Differentiating Instruction:
The Journey
"In the end, all learners need your energy,
your heart and your mind. They have that in
common because they are young humans.
How they need you however, differs. Unless
we understand and respond to those
differences, we fail many learners." *
*
Tomlinson, C.A. (2001). How to differentiate instruction in mixed ability
classrooms (2nd Ed.). Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
“StudentsFirst: Successs for All”
Conference
Kennesaw State University
Tuesday, November 15, 2005
Judy Rex
[email protected]
The biggest mistake of past
centuries in teaching has been to
treat all children as if they were
variants of the same individual
and thus to feel justified in
teaching them all the same
subjects in the same way.
Howard Gardner
Differentiation is a Way of Thinking
About Teaching and Learning
Dear Miss Brin,
Yesterday you got really really mad at me in class. I didn’t argue with you, because that just
makes you madder and being yelled at makes my stomach feel funny and I can’t think. But I want to say
what happened. Maybe you will understand why it looks like I don’t pay attention in class.
You told us to open our books to chapter 4 and read silently. Then you asked everyone to put
your hand up if we had finished the third page and Sean didn’t. You waited for him to finish the page.
Then you told us to take turns reading out loud. When you got to me, I asked you what paragraph to start
on, and you started yelling at me. You asked me a lot of questions but you didn’t let me answer any of
them. You answered them yourself but the things you said weren’t true answers!
This is what happened. I started reading when you said. I finished the chapter and stopped
because you get mad if I read any more. I didn’t get out another book because that makes you mad too. I
didn’t doodle or do math or talk to Sarah or get up or walk around because those things make you mad.
So I worked on my greek in my head until you called on me.
I tried to keep track of where the other kids were when they were reading. And I had the right page. I
just didn’t hear where Kim stopped. Her voice is sooo quiet and the verb I was saying was too loud in my head!
So it’s not true that I was day dreaming! And I’m not stuck up or arrogant or insolent or any of the things you
said I was! I TRY to follow along but I CAN’T read that slow!!
You said you got mad because I was wasting everybodies time. But I just asked “which paragraph Miss
Brin?” Look at your watch and say it too. It takes 2 seconds. You could have said “the third paragraph.” That
takes 21 seconds. I timed it too. Then Sarah and Amy R and Amy B would have 6 minutes to read aloud.
Instead you yelled at ME for 6 minutes and they did not get to read any thing!
Peter takes almost a whole minute to read “Ben heard the bear cough behind him.” I timed him. It’s a
game I made up to pay attention instead of doing Greek or making up poems in my head. If I ask you what
paragraph and you tell me it still takes me less than half a minute for me to read a whole paragraph. So I guess I
don’t understand why you are mad or why you used 6 minutes to tell the class what a bad stupid mean person i
am because I wasted their time for 4 seconds. I think YOU wasted their time!!! And I think YOU were mean to
call me those names in front of everybody!!!!
Miss Brinn I want to do what you tell me! I don’t
understand why I can’t keep reading at the end of a chapter. Or get
out my other books. or study my greek. Or draw or doodle or write
in my journal. But you don’t want me to do that so I don’t. But I
can’t sit and stare at the wall. If i try to do that I just start thinking
about something else! I don’t know HOW to not think! I don’t
know HOW to read slow! Please tell me what to do so it won’t
make you mad at me all the time. And PLEASE don’t yell at me in
class.
love,
your sad student,
Anne
I know it’s been a long time since you heard from me. I wanted to
let you know what I am doing now and that I think of you often,
even though I have not been a particularly faithful correspondent.
When you last saw me, you must have had some doubt about what I
might do with my life. The interesting thing, though, is that if you
did have doubts, you never let me know about them. You treated
me as though I had all the possibilities in the world in my hands.
The fact that I could not pass a vocabulary test seemed incidental
to you. What mattered was what I could do.
I didn’t get that at the time. I was too exhausted from years of
lugging around my disabilities.
You need to know that I will be receiving a Masters Degree in just
a few days. My mom asked who I wanted to know about that from
back home. You need to know. Your belief in me when I had no
belief in myself opened the door that led here. . .
R.G.
.
