Ideas and Strategies
that Support
Differentiated Instruction
Marcia B. Imbeau
Associate Professor
University of Arkansas
[email protected]
Differentiation
Is a teacher’s response to learner’s needs
Guided by general principles of differentiation
Respectful tasks
Quality Curriculum
Content
Flexible grouping
Continual assessment
Teachers can differentiate through
Process
Product
Building Community
Affect/Environment
According to students’
Readiness
Interest
Learning Profile
Through a variety of instructional strategies such as:
RAFTS…Graphic Organizers…Scaffolding Reading…Cubing…Tic-Tac-Toe…Learning
Contracts….Tiering… Learning/Interest Centers… Independent Studies…Intelligence
Preferences..Orbitals..Complex Instruction…4MAT…WebQuests & Web Inquiry…ETC.
What have you tried? What worked and what didn’t?
Working in your small groups, take a minute and share
your efforts. This isn’t meant to be a contest but
the only way to get very good at something is to
practice so….please share what you have been able to
do up to this point and thank you for helping us all to
learn!
To do this task make a chart recording what you have
been able to do thus far. Put your name, subject &
grade, what you tried, how it worked, and any
questions or concerns that you have.
Differentiation is
responsive teaching
rather than one-sizefits-all teaching.
“It means teachers proactively plan
varied approaches to what
students need to learn, how they
will learn it, and/or how they will
show what they have learned
in order to increase the likelihood
that each student will learn as
much as he or she can, as
efficiently as possible.”
What is differentiation?
Differentiation is
classroom practice
that looks
eyeball to eyeball
with the reality
that kids differ, and the most effective
teachers do whatever it takes to hook
the whole range of kids on learning.
-Tomlinson (2001)
“Differentiation is making sure that
the right students get the right
learning tasks at the right time. Once
you have a sense of what each
student holds as ‘given’ or ‘known’
and what he or she needs in order to
learn, differentiation is no longer an
option; it is an obvious response.”
Assessment as Learning: Using Classroom Assessment to Maximize Student Learning
Lorna M. Earl
Corwin Press, Inc. – 2003 – pp. 86-87
“It’s a way of thinking about
the classroom with the goals of
honoring each student’s
learning needs and maximizing
each student’s learning capacity
while developing a solid
community of learners.”
Differentiation doesn’t suggest
that a teacher can be all things
to all individuals all the time. It
does, however, mandate that a
teacher create a reasonable
range of approaches to
learning much of the time, so
that most students find learning
a fit much of the time.
Differentiation as
“Universal Design”
• At the beginning of the planning
process, the teacher asks, “What
supports and adaptations should I
build into the lesson to address
learning needs of particular students
that will likely help others as well?”
At its most basic level,
differentiating instruction
means “shaking up” what
goes on in the classroom
so that students have
multiple options for
taking in information,
making sense of ideas,
and expressing
what they learn.
It’s teaching so that “typical”
students; students with disabilities;
students who are gifted; and
students from a range of cultural,
ethnic, and language groups can
learn together, well.
Not just inclusion, but inclusive
teaching.
Based on Peterson, J., & Hitte, M. (2003). Inclusive teaching: Creating effective schools for all learners.
Boston: Allyn & Bacon, p. xix.
Differentiation begins with the
teacher’s mindset that students
of any age need active
involvement with and support
from adults who care to help
them construct a worthy
life.
Think about it……..
•How do these definitions & ideas
mesh with yours?
•What else would
you add to the
definitions and ideas as a
result of your evolving
understandings?
•Which ideas seem to you to be
“just a part of good teaching”?
Big Idea
of Differentiation:
Responding to
Readiness,
Interest,
Learning Profile
Student Traits
There are four student traits
that teachers must often
address to ensure effective
and efficient learning.
Those are readiness,
interest, learning profile,
and affect.
Student Traits
Readiness refers to a student’s
knowledge, understanding, and
skill related to a particular
sequence of learning. Only when
a student works at a level of
difficulty that is both challenging
and attainable for that student
does learning take place.
Tomlinson, 2003
Student Traits
Interest refers to those topics
or pursuits that evoke curiosity
and passion in a learner.
Thus, highly effective teachers
attend both to developing
interests and as yet
undiscovered interests in their
students.
Tomlinson, 2003
Student Traits
Learning profile refers to how
students learn best. Those
include learning style, intelligence
preference, culture and gender. If
classrooms can offer and support
different modes of learning, it is
likely that more students will learn
effectively and efficiently.
Tomlinson, 2003
Student Traits
Affect has to do with how
students feel about
themselves, their work, and
the classroom as a whole.
Student affect is the gateway
to helping each student
become more fully engaged
and successful in learning.
Tomlinson, 2003
High Quality Teaching…
How we teach
What we teach
It’s About Having All the Parts in Place…
Tomlinson ‘01
Affirmation
Important
Curriculum and
Focused
Instruction are
Engaging
Demanding
Scaffolded
the Vehicle
The
Student
Seeks
The
Teacher
Responds
Contribution
Power
Purpose
Challenge
Invitation
Opportunity
Investment
Persistence
Reflection
Carol Tomlinson, 2002
First Step in Designing
Differentiated Curriculum is…
…FOCUS!
Learning Goals:
Knows, Understands,
Be able to Dos
Concept-Based Teaching
Concept:
“A concept serves as an integrating lens” and
encourages the transfer of ideas within and
across the disciplines “as students search for
patterns and connections in the creation of
new knowledge.”1
Examples: Change, Culture, Systems,
Interdependence, Organization
1 Lynn
Erickson – Concept-Based Curriculum and Instruction, 2002
Concept
"Knows"
=
Facts
Understandings
=
Principles
"Be able to Dos"
=
Skills
Understandings:
These are the conceptual objectives you have for your
students. They are statements that…
•…Represent big ideas that have enduring value
beyond the classroom.
•…Reside at the heart of the discipline and are
worthy of exploration
•…Require “uncoverage” rather than coverage (of
abstract or often misunderstood ideas)
•…Offer potential for engaging students
2 Wiggins
and McTIghe – Understanding by Design, 1998
Understandings
Examples: Students will understand that…
Social studies:
…all cultures have beliefs, roles, traditions, economies, and technologies.
…a people changes and is changed by its culture.*
Science:
… an ecosystem is comprised of interdependent parts.*
…change to one part of an ecosystem results in change in its
other parts.*
English
…each of a system’s (story’s) elements exists in an
interdependent relationship with the other elements.
…changing even one element will alter the story’s organization
and outcome in some way.*
*=Generalizations: Understandings that show the relationship between two or more concepts
2 Wiggins
and McTIghe – Understanding by Design, 1998
Interdependence
Understanding:
Change to one element of a
story will result in change to
the other elements.
Facts:
Definitions of
setting, plot, point
of view, conflict...
Skills:
Analyze the impact of historical
perspective on a piece of writing.
Determine the effects of a story’s
point of view.
Activities:
Write a modern-day version of a legend or myth.
Rewrite a fairy tale from the perspective of a different character.
Reminder…
•Knows – Facts, names, dates, places, information
– The original inhabitants of the Americas migrated from Asia into
North America over the Bering land bridge.
– The multiplication tables
•Understands -- Essential truths that give meaning to the topic; Ideas that
transfer across situations; can be phrased, “Students should understand
THAT…”
–Migration enables organisms to meet basic needs.
–Multiplication is another way to do addition.
•Dos -- Skills (basic skills, skills of the discipline, skills of independence,
social skills, skills of production); usually verb phrases.
–Trace and explain the migratory path of the original Americans
–Use multiplication to solve story problems
–Work collaboratively in a group to complete an assigned task.
Are These Knows, Understands, or Dos?
