclusion of a
unit of study
2. Whole class instruction
1. Assessment is ongoing & influences
instruction
2. Variety of instructional strategies
3. Textbooks are the main instructional
source
3. Resources include a variety of
materials
4. Teacher is the main problem solver
4. Students are solving problems
5. Quantitative focus of assignments
5. Qualitative focus of assignments
Differentiation
FOUR METHODS OF
DIFFERENTIATING INSTRUCTION
1.
Differentiating the content/topic
2.
Differentiating the process/activities
3.
Differentiating the product
4.
Differentiating with individual learning styles
DIFFERENTIATING THE CONTENT
Pre-assessment of new material
 Curriculum Compacting
 Acceleration of the student’s rate of progress
 Readiness level,interests,learning profile

DIFFERENTIATING THE
PROCESS/ACTIVITIES
“Sense making activity”
A sense making activity is designed to help a student progress to
a more complex level of understanding.
Classroom activities should:
 be interesting to students
 Have students thinking at higher levels
 Involve using key skills to
understand key ideas
VARIATION IS THE KEY
Good Activity~ is something the students will make or do


using essential skills & information
in order to understand an essential idea or answer an essential question
Good Differentiated Activity~ is something students will make or
do




in a range of modes at varied degrees of complexity in varying time spans
with various amounts of support from teacher & peers
using essential skills & information
to understand an essential idea or answer an essential question
DIFFERENTIATING THE PRODUCT
A project that students create to demonstrate mastery of the
concepts.




Students working below grade level may have reduced performance expectations
Higher achieving students will produce more complex work
Students have a choice of product
Assignments should have students thinking, applying, and expanding on a topic
DIFFERENTIATING WITH INDIVIDUAL
LEARNING STYLES
Howard
Gardner’sMultiple
Multiple
Intelligences
Howard Gardner’s
Intelligence
Theory








Linguistic intelligence
Logical-mathematical intelligence
Spatial intelligence
Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence
Musical intelligence
Interpersonal intelligence
Intrapersonal intelligence
Naturalist intelligence
“We each have a unique blend of intelligences, which leads to the most important
implication of the theory for the next millennium. We can choose to ignore this
uniqueness, strive to minimize it, or revel in it…I suggest the big challenge facing
the deployment of human resources is how best to take advantage of the uniqueness
conferred on us as the species exhibiting several intelligences.”
Gardner,H. (1999)
THE FLOW OF INSTRUCTION IN A
DIFFERENTIATED CLASSROOM
Whole class Exploration of
topic or concept
In small student selected
groups, the students apply
key principles to solve
teacher-generated
problems relating to their
study
Whole class instruction of
skills needed for creating
a presentation
Students engage in study
based on readiness &
Learning style
The whole class reviews
key concepts & shares
their independent studies
Students select topics of
interest
Students & teacher share
information
Students work on a variety
of assigned tasks based on
levels of complexity
The whole class listens to
individualized plans &
establishes a baseline
criteria for success
Tomlinson,C.A..,(2001)
1/3
Students
already know
it
1/3 Students
will
understand it
1/3 Students
won’t understand
it
When a teacher tries to teach something to the entire class at the same time,
“chances are, one-third of the kids already know it; one-third will get it; and the
remaining one-third won’t. So two thirds of the children are wasting their time.”
Lillian Katz ASCD Differentiating Instruction
Differentiation is classroom practice that looks eyeball to
eyeball with the reality that kids differ, and the most
effective teachers do whatever it takes to hook the whole
range of kids on learning.
Tomlinson C.A., 2001
REFERENCES
Tomlinson, C.A., (2001). How to differentiate Instruction in Mixed-Ability Classrooms. Alexandria:
ASCD.
Gardner,H., (1999).The Disciplined Mind: What All Students Should Understand. New York: Simon
and Schuster.
Gardner, H., (1993) "Multiple Intelligences: The Theory In Practice." New York: Basic Books
Tomlinson, C.A. & Kalbfleisch,M.L., Teach me, teach my brain: A call for differentiated classrooms.
Educational Leadership; Nov 1998; 56, 3; Research Library pg. 52
Tomlinson, C. –Lillian Katz (1996). Differentiating Instruction for mixed-ability classrooms.
Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Session Two
DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION
OVERVIEW OF SESSION TWO
Getting started
 Total Talent Portfolio
 Assessments





Curriculum Compacting Model
The Project Model
The Contract Model
Problem Based Model
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