Understood Betsy
Elizabeth Ann fell back on the bench with her mouth open. She felt
really dizzy. What crazy things the teacher said! She felt as though she was
being pulled limb from limb.
“What’s the matter?” asked the teacher, seeing her bewildered face.
“Why – why,” said Elizabeth Ann, “I don’t know what I am at all. If
I’m second grade arithmetic and seventh grade reading and third grade
spelling, what grade am I?”
The teacher laughed. “You aren’t any grade at all, no matter where
you are in school. You’re just yourself, aren’t you? What difference
does it make what grade you’re in? And what’s the use of your reading
little baby things too easy for you just because you don’t know your
multiplication table?”
Appalachian
Trail
South end of
Hundred Mile
Wilderness…
Warning!!!
Where Do I Begin?
Start small – but start!
First Steps:
*
*
*Next Steps
*
Who will help or support
you?
*
*
Leaps
___________________
*
___________________
*
*
___________________
___________________
Bounds
___________________
___________________
*
*
___________________
Differentiated
Instruction
Defined
“Differentiated instruction is a teaching
philosophy based on the premise that
teachers should adapt instruction to
student differences. Rather than marching
students through the curriculum lockstep,
teachers should modify their instruction to
meet students’ varying readiness levels,
learning preferences, and interests.
Therefore, the teacher proactively plans a
variety of ways to ‘get at’ and express
learning.”
Carol Ann Tomlinson
Differentiation
Is a teacher’s response to learner’s needs
Guided by general principles of differentiation
Respectful tasks
Flexible grouping
Continual assessment
Teachers Can Differentiate Through:
Content
Environment
Product
Process
According to Students’
Readiness
Interest
Learning Profile
Through a range of strategies such as:
Multiple intelligences…Jigsaw…4MAT…Graphic Organizers…RAFTS
Compacting…Tiered assignments…Leveled texts…Complex Instruction… Learning
Centers
Think of DIFFERENTIATION
as the lens you look through
when using any materials,
programs or instructional
strategies. If you have high
quality curriculum and
materials, then it isn’t so much
WHAT you use as it is HOW
you use it to meet the varying
readiness, interests and
learning profiles of your
students.
Differentiation
must be an extension of
not a
replacement for
high quality
curriculum.
What Differentiated Instruction…
IS NOT
IS
•
•
•
•
•
Differentiated instruction is more
QUALITATIVE than quantitative.
Differentiated instruction provides
MULTIPLE approaches to content,
process, and product.
Differentiated instruction is
STUDENT CENTERED.
Differentiated instruction is a
BLEND of whole class, group, and
individual instruction.
Differentiated instruction is
"ORGANIC".
•
•
•
•
•
Individual instruction
Chaotic or new
Just another way to provide
homogenous instruction (You
DO use flexible grouping
instead)
Just modifying grading systems
and reducing work loads
More work for the "good"
students and less and different
for the "poor" students
Affirmation
Contribution
Important
Focused
Curriculum and
Engaging
Instruction are
Demanding
the Vehicle
Scaffolded
The
Student
Seeks
The
Teacher
Responds
Power
Purpose
Challenge
Invitation
Opportunity
Investment
Persistence
Reflection
Carol Tomlinson, 2002
“Differentiation is not so
much the ‘stuff’ as the
‘how.’ If the ‘stuff’ is ill
conceived, the ‘how’ is
doomed.”
Carol Ann Tomlinson
RESPECTFUL TASKS
Respectful tasks recognize student learning
differences. The teacher continually tries to
understand what individual students need
to learn most effectively. A respectful task
honors both the commonalities and
differences of students, but not by treating
them all alike.
A respectful task offers all students the
opportunity to explore essential
understandings and skills at degrees of
difficulty that escalate consistently as they
develop their understanding and skill.
KNOW (facts, vocabulary, dates, rules, people, etc.)
ecosystem
elements of culture (housing/shelter, customs, values,
geography)
UNDERSTAND (complete sentence, statement of truth or insight – want students
to understand that . . . )
All parts of an ecosystem affect all others parts. Culture
shapes people and people shape culture.
DO (Basic skills, thinking skills, social skills, skills of the discipline, planning skills --verbs)
Write a unified paragraph
Compare and contrast
Draw conclusions
Examine varied perspectives
Work collaboratively
Develop a timeline
Use maps as data
Tomlinson * 02
-CHOICE-
The Great Motivator!