Based on NC’s EOG’s
ENGLISH
•An author’s voice reflects his/her perspective.
•Point of view refers to the authors choice of narrator for his/her story.
•Project the student’s voice into his/her work through reflective
interpretation of prior events
MATH
•Apply geometric properties and relationships, including the
Pythagorean theorem.
•The formula for the area of a triangle is (½)bh.
•The dimensions of a figure exist in an interdependent relationship
with the figure’s perimeter, area, and volume.
Also – Identify the concepts present in the Understands.
Are These Knows, Understands, or Dos?
Based on Virginia’s SOLs
SCIENCE
•Design an experiment in which one variable is manipulated over many
trials.
•An experiment is a structured test of a hypothesis.
•The accuracy of evidence determines the reliability of conclusions.
•HISTORY
•Formulate historical questions and defend findings based on inquiry and
interpretation.
•Exploration and colonization result in the redistribution of population.
•The Middle Atlantic region was settled chiefly by English, Dutch, and
German-speaking immigrants seeking religious freedom and economic
opportunity.
Also – Identify the concepts present in the Understands.
Literature Example
Concept: Perspective
Lesson Topic: Point of View in To Kill a Mockingbird
Know: Definition of Point-of-view
Understand: Truth can look different from
different perspectives.
Do: Rewrite a scene from a perspective
other than the narrator’s.
Secondary Science Example
• Concept: Perspective
• Lesson Topic: History of Science
• Know:
– Theory (def.), evidence (def.), steps of the scientific
method
• Understand:
– Our perspective of the world changes as our knowledge
advances.
• Do:
– Explain how a theory has changed over time due to the
acquisition of new evidence
– Explain how technology influences the ability of scientists
to collect evidence and use it to shape perspectives of
how the world works.
Elementary Social Studies Example
• Concept: Culture
• Lesson Topic: Country Study
• Know:
– Foods, celebrations, clothing, and jobs representative of
specified countries
• Understand:
– Every culture has its own unique beliefs, traditions, and
behaviors.
• Do:
– Compare and contrast the foods, clothing, jobs, and
celebrations of different countries.
– Recognize similarities and differences among people of
different cultures.
English/Social Studies Example
• Concept: Perspective
• Lesson Topic: Consumerism
• Know:
– Definition of point of view
– Point of view is used as a tool in advertising
• Understand:
– Perspective influences decision making.
• Do:
– Explain and analyze advertising
– Use point of view strategically in creating an ad
– Critique other ads’ use of point of view to achieve
purpose/influence decision making.
Writing Example
• Concept: Perspective
• Lesson Topic: Writer’s Voice
• Know:
– Definition of voice
– Techniques used to communicate voice
• Understand:
– A clear writer’s voice communicates the writer’s
perspective
• Do:
– Identify and describe writers’ voices in literature
– Hypothesize/explain the relationship between writers’
perspectives and their voices
– Develop writer’s voice in order to communicate one’s
perspective
Planning a Focused Curriculum
Means Clarity About What
Students Should …
KNOW
• UNDERSTAND
– Principles/
generalizations
– Big ideas of the
discipline
– Facts
– Vocabulary
– Definitions
• BE ABLE TO DO
–Processes
–Skills
KNOW
Facts, names, dates, places,
information
•
•
•
•
•
There are 50 states in the US
Thomas Jefferson
1492
The Continental Divide
The multiplication tables
UNDERSTAND
Essential truths that give meaning to the
topic
Stated as a full sentence
Begin with, “I want students to understand
THAT…” (not HOW… or WHY… or
WHAT)
– Multiplication is another way to do addition.
– People migrate to meet basic needs.
– All cultures contain the same elements.
– Entropy and enthalpy are competing
forces in the natural world.
– Voice reflects the author.
Understanding
Understanding is more a
matter of what people can
DO than something they
HAVE. Understanding
involves action more than
possession.
D.N. Perkins, Educational Leadership, 10/91
BE ABLE TO DO
Skills (basic skills, skills of the discipline, skills
of independence, social skills, skills of
production)
Verbs or phrases (not the whole activity)
– Analyze
– Solve a problem to find perimeter
– Write a well supported argument
– Evaluate work according to specific criteria
– Contribute to the success of a group or team
– Use graphics to represent data appropriately
“There is no such thing as genuine
knowledge and fruitful understanding
except as the offspring of doing… This
is the lesson which all education has to
learn.”
--John Dewey
Knowledge/Understanding/Skill
Study the following items. Talk with your partners and determine if
each of the items represents something that would go in the
knowledge, the understanding, or the skill column of curriculum
planning.
1. The physical geography of a region directly impacts the
development of the civilization that settles in that particular region.
2. Christopher Columbus discovered America in 1492.
3. Locate places on a map using a geographic grid including latitude
and longitude.
4. Fair play is an essential part of all sports.
5. The United States of America is divided into specific regions, each
of which has unique geographic features and natural resources.
6. Scientists record the results of their experiments in a careful and
detailed manner.
7. Count to one hundred in units of ten.
8. Analyze the causes of the American Revolution.
9. Describe the rising action in a dramatic story.
10. Writers use a variety of literary elements to inform, persuade,
describe, and entertain readers.
11. Write descriptive text that describes people, places, and events.
12. Good writers use the skills of logical organization and strong voice
to convey a message to the reader.
13. You can find the decimal for 3/8 by using equivalent fractions.
KNOW (facts, vocabulary, dates, rules, people, etc.)
ecosystem, elements of culture (housing/shelter,
customs, values, geography)
UNDERSTAND (complete sentence, statement of truth
or insight - want students to understand that . . .)
DO (basic skills, thinking skills, social skills, skills of the
discipline, planning skills---verbs)
Compare and contrast
Draw conclusions
Work collaboratively
Develop a timeline
Use maps as data
Compare and contrast
Write a unified paragraph
Examine varied perspectives
Tomlinson • 02
Movie Time….
In Rick’s Classroom, Look For:
The nature of the learning environment
Connections between teacher and students
Quality of curriculum
The nature and uses of assessment
Your own questions
With your group, take 5 discuss the
reasons you assess students.
ONGOING ASSESSMENT
Some teachers
talk about---
LEARNING
Some teachers
talk about--VS.
GRADES
• Can these two coexist peacefully?
• Should one receive emphasis over the other?
“Assessment is today’s means of
understanding how to modify
tomorrow’s instruction.”
Carol Tomlinson
Take a moment to list some ways you
typically assess students in your
classroom.
WHAT CAN BE ASSESSED?
READINESS
Skills
Content
Knowledge
Concepts
INTEREST
LEARNING
PROFILE
• Interest Surveys • Areas of Strength
and Weakness
• Interest Centers
• Work Preferences
• Self-Selection
• Self Awareness
“Assessment should always have
more to do with helping students
grow than with cataloging their
mistakes.”
Carol Tomlinson
Most teachers assess students at the
end of an instructional unit or sequence.
When assessment and instruction are
interwoven, both the students and the
teacher benefit. The next slide suggests
a diagnostic continuum for
ongoing assessment.
On-going Assessment:
A Diagnostic Continuum
Preassessment
(Finding Out)
Formative Assessment
Summative Assessment
(Keeping Track & Checking -up)
(Making sure)
On-going Assessment:
A Diagnostic Continuum
Feedback and Goal Setting
Preassessment
(Finding Out)
Pre-test
Graphing for Greatness
Inventory
KWL
Checklist
Observation
Self-evaluation
Questioning
Formative Assessment
Summative Assessment
(Keeping Track & Checking -up)
(Making sure)
Conference
Peer evaluation
3-minute pause
Observation
Talkaround
Questioning
Exit Card
Portfolio Check
Quiz
Journal Entry
Self-evaluation
Unit Test
Performance Task
Product/Exhibit
Demonstration
Portfolio Review
Preassessment Is...
