DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION Differentiation is responsive teaching rather than one-size-fits-all teaching. Tomlinson, C.A.,Teach Me Teach My Brain HOW WE LEARN 10% of what we READ 20% of what we HEAR 30% of what we SEE 50% of what we SEE & HEAR 70% of what is DISCUSSED with OTHERS 80% of what is EXPERIENCED PERSONALLY 95% of what we TEACH TO SOMEONE ELSE William Glasser “Perhaps the greatest idea that America has given the world is education for all. The world is entitled to know whether this idea means that everybody can be educated or simply that everyone must go to school.” Robert Hutchins THE CONFLICT IN EDUCATION IN A DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY BRAIN RESEARCH “Three principles from brain research: emotional safety, appropriate challenges, and self constructed meaning suggest that a one-size-fits-all approach to classroom instruction is ineffective for most students and harmful to some.” ~Carol Ann Tomlinson No two children are alike No two children learn in the identical way An enriched environment for some may not be enriched for others Students need to be taught to think for themselves Differentiated Instruction Awareness WHAT IS DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION? When a teacher proactively plans varied approaches to what students need to learn, how they will learn it, and or how they can express what they have learned in order to increase the likelihood that each student will learn as much as he or she can as efficiently as possible. (Tomlinson, 2003, p. 151) Student selected topics of interest Modifying instruction Increased achievement Modifying instruction to draw on student interests is likely to result in greater students engagement, higher levels of intrinsic motivation, higher student productivity, greater student autonomy, increased achievement, and an improved sense of self-competence. Tomlinson,C.A. (2003) TRADITIONAL CLASSROOM VS. DIFFERENTIATED CLASSROOM 1. Assessment at the conclusion of a unit of study 2. Whole class instruction 1. Assessment is ongoing & influences instruction 2. Variety of instructional strategies 3. Textbooks are the main instructional source 3. Resources include a variety of materials 4. Teacher is the main problem solver 4. Students are solving problems 5. Quantitative focus of assignments 5. Qualitative focus of assignments Differentiation FOUR METHODS OF DIFFERENTIATING INSTRUCTION 1. Differentiating the content/topic 2. Differentiating the process/activities 3. Differentiating the product 4. Differentiating with individual learning styles DIFFERENTIATING THE CONTENT Pre-assessment of new material Curriculum Compacting Acceleration of the student’s rate of progress Readiness level,interests,learning profile DIFFERENTIATING THE PROCESS/ACTIVITIES “Sense making activity” A sense making activity is designed to help a student progress to a more complex level of understanding. Classroom activities should: be interesting to students Have students thinking at higher levels Involve using key skills to understand key ideas VARIATION IS THE KEY Good Activity~ is something the students will make or do using essential skills & information in order to understand an essential idea or answer an essential question Good Differentiated Activity~ is something students will make or do in a range of modes at varied degrees of complexity in varying time spans with various amounts of support from teacher & peers using essential skills & information to understand an essential idea or answer an essential question DIFFERENTIATING THE PRODUCT A project that students create to demonstrate mastery of the concepts. Students working below grade level may have reduced performance expectations Higher achieving students will produce more complex work Students have a choice of product Assignments should have students thinking, applying, and expanding on a topic DIFFERENTIATING WITH INDIVIDUAL LEARNING STYLES Howard Gardner’sMultiple Multiple Intelligences Howard Gardner’s Intelligence Theory Linguistic intelligence Logical-mathematical intelligence Spatial intelligence Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence Musical intelligence Interpersonal intelligence Intrapersonal intelligence Naturalist intelligence “We each have a unique blend of intelligences, which leads to the most important implication of the theory for the next millennium. We can choose to ignore this uniqueness, strive to minimize it, or revel in it…I suggest the big challenge facing the deployment of human resources is how best to take advantage of the uniqueness conferred on us as the species exhibiting several intelligences.” Gardner,H. (1999) THE FLOW OF INSTRUCTION IN A DIFFERENTIATED CLASSROOM Whole class Exploration of topic or concept In small student selected groups, the students apply key principles to solve teacher-generated problems relating to their study Whole class instruction of skills needed for creating a presentation Students engage in study based on readiness & Learning style The whole class reviews key concepts & shares their independent studies Students select topics of interest Students & teacher share information Students work on a variety of assigned tasks based on levels of complexity The whole class listens to individualized plans & establishes a baseline criteria for success Tomlinson,C.A..,(2001) 1/3 Students already know it 1/3 Students will understand it 1/3 Students won’t understand it When a teacher tries to teach something to the entire class at the same time, “chances are, one-third of the kids already know it; one-third will get it; and the remaining one-third won’t. So two thirds of the children are wasting their time.” Lillian Katz ASCD Differentiating Instruction Differentiation is classroom practice that looks eyeball to eyeball with the reality that kids differ, and the most effective teachers do whatever it takes to hook the whole range of kids on learning. Tomlinson C.A., 2001 REFERENCES Tomlinson, C.A., (2001). How to differentiate Instruction in Mixed-Ability Classrooms. Alexandria: ASCD. Gardner,H., (1999).The Disciplined Mind: What All Students Should Understand. New York: Simon and Schuster. Gardner, H., (1993) "Multiple Intelligences: The Theory In Practice." New York: Basic Books Tomlinson, C.A. & Kalbfleisch,M.L., Teach me, teach my brain: A call for differentiated classrooms. Educational Leadership; Nov 1998; 56, 3; Research Library pg. 52 Tomlinson, C. –Lillian Katz (1996). Differentiating Instruction for mixed-ability classrooms. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Session Two DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION OVERVIEW OF SESSION TWO Getting started Total Talent Portfolio Assessments Curriculum Compacting Model The Project Model The Contract Model Problem Based Model

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