• Requires children to be aware of their own readiness, interests, and
learning profiles.
• Students have choices provided by the teacher. (YOU are still in
charge of crafting challenging opportunities for all kiddos – NO
taking the easy way out!)
• Use choice across the curriculum: writing topics, content writing
prompts, self-selected reading, contract menus, math problems,
spelling words, product and assessment options, seating, group
arrangement, ETC . . .
• GUARANTEES BUY-IN AND ENTHUSIASM FOR LEARNING!
Learning Profile Factors
Group Orientation
independent/self orientation
group/peer orientation
adult orientation
combination
Learning Environment
Gender
&
Culture
Cognitive Style
Creative/conforming
Essence/facts
Expressive/controlled
Nonlinear/linear
Inductive/deductive
People-oriented/task or Object oriented
Concrete/abstract
Collaboration/competition
Interpersonal/introspective
Easily distracted/long Attention span
Group achievement/personal achievement
Oral/visual/kinesthetic
Reflective/action-oriented
quiet/noise
warm/cool
still/mobile
flexible/fixed
“busy”/”spare”
Intelligence Preference
analytic
practical
creative
verbal/linguistic
logical/mathematical
spatial/visual
bodily/kinesthetic
musical/rhythmic
interpersonal
intrapersonal
naturalist
existential
Tall Tales
Grade 3
Differentiation According to
Sternberg’s Intelligences
Know: What makes a Tall Tale
Definition of fact and exaggeration
Understand:
An exaggeration starts with a fact and stretches it.
People sometimes exaggerate to make their stories or deeds seem more wonderful or
scarier.
Do:
Distinguish fact and exaggeration
Analytical Task
Listen to or read Johnny Appleseed and complete
the organizer as you do.
Johnny Appleseed’s
Facts
Exaggerations
Practical Task
Think of a time when you or someone you know was sort of like the Johnny Appleseed story and told a tall tale about
something that happened. Write or draw both the factual or true version of the story and the tall tale version.
Creative Task --Role
Audience
Someone
in our class
Our
class
RAFT Assignment
Format
Diary entry
Topic
Let me tell you
what happened while Johnny A. and I were on
the way to school today….
Assessment in a
Differentiated Classroom
• Assessment drives instruction. (Assessment information helps
the teacher map next steps for varied learners and the class as a
whole.)
• Assessment occurs consistently as the unit begins, throughout
the unit and as the unit ends. (Pre-assessment, formative and
summative assessment are regular parts of the teaching/learning
cycle.)
• Teachers assess student readiness, interest and learning
profile.
• Assessments are part of “teaching for success”.
• Assessment information helps students chart and contribute to
their own growth.
• Assessment MAY be differentiated.
• Assessment information is more useful to the teacher than
grades.
• Assessment is more focused on personal growth than on peer
competition.
A Few Routes to READINESS
DIFFERENTIATION
Varied texts by reading level
Varied supplementary materials
Varied scaffolding
• reading
• writing
• research
• technology
Tiered tasks and procedures
Flexible time use
Small group instruction
Homework options
Tiered or scaffolded assessment
Compacting
Mentorships
Negotiated criteria for quality
Varied graphic organizers
Character Map
Character
Name____________
How the character
looks
How the character
thinks or acts
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
Most important thing to know about the
character
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
Character Map
Character
Name____________
What the character
says or does
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
What the character
really MEANS to say or
do
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
What the character would mostly like
us to know about him or her
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
________________
Character Map
Character
Name____________
Clues the author
gives us about the
character
____________
____________
____________
____________
Why the author
gives THESE clues
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
The author’s bottom line about this
character
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
__________
to Differentiate Content
• Reading Partners / Reading Buddies
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Read/Summarize
Read/Question/Answer
Visual Organizer/Summarizer
Parallel Reading with Teacher Prompt
Choral Reading/Antiphonal Reading
Flip Books
Split Journals (Double Entry – Triple Entry)
Books on Tape
Highlights on Tape
Digests/ “Cliff Notes”
Note-taking Organizers
Varied Texts
Varied Supplementary Materials
Highlighted Texts
Think-Pair-Share/Preview-Midview-Postview
Tomlinson – ‘00
Reading Contract
Choose an activity from each shape group. Cut out your three choices and glue them
Below. You are responsible for finishing these activities by _________. Have fun!