Any method, strategy or process used to determine a
student’s current level of readiness or interest in order to
plan for appropriate instruction.
• provides data to determine options for students
• helps determine differences before planning
•helps teacher design activities that are respectful and
challenging
•allows teachers to meet students where they are
•identifies starting point for instruction
•identifies learning gaps
•makes efficient use of instructional time
Formative Assessment Is...
A process of accumulating information about a student’s
progress to help make instructional decisions that will
improve his/her understandings and achievement levels.
• Depicts student’s life as a learner
• used to make instructional adjustments
• alerts the teacher about student misconceptions
“early warning signal”
• allows students to build on previous experiences
• provides regular feedback
• provides evidence of progress
• aligns with instructional/curricular outcomes
Summative Assessment Is...
A means to determine a student’s mastery and
understanding of information, skills, concepts, or
processes.
• Should reflect formative assessments that precede it
• should match material taught
• may determine student’s exit achievement
• may be tied to a final decision, grade or report
• should align with instructional/curricular outcomes
• may be a form of alternative assessment
Two Views of Assessment
Assessment is For:
Assessment is For:
Gate Keeping
Nurturing
Judging
Guiding
Right Answers
Self Reflection
Control
Information
Comparison to
Others
Comparison to Task
Use with Single
Activities
Use Over Multiple
Activities
Tomlinson
What Do You Want to Learn About Rome?
Name: _______________________
These are some of the topics we will be studying in our unit on Ancient Rome.
We want to know what you want to learn about. Number your choices from 1
to 8. Make sure that 1 is your favorite and 8 is your least favorite.
____ geography
____ government (laws)
____ agriculture (foods they grew)
____ architecture (buildings)
____ music and art
____ religion and sports
____ roles of men, women, and children
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
What Can You Tell Us About Rome?
What country is Rome in? ________________________________________________
What does the word civilization mean?_______________________________________
_________________________________________________________________.
Can you give us some examples of different civilizations? ________________________
__________________________________________________________________.
Can you name any famous Roman people? ___________________________________
__________________________________________________________________.
Many things in our country and culture came from the Romans. Can you think of any?
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________.
How Do You Like to Learn?
1. I study best when it is quiet.
2. I am able to ignore the noise of
other people talking while I am working.
3. I like to work at a table or desk.
4. I like to work on the floor.
5. I work hard by myself.
6. I work hard for my parents or teacher.
7. I will work on an assignment until it is completed, no
matter what.
8. Sometimes I get frustrated with my work
and do not finish it.
9. When my teacher gives an assignment, I like to
have exact steps on how to complete it.
10. When my teacher gives an assignment, I like to
create my own steps on how to complete it.
11. I like to work by myself.
12. I like to work in pairs or in groups.
13. I like to have unlimited amount of time to work on
an assignment.
14. I like to have a certain amount of time to work on
an assignment.
15. I like to learn by moving and doing.
16. I like to learn while sitting at my desk.
Yes No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
Yes No
Yes No
Yes No
Yes No
Yes No
Yes No
Yes No
Yes No
Yes No
Yes No
Poetry Poll
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Have you ever studied poetry? If you answer yes to question 1, answer question 2 and 3.
When did you study poetry?
Did you enjoy the poetry unit or writing poetry in general? Why or why not?
Have you ever written a poem you were proud of?
Which do you like better?
_____poetry that has a rhyme scheme
_____free verse poetry
6.
Rate the following items in order of personal enjoyment using 1-3
_____writing original poetry
_____reading poetry aloud to others
_____reading and listening to poetry
7.
In your opinion, what is the most difficult part of writing a poem? Circle one.
Following a given pattern
Coming up with at topic of the poem
Making sense
Coming up
other___________________________
8.
What is your favorite poem? Who is your favorite poet?
9. On a scale from 1-10, 10 being the most, how well do you think you will do during this unit? 1 2 3
4 5 6 7 8 9 10
10. Circle the kinds of poems you are already familiar with:
Acrostic, haiku, cinquain, limerick, free verse, couplet, other________
11. On the back, list some activities you would like to do in this unit.
-Kristie Sumpter, English
Pre-Assessment
• What the student already knows about
what is being planned
• What standards, objectives, concepts & skills the
individual student understands
• What further instruction and opportunities for
mastery are needed
• What requires reteaching or enhancement
• What areas of interests and feelings are in the
different areas of the study
• How to set up flexible groups: Whole, individual,
partner, or small group
Gregory, G.H. & Chapman, C. (2001). Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesn’t Fit All.
Thousand Oaks CA: Corwin Press.
Squaring Off
Whole Group Assessment
1. Place a card in each corner of the room with one of the
following words or phrases that are effective ways to
group according to learner knowledge.
Rarely ever
Dirt road
Sometimes
Paved road
Often
Highway
I have it!
Yellow brick road
2. Tell the students to go to the corner of the room
that matches their place in the learning journey.
3. Participants go to the corner that most closely
matches their own learning status and discuss what
they know about the topic and why they chose to go
there.
Gregory, G.H. & Chapman, C. (2001). Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesn’t Fit All.
Thousand Oaks CA: Corwin Press.
Yes/No Cards
•
•
1.
2.
3.
4.
YES
NO
Using a 4x6 index card the student writes YES on
one side and NO on the other.
When a question is asked the students hold up
YES or NO.
Ask the students if they know the following
vocabulary words and what they mean.
Call out a word. If a student is holding a YES
they may be called on to give the correct answer.
Remind them that if they don’t know the words it
is OK because they will be learning them.
You can do the same thing with conceptual ideas,
etc.
Gregory, G.H. & Chapman, C. (2001). Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesn’t Fit
All. Thousand Oaks CA: Corwin Press.
Thumb It!
• Have students respond with the position of
their thumb to get an assessment of what
their current understanding of a topic being
studied.
• Where I am now in my understanding of
______?
Up
I know a lot
Sideways
I know some
Down
I know very little
Gregory, G.H. & Chapman, C. (2001). Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesn’t Fit
All. Thousand Oaks CA: Corwin Press.
Fist of Five
Show the number of fingers on a scale, with 1
being lowest and 5 the highest.
Ask, How well do you feel you know this
information?
5. I know it so well I could explain it to anyone.
4. I can do it alone.
3. I need some help.
2. I could use more practice.
1. I am only beginning.
Gregory, G.H. & Chapman, C. (2001). Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesn’t
Fit All. Thousand Oaks CA: Corwin Press.
How do we assess the gap between
what we know about students and
what performance is expected of
them for the final assessment of the
next unit?
And how should a teacher decide on a
method of pre-assessment?
Gregory, G.H. and Kuzmich, L. (2004). Data driven differentiation in
the standards-based classroom. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
1. What do I know about my students
now?
2. What is the nature and content of the
final assessment for this unit or period
of time?
3. What don’t I know about the content
knowledge, the critical thinking, and
the process or skill demonstration of
my students?
Gregory, G.H. and Kuzmich, L. (2004). Data driven differentiation in
the standards-based classroom. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Take notes
Have students complete a quick
assignment
Have students do a checklist with each
other
Use a ticket out
Create a homework activity that helps
gather data
Gregory, G.H. and Kuzmich, L. (2004). Data driven differentiation in
the standards-based classroom. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Teacher prepared pretests
KWL charts and other graphic organizers
Writing prompts/samples
Questioning
Guess Box
Picture Interpretation
Prediction
Teacher observation/checklists
Student demonstrations and discussions
Initiating activities
Informational surveys/Questionnaires/Inventories
Student interviews
Student products and work samples
Self-evaluations
Portfolio analysis
Game activities
Show of hands to determine understanding
Drawing related to topic or content
Standardized test information
Anticipation journals
Differentiation
Is a teacher’s response to learner’s needs
Guided by general principles of differentiation
Respectful tasks
Quality Curriculum
Content
Flexible grouping
Continual assessment
Teachers can differentiate through
Process
Product
Building Community
Affect/Environment
According to students’
Readiness
Interest
Learning Profile
Through a variety of instructional strategies such as:
RAFTS…Graphic Organizers…Scaffolding Reading…Cubing…Tic-Tac-Toe…Learning
Contracts….Tiering… Learning/Interest Centers… Independent Studies…Intelligence
Preferences..Orbitals..Complex Instruction…4MAT…WebQuests & Web Inquiry…ETC.
“Differentiation is making sure that
the right students get the right
learning tasks at the right time. Once
you have a sense of what each
student holds as ‘given’ or ‘known’
and what he or she needs in order to
learn, differentiation is no longer an
option; it is an obvious response.”
Assessment as Learning: Using Classroom Assessment to Maximize Student Learning
Lorna M. Earl
Corwin Press, Inc. – 2003 – pp. 86-87
Differentiation begins with the
teacher’s mindset that students
of any age need active
involvement with and support
from adults who care to help
them construct a worthy
life.
Think about it……..
•How do these definitions & ideas
mesh with yours?
•What else would
you add to the
definitions and ideas as a
result of your evolving
understandings?
•Which ideas seem to you to be
“just a part of good teaching”?
Big Idea
of Differentiation:
Responding to
Readiness,
Interest,
Learning Profile
Student Traits
There are four student traits
that teachers must often
address to ensure effective
and efficient learning.
Those are readiness,
interest, learning profile,
and affect.
Student Traits
Readiness refers to a student’s
knowledge, understanding, and
skill related to a particular
sequence of learning. Only when
a student works at a level of
difficulty that is both challenging
and attainable for that student
does learning take place.
Tomlinson, 2003
Student Traits
Interest refers to those topics
or pursuits that evoke curiosity
and passion in a learner.
Thus, highly effective teachers
attend both to developing
interests and as yet
undiscovered interests in their
students.
Tomlinson, 2003
Student Traits
Learning profile refers to how
students learn best. Those
include learning style, intelligence
preference, culture and gender. If
classrooms can offer and support
different modes of learning, it is
likely that more students will learn
effectively and efficiently.
Tomlinson, 2003
Student Traits
Affect has to do with how
students feel about
themselves, their work, and
the classroom as a whole.
Student affect is the gateway
to helping each student
become more fully engaged
and successful in learning.
Tomlinson, 2003
High Quality Teaching…
How we teach
What we teach
It’s About Having All the Parts in Place…
Tomlinson ‘01
Affirmation
Important
Curriculum and
Focused
Instruction are
Engaging
Demanding
Scaffolded
the Vehicle
The
Student
Seeks
The
Teacher
Responds
Contribution
Power
Purpose
Challenge
Invitation
Opportunity
Investment
Persistence
Reflection
Carol Tomlinson, 2002
First Step in Designing
Differentiated Curriculum is…
…FOCUS!
Learning Goals:
Knows, Understands,
Be able to Dos
Concept-Based Teaching
Concept:
“A concept serves as an integrating lens” and
encourages the transfer of ideas within and
across the disciplines “as students search for
patterns and connections in the creation of
new knowledge.”1
Examples: Change, Culture, Systems,
Interdependence, Organization
1 Lynn
Erickson – Concept-Based Curriculum and Instruction, 2002
Concept
"Knows"
=
Facts
Understandings
=
Principles
"Be able to Dos"
=
Skills
Understandings:
These are the conceptual objectives you have for your
students. They are statements that…
•…Represent big ideas that have enduring value
beyond the classroom.
•…Reside at the heart of the discipline and are
worthy of exploration
•…Require “uncoverage” rather than coverage (of
abstract or often misunderstood ideas)
•…Offer potential for engaging students
2 Wiggins
and McTIghe – Understanding by Design, 1998
Understandings
Examples: Students will understand that…
Social studies:
…all cultures have beliefs, roles, traditions, economies, and technologies.
…a people changes and is changed by its culture.*
Science:
… an ecosystem is comprised of interdependent parts.*
…change to one part of an ecosystem results in change in its
other parts.*
English
…each of a system’s (story’s) elements exists in an
interdependent relationship with the other elements.
…changing even one element will alter the story’s organization
and outcome in some way.*
*=Generalizations: Understandings that show the relationship between two or more concepts
2 Wiggins
and McTIghe – Understanding by Design, 1998
Interdependence
Understanding:
Change to one element of a
story will result in change to
the other elements.
Facts:
Definitions of
setting, plot, point
of view, conflict...
Skills:
Analyze the impact of historical
perspective on a piece of writing.
Determine the effects of a story’s
point of view.
Activities:
Write a modern-day version of a legend or myth.
Rewrite a fairy tale from the perspective of a different character.
Reminder…
•Knows – Facts, names, dates, places, information
– The original inhabitants of the Americas migrated from Asia into
North America over the Bering land bridge.
– The multiplication tables
•Understands -- Essential truths that give meaning to the topic; Ideas that
transfer across situations; can be phrased, “Students should understand
THAT…”
–Migration enables organisms to meet basic needs.
–Multiplication is another way to do addition.
•Dos -- Skills (basic skills, skills of the discipline, skills of independence,
social skills, skills of production); usually verb phrases.
–Trace and explain the migratory path of the original Americans
–Use multiplication to solve story problems
–Work collaboratively in a group to complete an assigned task.
Are These Knows, Understands, or Dos?
Based on NC’s EOG’s
ENGLISH
•An author’s voice reflects his/her perspective.
•Point of view refers to the authors choice of narrator for his/her story.
•Project the student’s voice into his/her work through reflective
interpretation of prior events
MATH
•Apply geometric properties and relationships, including the
Pythagorean theorem.
•The formula for the area of a triangle is (½)bh.
•The dimensions of a figure exist in an interdependent relationship
with the figure’s perimeter, area, and volume.
Also – Identify the concepts present in the Understands.
Are These Knows, Understands, or Dos?
Based on Virginia’s SOLs
SCIENCE
•Design an experiment in which one variable is manipulated over many
trials.
•An experiment is a structured test of a hypothesis.
•The accuracy of evidence determines the reliability of conclusions.
•HISTORY
•Formulate historical questions and defend findings based on inquiry and
interpretation.
•Exploration and colonization result in the redistribution of population.
•The Middle Atlantic region was settled chiefly by English, Dutch, and
German-speaking immigrants seeking religious freedom and economic
opportunity.
Also – Identify the concepts present in the Understands.
Are These Knows, Understands, or Dos?
Based on NC’s EOG’s
ENGLISH
•An author’s voice reflects his/her perspective. (UNDERSTAND)
•Point of view refers to the authors choice of narrator for his/her story.
(KNOW)
•Project the student’s voice into his/her work through reflective
interpretation of prior events. (DO)
MATH
•Apply geometric properties and relationships, including the
Pythagorean theorem. (DO)
•The formula for the area of a triangle is (½)bh. (KNOW)
•The dimensions of a figure exist in an interdependent relationship
with the figure’s perimeter, area, and volume. (UNDERSTAND)
Are These Knows, Understands, or Dos?
Based on Virginia’s SOLs
SCIENCE
•Design an experiment in which one variable is manipulated over many
trials. (DO)
•An experiment is a structured test of a hypothesis. (KNOW)
• The accuracy of evidence determines the reliability of conclusions.