This contract belongs to _____________________________________
Make a poster advertising
yourself as a good
friend. Use words and
pictures to help make
people want to be your
friend. Make sure your
name is an important
part of the poster
Get with a
friend and make
a puppet show
about a problem and
the solution in your book
Draw a picture of a problem
in the story. Then use words
to tell about the problem and
how the characters solved
their problem
Make a two sided
circle-rama. Use it to tell
people what makes you a
good friend. Use pictures
and words and make
sure your name is an
important part of the
display
Get with a
friend and act out
a problem and its
solution from your
book
Write a letter to one of the
characters in your book. Tell
them about a problem you have.
Then have them write back with
a solution to your problem.
Make a mobile that
shows what makes you
a good friend. Use
pictures and words
to hang on your mobile.
Write your name on the
top of the mobile in
beautiful letters.
Meet with me
and tell me about a
problem and its solution
from the story. Then tell
me about a problem you have
had and how you solved it
Think about another
problem one of the
characters in your book
might have. Write a new
story for the book about the
problem and tell how it
was solved.
to Differentiate Product
• Choices based on readiness, interest, and
learning profile
• Clear expectations
• Timelines
• Agreements
• Product Guides
• Rubrics
• Evaluation
Map
Diagram
Sculpture
Discussion
Demonstration
Poem
Profile
Chart
Play
Dance
Campaign
Cassette
Quiz Show
Banner
Brochure
Debate
Flow Chart
Puppet Show
Tour
Lecture
Editorial
Painting
Costume
Placement
Blueprint
Catalogue
Dialogue
Newspaper
Scrapbook
Lecture
Questionnaire
Flag
Scrapbook
Graph
Debate
Museum
Learning Center
Advertisement
Book List
Calendar
Coloring Book
Game
Research Project
TV Show
Song
Dictionary
Film
Collection
Trial
Machine
Book
Mural
Award
Recipe
Test
Puzzle
Model
Timeline
Toy
Article
Diary
Poster
Magazine
Computer
Program
Photographs
Terrarium
Petition Drive
Teaching
Lesson
Prototype
Speech
Club
Cartoon
Biography
Review
Invention
Mrs. Mutner liked to go over a few
of her rules on the first day of class
Best Practices for
Standards-based Instruction
Best Practice, New Standards for Teaching and Learning in America’s Schools
Zemelman, S., Daniels, H. & Hyde, A. (1998). Portsmouth, NH:Heinemann
Student Voice and Involvement
Balanced with teacher-chosen and teacher-directed activities:
Students often select inquiry topics, books, writing topics, etc.
Students maintain their own records, set goals, and self-assess
Some themes / inquiries are built from students’
own questions
Students assume responsibility and take roles
in decision making
From Attache Magazine
A “Typical” Day in a D.I. Class
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
predictable, not rigid, schedule
blocks of time for units of study
procedures defined and in place
students assuming responsibility
voice and choice for students
a variety of materials are in use
flexible grouping occurs regularly
daily reflection on learning
regular community gatherings
(for fun and problem solving)
Should be purposeful:



may be based on student interest, learning profile and/or readiness
may be based on needs observed during learning times
geared to accomplish curricular goals (K-U-D)
Implementation:



purposefully plan using information collected – interest surveys, learning profile
inventories, exit cards, quick writes, observations, etc.
list groups on an overhead; place in folders or mailboxes
“on the fly” as invitational groups
Cautions:



avoid turning groups into tracking situations
provide opportunities for students to work within a variety of groups
practice moving into group situations and asuming roles within the group
My
Appointment Clock
Round the Clock Learning Buddies
Make an appointment with 12 different people – one for
each hour on the clock. Be sure you both record the
appointment on your clocks. Only make the appointment if
there is an open slot at that hour on both of your clocks.
Tape this paper inside a notebook, or to
something that you will
bring to class each day.
Anchor Activities
What Do I Do If I Finish Early?