(UNDERSTAND)
HISTORY
•Formulate historical questions and defend findings based on inquiry
and interpretation. (DO)
•Exploration and colonization result in the redistribution of population.
(UNDERSTAND)
•The Middle Atlantic region was settled chiefly by English, Dutch, and
German-speaking immigrants seeking religious freedom and economic
opportunity. (KNOW)
Literature Example
Concept: Perspective
Lesson Topic: Point of View in To Kill a Mockingbird
Know: Definition of Point-of-view
Understand: Truth can look different from
different perspectives.
Do: Rewrite a scene from a perspective
other than the narrator’s.
Secondary Science Example
• Concept: Perspective
• Lesson Topic: History of Science
• Know:
– Theory (def.), evidence (def.), steps of the scientific
method
• Understand:
– Our perspective of the world changes as our knowledge
advances.
• Do:
– Explain how a theory has changed over time due to the
acquisition of new evidence
– Explain how technology influences the ability of scientists
to collect evidence and use it to shape perspectives of
how the world works.
Elementary Social Studies Example
• Concept: Culture
• Lesson Topic: Country Study
• Know:
– Foods, celebrations, clothing, and jobs representative of
specified countries
• Understand:
– Every culture has its own unique beliefs, traditions, and
behaviors.
• Do:
– Compare and contrast the foods, clothing, jobs, and
celebrations of different countries.
– Recognize similarities and differences among people of
different cultures.
English/Social Studies Example
• Concept: Perspective
• Lesson Topic: Consumerism
• Know:
– Definition of point of view
– Point of view is used as a tool in advertising
• Understand:
– Perspective influences decision making.
• Do:
– Explain and analyze advertising
– Use point of view strategically in creating an ad
– Critique other ads’ use of point of view to achieve
purpose/influence decision making.
Writing Example
• Concept: Perspective
• Lesson Topic: Writer’s Voice
• Know:
– Definition of voice
– Techniques used to communicate voice
• Understand:
– A clear writer’s voice communicates the writer’s
perspective
• Do:
– Identify and describe writers’ voices in literature
– Hypothesize/explain the relationship between writers’
perspectives and their voices
– Develop writer’s voice in order to communicate one’s
perspective
Planning a Focused Curriculum
Means Clarity About What
Students Should …
KNOW
• UNDERSTAND
– Principles/
generalizations
– Big ideas of the
discipline
– Facts
– Vocabulary
– Definitions
• BE ABLE TO DO
–Processes
–Skills
KNOW
Facts, names, dates, places,
information
•
•
•
•
•
There are 50 states in the US
Thomas Jefferson
1492
The Continental Divide
The multiplication tables
UNDERSTAND
Essential truths that give meaning to the
topic
Stated as a full sentence
Begin with, “I want students to understand
THAT…” (not HOW… or WHY… or
WHAT)
– Multiplication is another way to do addition.
– People migrate to meet basic needs.
– All cultures contain the same elements.
– Entropy and enthalpy are competing
forces in the natural world.
– Voice reflects the author.
Understanding
Understanding is more a
matter of what people can
DO than something they
HAVE. Understanding
involves action more than
possession.
D.N. Perkins, Educational Leadership, 10/91
BE ABLE TO DO
Skills (basic skills, skills of the discipline, skills
of independence, social skills, skills of
production)
Verbs or phrases (not the whole activity)
– Analyze
– Solve a problem to find perimeter
– Write a well supported argument
– Evaluate work according to specific criteria
– Contribute to the success of a group or team
– Use graphics to represent data appropriately
“There is no such thing as genuine
knowledge and fruitful understanding
except as the offspring of doing… This
is the lesson which all education has to
learn.”
--John Dewey
Knowledge/Understanding/Skill
Study the following items. Talk with your partners and determine if
each of the items represents something that would go in the
knowledge, the understanding, or the skill column of curriculum
planning.
1. The physical geography of a region directly impacts the
development of the civilization that settles in that particular region.
2. Christopher Columbus discovered America in 1492.
3. Locate places on a map using a geographic grid including latitude
and longitude.
4. Fair play is an essential part of all sports.
5. The United States of America is divided into specific regions, each
of which has unique geographic features and natural resources.
6. Scientists record the results of their experiments in a careful and
detailed manner.
7. Count to one hundred in units of ten.
8. Analyze the causes of the American Revolution.
9. Describe the rising action in a dramatic story.
10. Writers use a variety of literary elements to inform, persuade,
describe, and entertain readers.
11. Write descriptive text that describes people, places, and events.
12. Good writers use the skills of logical organization and strong voice
to convey a message to the reader.
13. You can find the decimal for 3/8 by using equivalent fractions.
KNOW (facts, vocabulary, dates, rules, people, etc.)
ecosystem, elements of culture (housing/shelter,
customs, values, geography)
UNDERSTAND (complete sentence, statement of truth
or insight - want students to understand that . . .)
DO (basic skills, thinking skills, social skills, skills of the
discipline, planning skills---verbs)
Compare and contrast
Draw conclusions
Work collaboratively
Develop a timeline
Use maps as data
Compare and contrast
Write a unified paragraph
Examine varied perspectives
Tomlinson • 02
Movie Time….
In Rick’s Classroom, Look For:
The nature of the learning environment
Connections between teacher and students
Quality of curriculum
The nature and uses of assessment
Your own questions
Inside Rick’s Classroom: Differentiation
Assumptions about WHO we Teach
Assumptions about WHERE we Teach
Assumptions about WHAT we Teach
Assumptions about HOW we Teach
(Look for evidence of UbD)
Big idea “ahas” about differentiation:
Directions: Complete the chart to show what you
know about ________________
Write as much as you can.
Description of the
Description
Steps in Developing It
Strategy
Useful For
Place to Use It in the
Curriculum
Tomlinson - 02
Tiered Assignments
In a heterogeneous classroom, a teacher
uses varied levels of activities to ensure
that students explore ideas at a level that
builds on their prior knowledge and
prompts continued growth. Student
groups use varied approaches to
exploration of essential ideas.
Tiered Assignments
Rationale for Use
• Blends assessment and instruction
• Allows students to begin learning where they are
• Allows students to work with appropriately
challenging tasks
• Allows for reinforcement or extension of concepts
and principles based on student readiness
• Allows modification of working conditions based on
learning style
• Avoids work that is anxiety-production (too hard) or
boredom-producing (too easy)
• Promotes success and is therefore motivating
Tiered Assignments
•
•
•
•
Guidelines for Use
Be sure the task is focused on a key concept
or generalization essential to the study
Use a variety of resource materials at
differing levels of complexity and associated
with different learning modes
Adjust the task by complexity, abstractness,
number of steps, concreteness, and
independence to ensure appropriate
challenge
Be certain there are clear criteria for quality
and success
Tiered Assignments
• In a differentiated classroom, a teacher uses varied levels of
tasks to ensure that students explore ideas and use skills at a
level that builds on their prior knowledge and prompts
continued growth.
• While students work at varied degrees of difficulty on their
tasks, they all explore the essential ideas and work at high
levels of thought.
• Assessment-based tiering allows students to work in their
“Zones of Proximal Development” or in a state of “moderate
challenge.”
What Zone Am I In?
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Too Easy
•
I get it right away…
I already know how… •
•
This is a cinch…
I’m sure to make an A… •
•
I’m coasting…
•
I feel relaxed…
•
I’m bored…
•
No big effort
•
necessary…
On Target
I know some things…
I have to think…
I have to work…
I have to persist…
I hit some walls…
I’m on my toes…
I have to re-group…
I feel challenged…
Effort leads to
success…
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Too Hard
I don’t know where to
start…
I can’t figure it out…
I’m spinning my wheels…
I’m missing key skills…
I feel frustrated…
I feel angry
This makes no sense…
Effort doesn’t pay off…
THIS is the place to be… THIS is the achievement zone…
Tiering a Lesson
What range of learning needs
are you likely to address?