• Read – comics, letters,
books, encyclopedia,
poetry, etc.
• Write – a letter, poetry
in your Writer’s
Notebook, a story, a
comic, etc.
• Practice your cursive or
calligraphy
• Keyboarding
• Help someone else
• Create math story
problems or puzzles
• Work on independent
study of your choice
• Play a math or
language game
• Find out how to say
your spelling words in
another language
• Practice ACT / SAT
cards
• Solve a challenge
puzzle with write it up
• Practice anything!
• Get a jump on
homework
• Use your imagination
and creativity to
challenge yourself!
10 Strategies for Managing a
Differentiated Classroom
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Have a strong rationale for differentiating
instruction based on student readiness, interest
and learning profile.
Begin differentiating at a pace that is comfortable
for you.
Time differentiated activities for student success.
Use an “anchor activity” to free you up to focus
your attention on your students.
Create and deliver instructions carefully.
10 Strategies for Managing a
Differentiated Classroom
Have a “home base” for students.
Be sure students have a plan for getting help when
you are busy with another student or group.
8. Give your students as much responsibility for their
learning as possible.
9. Engage your students in talking about classroom
procedures and group processes.
10. Use flexible grouping.
6.
7.
Students in a differentiated classroom do not
need to work the system . . . . .
because the system works for them!
Remember to think of
DIFFERENTIATION as the
lens you look through
when using any materials,
programs or instructional
strategies.
How will you use what you
learn about today to
differentiate for YOUR
students?
Ask yourself . . . .
SO WHAT?
NOW WHAT?
A Game Plan for Differentiation
1. Sharpen the curriculum
• Focus (K-U-D)
• Hook
•Ratchet
•Tighten
2. Assess the students
• Pre-assessments for Readiness
• Interest Inventories
• Learning Preference Surveys
• Anecdotal Data
3. Design instruction
• Map the content, process,
and product
• Whole class, small group,
individual (flexible
grouping)
4. Match tasks to learner need
•Adjust for Readiness, interest,
learning profile
• Vary strategies
• Align with KUD
5. Bring the students on board
• Develop rationale
• Establish routines and procedures
• Focus on shared decision-making
• Build autonomy
6. Reflect and refine
• Keep the loop going
Adapted from C. Tomlinson
Begin Slowly – Just Begin!
Low-Prep Differentiation
Choices of books
Homework options
Use of reading buddies
Varied journal Prompts
Orbitals
Varied pacing with anchor options
Student-teaching goal setting
Work alone / together
Whole-to-part and part-to-whole explorations
Flexible seating
Varied computer programs
Design-A-Day
Varied Supplementary materials
Options for varied modes of expression
Varying scaffolding on same organizer
Let’s Make a Deal projects
Computer mentors
Think-Pair-Share by readiness, interest, learning profile
Use of collaboration, independence, and cooperation
Open-ended activities
Mini-workshops to reteach or extend skills
Jigsaw
Negotiated Criteria
Explorations by interests
Games to practice mastery of information
Multiple levels of questions
High-Prep Differentiation
Tiered activities and labs
Tiered products
Independent studies
Multiple texts
Alternative assessments
Learning contracts
4-MAT
Multiple-intelligence options
Compacting
Spelling by readiness
Entry Points
Varying organizers
Lectures coupled with graphic organizers
Community mentorships
Interest groups
Tiered centers
Interest centers
Personal agendas
Literature Circles
Stations
Complex Instruction
Group Investigation
Tape-recorded materials
Teams, Games, and Tournaments
Choice Boards
Think-Tac-Toe
Simulations
Problem-Based Learning
Graduated Rubrics
Flexible reading formats
Student-centered writing formats
OPTIONS FOR DIFFERENTIATION OF INSTRUCTION
To Differentiate
Instruction By
Readiness
To Differentiate
Instruction By
Interest
To Differentiate
Instruction by
Learning Profile
‫ ٭‬equalizer adjustments (complexity,
open-endedness, etc.