What should students know,
understand, and be able to do
as a result of the lesson?
What’s your “starting point
lesson?” How will you hook
the students?
Know:
Understand:
Be Able to Do:
What’s your first cloned
version?
What’s your second cloned
version of this activity?
What’s your third cloned
version of this activity?
Continuums for Planning Differentiated Lessons
These continuums can help you plan content, process, and products for gifted learners, as well as other
learners with diverse needs. They are not a recipe, but rather a guide for your thinking. In general,
students who are gifted in a given subject or very advanced in a particular topic need to function toward
the right end of the continuums. There will be exceptions, of course. For example, a highly able learner
may at times need to work at a slower pace to study a topic in greater breadth or depth. At the beginning
of a complex study, even a highly able learner may need to work at simpler tasks, toward the left of the
continuums will need to move toward the right.
Simple
Complex
Resources, Research, Issues, Problems, Skills
Concrete
Abstract
Examples, Illustrations, Applications, Conclusions
Single – faceted
Multi – faceted
Problems, Applications, Solutions, Approaches, Disciplinary Connections
Small Leap
Great Leap
Application, Insight, Transfer
Closed
Open
Solution, Decisions, Approaches
Less Independence
Greater Independence
Planning, Designing, Monitoring
Foundational
Transformational
Information, Ideas, Materials, Applications
Slow
Quick
ASCD, 1994
Pace of Study, Pace of Thought
Tiered Activity
Subject: Science
Concepts: Density & Buoyancy
Introduction: All students take part in an
introductory discussion, read the chapter, and
watch a lab activity on floating toys.
Activities Common to All Three Groups
•
•
•
•
•
•
Explore the relationship between density and buoyancy
Determine density
Conduct an experiment
Write a lab report
Work at a high level of thinking
Share findings with the class
The Soda Group
• Given four cans of different kinds of soda,
students determined whether each would
float by measuring the density of each can.
• They completed a lab procedure form by
stating the materials, procedures, and
conclusions. In an analysis section, they
included an explanation of why the cans
floated and sank, and stated the
relationship between density and buoyancy.
The Brine &
Egg Group
• Students developed a prescribed procedure for
measuring salt, heating water, dissolving the salt
in the water, cooling the brine, determining the
mass of water, determining the mass of an egg,
recording all data in a data table, pouring the egg
on the cool mixture, stirring the solution and
observing.
• They answered questions about their procedures
and observations, as well as questions about
why a person can float in water, whether it is
easier to float in fresh or seawater, why a helium
filled balloon floats in air, and the relationship
between density and buoyancy.
The Boat Group
• Students first wrote advice to college students building
concrete boats to enter in a boat race.
• They then determined the density of a ball of clay, drew a
boat design for a clay boat, noting its dimensions and its
density.
• They used cylinders of aluminum, brass, and steel as well
as aluminum nails for cargo, and determined the
maximum amount of cargo their boat could hold.
• They built and tested the boat and its projected load.
• They wrote a descriptive lab report to include explanations
of why the clay ball sank, and the boat was able to float,
the relationship between density and buoyancy, and how
freighters made of steel can carry iron ore and other metal
cargo.
Elementary
Physical Education
Skill: Dribbling and Basketball
1)
Dribble from point A to point B in a straight line with one hand
•
•
2)
Zigzag
•
•
•
•
3)
Change hand
Increase speed
Dribble with one hand—and a partner playing defense.
•
•
5)
One hand
Other hand
Increase speed
Change pattern to simulate going around opponents
In and out of pylons as fast as possible
•
•
4)
Switch to the other hand and repeat.
Use either hand and develop a new floor pattern from A to B (not a straight
line)
Increase speed and use other hand
Trade roles
Through pylons, alternating hands, & partner playing defense
•
•
Increase speed
Trade roles
Judy Roll-Hilton Central Schools – Hilton, NY
A High School Tiered Lesson
PHYSICS
As a result of the Lab, students should:
Know
Key vocabulary (thrust, drag, lift, fluid, pressure, velocity, camber, airfoil, chord, trailing
edge, leading edge)
Understand
Bernoulli’s Principle—As the velocity of a fluid increases, its pressure decreases. (Moving
fluid creates an area of low pressure. Decrease in pressure on the top of the airfoil
causes lift.)
Newton’s Third Law of Motion (For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction)
Aerodynamics is the study of forces acting on an object because air or another gas is
moving.
Be Able to Do
Construct objects that project themselves through space in different ways as a
demonstration of student knowledge of key information and understanding of key
principles.
Great opportunity to make teams of theoretician/scholars and designer/builders
In the lab students make
Paper Airplanes that fly for
Maximum Distance
easiest
Maximum Hang Time
Tricks
Hardest
Kites
Diamondeasiest
Pinwheels
Box
Forward Motion
hardest
Triangle-Layered
easiest
Backward Motion
Upward Motion hardest
Secondary Tiered Assignment
Concept: Responsibility
Generalizations:
We are responsible for ourselves.
We “write” our own lives.
We have responsibility for those we “tame.”
Our actions have a ripple effect.
Responsibility may require sacrifice and
may result in fulfillment.
Our work bears our hallmark.
Skills:
Argument and support
Effective use of figurative language
Editing skills
Literary analysis
Key Vocabulary:
Elements of literature
Genre traits
Voice
Sample Literature:
The Little Prince
Anne Frank by Miep Gies
‘Bloodstain’
“I Will Create’
‘To Be’ Soliloquy
News Articles
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Samples of Differentiation
Both teacher assigned and student
selected reading.
Both teacher assigned and student
selected journal prompts.
Use of literature circles to discuss
books/readings assigned by readiness.
Use of small group, teacher-led focus
groups on student-choice readings/
Optional review groups on key
vocabulary and skills.
In-common and “negotiated” criteria for
key writing.
Product options.
Use of tape recordings, shared reading
on complex pieces.
Varied work groups.
Tiered lesson.
Secondary Tiered Assignment
Task
•
Students will analyze parallel pieces of writing
to explore the premise that we are
responsible for those we tame. Students will
frame an argument to support their position.
Group 1
Read pages from The Little Prince
•
Complete an analysis matrix that specifies the
fox’s feelings about responsibility toward
those we tame and why he believes what he
does.
Read Bloodstain
•
Complete an analysis matrix on the beliefs of
the main character on the same topic.
•
Select a newspaper article from the folder.
•
Write a paragraph or two that compares
beliefs of people in the article with the two
characters.
•
What advice would you give children about
responsibility toward people we tame?
•
Brainstorm on paper and then either:
•
Write a letter to a child giving your advice.
•
Write guidelines for adults who affect
children’s lives.
•
Draw and explain a blueprint for becoming a
responsible person.
•
Peer revise and then peer edit your work.
Group 2
Read pages from The Little Prince
•
Find at least one piece of writing that shares the fox’s view on
responsibility for those we tame.
•
Find at least 2 contrasting pieces.
•
Your selections must include at least 2 genre.
•
Develop notes on 2 views of responsibility with reasons and
illustrations from your selections.
•
Be sure you are thoughtful about each view.
Then either:
•
Write an editorial about the implications of the two approaches
for our school.
•
Write an interior monologue of a teen at a point of decision
about responsibility for someone he/she has tamed.
•
Create a series of editorial cartoons that look at the ripple
effect of such decisions in history, science, and our
community.
Developed by Tomlinson, 98
Novel Think Tac-Toe
Directions: Select and complete one activity from each horizontal
row to help you and others think about your novel. Remember to
make your work thoughtful, original, rich with detail, and accurate.
Create a pair of collages that compares
you and a character in the book.
Compare and contrast physical and
personality traits. Label your collages so
viewers understand your thinking.
Write a bio-poem about yourself
and another about a main
character in the book so your
readers see how you and the
character are alike and different.
Be sure to include the most
important traits in each poem.
Write a recipe or set of directions
for how you would solve a problem
and another for how a main
character in the book would solve
a problem. Your list should help
us know you and the character.
Draw/paint and write a greeting card that
invites us into the scenery and mood of
an important part of the book. Be sure
the verse helps us understand what is
important in the scene and why.
Make a model or a map of a key
place in your life, and an important
one in the novel. Find a way to
help viewers understand both what
the places are like and why they
are important in your life and the
characters’.
Make 2 timelines. The first should
illustrate and describe a least 6-8
shifts in settings in the book. The
second should explain and
illustrate how the mood changes
with the change in setting.
Using books of proverbs and/on
quotations, find at least 6-8 that you feel
reflect what’s important about the novel’s
theme. Find at least 6-8 that do the
same for your life. Display them and
explain your choices.
Interview a key character from the
book to find out what lessons
he/she thinks we should learn from
events in the book. Use a Parade
magazine for material. Be sure
the interview is thorough.
Find several songs you think
reflect an important message from
the book. Prepare an audio
collage. Write an exhibit card that
helps your listener understand how
you think these songs express the
book’s meaning.
Novel Title: ____________________ Author:_______________________
Activities Selected: _______, _____, _____
Student: ______________________
Novel Think Tac-Toe
Directions: Select and complete one activity from each horizontal row to help
you and others think about your novel. Remember to make your work
thoughtful, original, rich with detail, and accurate.
Write a bio-poem about yourself and
another about a main character in the
book so your readers see how you and
the character are alike and different. Be
sure to include the m most important traits
in each poem.
A character in the book is being
written up in the paper 20 years after
the novel ends. Write the piece.
Where has life taken him/her? Why?
Now, do the same for yourself 20
years from now. Make sure both
pieces are interesting feature articles.
You’re a “profiler.” Write and
illustrate a full and useful profile of
an interesting character from the
book with emphasis on personality
traits and mode of operating. While
you’re at it, profile yourself, too.
Research a town/place you feel is
equivalent to the one in which the novel is
set. Use maps, sketches, population and
other demographic data to help you make
comparisons and contrasts.
Make a model or a map of a key
place in your life, and an important
one in the novel. Find a way to help
viewers understand both what the
places are like and why they are
important in your life and the
characters’.
The time and place in which people
find themselves and when events
happen shape those people and
events in important ways. Find a
way to convincingly prove that idea
using this book.
Find out about famous people in history or
current events whose experiences and
lives reflect the essential themes of this
novel. Show us what you’ve learned.
Create a multi-media presentation
that fully explores a key theme from
the novel. Use at least 3 media (for
example, painting, music, poetry,
photography, drama, sculpture,
calligraphy, etc.) in your exploration.
Find several songs you think reflect
an important message from the
book. Prepare an audio collage.
Write an exhibit card that helps your
listener understand how you think
these songs express the book’s
meaning.
Novel Title:___________________ Author:_____________________
Activities Selected: _______, _____, _____
Student: ______________________
Character Map
Character
Name____________
How the character
looks
How the character
thinks or acts
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
Most important thing to
____________
know about the character
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
Character Map
Character
Name____________
Clues the author
gives us about the
character
____________
____________
____________
____________
Why the author
gives THESE clues
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
The author’s bottom line about this
character
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
Character Map
Character
Name____________
What the character
says or does
____________
____________
____________
____________
What the character
really MEANS to say or
do
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
What the character would mostly
like
____________
us to know about him or her
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
________________
The Voices in my Head…
Potential
drawbacks of
tiering…
Potential
benefits of
tiering…
I need more
help or
information…
Directions: Complete the chart to show what you
know about ________________
Write as much as you can.
Description of the
Description
Steps in Developing It
Strategy
Useful For
Place to Use It in the
Curriculum
Tomlinson - 02
Your Task…
 Select 1 strategy you would like to practice. You may
work alone, with a partner or a small group.
 Decide on your content and develop a Know,
Understand and Be Able to Do for your lesson.
 Next, decide on the strategy that you believe address
(content, process (activities), and product) the purpose
you are targeting (readiness, learning profile, & interest).
 Record your ideas on a piece of chart paper that you will
share with others. Record any management tips you
believe would be helpful with your implementation.
ISBN #0-87120-812-1
Fulfilling the Promise of the
Differentiated Classroom
by Carol Ann Tomlinson
Learning Centers
Directions: Complete the chart to show what you
know about ________________
Write as much as you can.
Description of the
Description
Steps in Developing It
Strategy
Useful For
Place to Use It in the
Curriculum
Tomlinson - 02
Learning Centers
• How might they best be used to enhance
student learning? Share your experiences . . .
• How are they considered differentiated
instruction?
• What are your recommendations for
incorporating this strategy in your classroom?
• Samples . . .
Learning Centers
In Mrs. Walker's first grade class, students work with center work in language arts
for a period of time each morning. There are two "choice-boards" in the classrooms
one called "Teacher Choice" and one called "Student Choice." Each student has at
least two days a week of student choice selections and at least two teacher choice
selections. On days when Fred is assigned to Teacher Choice, Mrs. Walker will
select centers and materials at his level of language readiness and ensure that he
works at centers which include those materials. On his student choice days, Fred
may select from any of 8-12 "pockets" on the student choice board. Those offer a
wide range of choices from listening to computer work to writing/drawing, to modelmaking. All of the options encourage students to use language in which they find
pleasurable. If Mrs. Walker elects to do so, she can guide even the student choice
work by color coding rows of pockets on the student choice chart, and for example,
telling Fred he may pick any choice from the red and yellow rows (but not the blue
row). Often she also "Staggers" center work so that some students work at centers
while others work with her in directed reading activities or individual conferences,
and others work with desk work on math or language.
Making Matches Count:
A Look at Student Learning
Snapshots from Two Primary Classrooms
For a part of each day in Mrs. Jasper’s 1st grade class, students
rotate among learning centers. Mrs. Jasper has worked hard for
several years to provide a variety of learning centers related to
several subject areas. All students go to all learning centers because
Mrs. Jasper says they feel it’s unfair if they don’t all do the same
thing. Students enjoy the movement and the independence the
learning centers provide.
Many times, Isabel breezes through the center work. Just as
frequently, Jaime is confused about how to do the work. Mrs. Jasper
tries to help Jaime as often as she can, but she doesn’t worry so
much about Isabel because her skills are well beyond those expected
of a 1st grader.
Today, all students in Mrs. Jasper’s class will work in a learning
center on compound words. From a list of 10 compound words, they
will select and illustrate 5. Later, Mrs. Jasper will ask for volunteers
to show their illustrations. She will do this until the students share
illustrations for all 10 words.
Making Matches
Count: A Look
at Student Learning
Down the hall, Ms. Cunningham also uses learning centers in her
1st grade classroom. She, too, has invested considerable time in
developing interesting centers on a variety of subjects. Ms.
Cunningham’s centers, however, draw upon some of the principles of
differentiated classrooms. Sometimes all students work in a
particular learning center if it introduces an idea or skill new to
everyone. More often, Ms. Cunningham assigns students to a specific
learning center, based on her continually developing sense of their
individual readiness.