‫ ٭‬add or remove scaffolding
‫ ٭‬vary difficulty level of text &
supplementary materials
‫ ٭‬adjust task familiarity
‫ ٭‬vary direct instruction by small
group
‫ ٭‬adjust proximity of ideas to student
experience
‫ ٭‬encourage application of broad
concepts & principles to student
interest areas
‫ ٭‬give choice of mode of expressing
learning
‫ ٭‬use interest-based mentoring of
adults or more expert-like peers
‫ ٭‬give choice of tasks and products
(including student designed options)
‫ ٭‬give broad access to varied
materials & technologies
‫ ٭‬create an environment with flexible
learning spaces and options
‫ ٭‬allow working alone or working with
peers
‫ ٭‬use part-to-whole and whole-to-part
approaches
‫٭‬Vary teacher mode of presentation
(visual, auditory, kinesthetic, concrete,
abstract)
‫ ٭‬adjust for gender, culture, language
differences.
useful instructional strategies:
- tiered activities
- Tiered products
- compacting
- learning contracts
- tiered tasks/alternative forms of
assessment
useful instructional strategies:
- interest centers
- interest groups
- enrichment clusters
- group investigation
- choice boards
- MI options
- internet mentors
useful instructional strategies:
- multi-ability cooperative tasks
- MI options
- Triarchic options
- 4-MAT
CA Tomlinson, UVa ‘97
Where are you on the continuum
of DIFFERENTIATION?
• What will it take for you to move?
• What roadblocks are in your way?
• How can you remove them?
My teacher
did not care
as much about
page 51
as she did
about
ME!
S. Kronos
Whatever it Takes!
Where Do I Begin?
Start small – but start!
First Steps:
*
*
*Next Steps
*
Who will help or support
you?
*
*
Leaps
___________________
*
___________________
*
*
___________________
___________________
Bounds
___________________
___________________
*
*
___________________
Suggested Resources Related to Differentiated Instruction
ASCD.org, Educational Leadership magazine, ASCD video series
Brandt, Ron (1998) Powerful Learning. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum
Development.
Cooper, J. David (2000). Literacy: Helping Children Construct Meaning, Fourth Edition. Boston,
MA:
Houghton Mifflin Co.
Cummings, Carol (2000). Winning Strategies for Classroom Management. Alexandria, VA:
Association
for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Erickson, H. Lynn (1998). Concept-Based Curriculum and Instruction: Teaching Beyond the Facts.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Inc.
Erickson, H. Lynn (2001). Stirring the Head, Heart, and Soul, Second Edition. Thousand Oaks,
CA:
Corwin Press, Inc.
Gibbs, Jeanne (1995). Tribes: A New Way of Learning and Being Together. Sausalito, California:
Center Source Systems
Jensen, Eric (1998). Teaching With the Brain in Mind. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision
and
Curriculum Development.
Keene, Ellin Oliver $ Zimmerman, Susan (1997). Mosaic of Thought: Teaching Comprehension in
a
Reader's Workshop. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann
Levine, Mel (2002). A Mind at a Time. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Marzano, Robert J. (2000). Transforming Classroom Grading. Alexandria, VA: Association for
Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Marzano, Robert J. & Pickering, Debra J. & Pollock, Jane E. (2001). Classroom Instruction That
Works:
Research-based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement. Alexandria, VA:
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Silver, Harvey & Strong, Richard W. & Perini, Matthew J. (2000). So Each May Learn: Integrating
Learning Styles and Multiple Intelligences. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and
Curriculum Development.
Reeves, Douglas B. (2004). Accountability for Learning: How Teachers and Leaders Can Take Charge.
Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Sternberg, Robert. (1998). Successful Intelligence: How Practical and Creative Intelligence Determine
Success in Life.
Stiggins, Richard J. (1997). Student-Centered Classroom Assessment, Second Edition. New Jersey:
Prentice-Hall Inc.
Strachota, B. (1996). On Their Side: Helping Children Take Charge of Their Learning. Greenfield, MA:
Northeast Society for Children.
Stronge, James H. (2002) Qualities of Effective Teachers, Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision
and Curriculum Development.
Tomlinson, C. (1996). Differentiating Instruction for Mixed Ability Classrooms; A Professional Inquiry
Kit. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Tomlinson, C. (1999). The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners.
Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Tomlinson, C. & Allan, Susan D. (2000). Leadership for Differentiating Schools and Classrooms.
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Differentiating Instruction: The Journey