Today, her students will also work at a learning center on
compound words. Student’s names are listed at the center; one of
four colors is beside each name. Each student works with the folder
that matches the color beside his or her name. For example, Sam
has the color red next to his name. Using the materials in the red
folder, Sam must decide the correct order of pairs of words to make
familiar compound words. He also will make a poster that illustrates
each simple word and the new compound word they form. Using
materials in the blue folder, Jenna will look around the classroom
Making Matches
Count: A Look
at Student Learning
and in books to find examples of compound words. She will write them
out and illustrate them in a booklet. Using materials in the purple
folder, Tjuana will write a poem or a story that uses compound words
she generates and that make the story or poem interesting. She then
can illustrate the compound words to make the story or poem
interesting to look at as well as read. In the green folder, Dillon will
find a story the teacher has written. It contains correct and incorrect
compound words. Dillon will be a word detective, looking for “villains”
and “good-guys” among the compound words. He will create a chart
to list the good guys (correct compound words) and the villains
(incorrect compound words) in the story. He will illustrate the good
guys and list the villains as they are in the story, and then write them
correctly.
Tomorrow during circle time, all students may share what they
did with their compound words. As students listen, they are
encouraged to say the thing they like best about each presenter’s work.
Ms. Cunningham also will call on a few students who may be reticent to
volunteer, asking them if they’d be willing to share what they did at the
center (Tomlinson, 1999, pp.3-4).
Cubing Activities
Directions: Complete the chart to show what you
know about ________________
Write as much as you can.
Description of the
Description
Steps in Developing It
Strategy
Useful For
Place to Use It in the
Curriculum
Tomlinson - 02
Cubing Activities
Directions: Complete the chart to show what you
know about ________________
Write as much as you can.
Description of the
Description
Steps in Developing It
Strategy
Useful For
Place to Use It in the
Curriculum
Tomlinson - 02
Cubing
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Describe It
Look at the subject closely (perhaps with your senses in mind).
Compare It
What is it similar to? What is it different from?
Associate It
What does it make you think of? What comes to your mind
when you think of it? Perhaps people? Places? Things?
Feelings? Let your mind go and see what feelings you have for
the subject.
Analyze It
Tell how it is made. If you can’t really know, use your
imagination.
Apply It
Tell what you can do with it. How can it be used?
Argue for It or Against It
Take a stand. Use any kind of reasoning you want—logical, silly,
anywhere in between.
Example
Creating a Cubing Exercise
•
•
•
Start by deciding which part of your unit
lends itself to optional activities. Decide
which concepts in this unit can you create a
cube for. Is it possible for you to make 3
cubes for 3 different interests, levels, or
topics?
First Step: (use one of the cubes)
– Write 6 questions that ask for information
on the selected unit.
– Use your 6 levels of Bloom, intelligence
levels, or any of the cubing statements to
design questions.
– Make questions that use these levels that
probe the specifics of your unit.
– Keep one question opinion based-no right
or wrong.
Second Step: (use other cubes)
– Use the first cube as your “average” cube,
create 2 more using one as a lower level
and one as a higher level.
– Remember all cubes need to cover the
same type of questions, just geared to the
level, don’t water down or make too busy!
– Label your cubes so you know which level
of readiness you are addressing.
– Hand your partner the cubes and ask if they
can tell high, medium, or low. If they can’t
tell, adjust slightly.
•
Compare one of the
story characters to
yourself. How are
you alike and how
are you different?
Third Step:
– Always remember to have an easy problem on
each cube and a hard one regardless the
levels.
– Color code the cubes for easy identification
and also if students change cubes for
questions.
– Decide on the rules: Will the students be
asked to do all 6 sides? Roll and do any 4
sides? Do any two questions on each of the 3
cubes?
Places to get questions:
Old quizzes, worksheets,
textbook-study problems,
students generated.
Ideas for Kinesthetic Cube
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Arrange _________into a 3-D collage to show_________
Make a body sculpture to show__________________
Create a dance to show_______________________
Do a mime to help us understand_________________
Present an interior monologue with dramatic movement
that________________________
Build/construct a representation of________________
Make a living mobile that shows and balances the
elements of __________________
Create authentic sound effects to accompany a reading of
________________
Show the principle of _____________with a rhythm
pattern you create. Explain to us how that works.
Ideas for Cubing in Math…
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Describe
how you would solve_____________
Analyze
how this problem helps us use
mathematical thinking and problem solving.
Compare
this problem to one on p._____
Contrast
it too.
Demonstrate how a professional (or just a regular
person) could apply this kind of problem to their work
or life.
Change
one or more numbers (elements, signs) in
the problem. Give a rule for what that change does.
Create
an interesting and challenging word
problem from the number problem. (Show us how to
solve it too)
Diagram or Illustrate the solution to the problem.
Interpret the visual so we understand.
Cubing Fractions
Each student at a table rolls two dice a designated number of times. The 1st dice/cube
tells students what to do with a fraction.
Order/compare all the fractions from the smallest number to the largest.
Add 2 rolled fractions together.
Subtract 2 rolled fractions.
Divide 2 rolled fractions.
Multiply 2 rolled fractions.
Model 2 rolled fractions using circles or bars of paper.
•The 2nd cube/dice contains the fraction which can vary in complexity based on student
number readiness.
Lynne Beauprey, Illinois
The Cube
First graders have been studying weather. They visit the Review Center at various times
throughout the week as a way to review what they have learned about weather.
Draw it
Divide your paper into 4 sections.
Label each section with a season and
draw what the playground might look like.
Compare it
Choose 2 seasons. Use a Venn diagram
to compare them.
Explain it
Talk with a partner about your favorite
type of weather.
Jessica Ramsey/2004
Adapted slightly from:
http://www.mcps.k12.md.us/departments/eii/Cubing
Associate it
Choose one type of weather.
Create a web with this weather in the
Center. Write words in the bubble
connecting to the center that describe
how you feel when you see it.
Describe it
Work with a partner.
Draw a card from the jar.
Describe the weather type on the card
so your partner can guess.
Analyze it
Work with a partner.
Read a book about rain.
Talk about why we need rain.
Third Grade Unit: Cubing Example
Adapted by Joy Peters, Nebraska
Compare your favorite
picture in the story to a
similar activity in your life.
You may use words and/or
pictures.
Justify why it is
important to meet
people who speak a
different language
and have a different
culture.
List words that describe your feelings about
the Mexican as you look at each picture in
the story.
Using a Venn
Diagram, chart your
favorite things and
Describe your favorite picture in the
compare them to the
Story Family Pictures. Tell why you
favorite things you
picked that one.
found in the story.
Find common areas
that you and the
story share.
Analyze the favorite things in the
story by understanding
why these might be traditions in
the culture. If you were a
researcher asked about the
important things in the Mexican
Using Family
culture, what would you say?
Pictures by Carmen
Red Cube
Third Grade Unit: Cubing Example
Adapted by Joy Peters, Nebraska
Compare, using the compare and
contrast graphic organizer and
look at areas of food, shelter,
traditions, family life, and
recreational activities.
Choreograph a dance or mime to
represent the three main ideas that you
learned about the Mexican culture.
Describe the Mexican culture using
at least three sentences with three
describing words in each sentence.
Pretend that you are a
child from Mexico.
Tell me about your
day. What would your
chores be? What
would you eat? How
would you spend your
free time? Tell me
why?
Find and critique
another story at the
reading center.
Compare it to Family
Pictures and discuss
what elements you liked
and did not like of
either story.
Create your own family album by
drawing at least five special
activities your family shares.
Orange Cube
Cubing with Charlotte’s Web
Basic Cube
Abstract Cube
1.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Draw Charlotte as you think
she looks.
Use a Venn diagram and
compare Charlotte and Fern.
Use a comic strip to tell what
happened in this chapter.
Shut your eyes and describe
the barn. Jot down your
ideas.
Predict what will happen in the
next chapter using symbols.
In your opinion, why is
Charlotte a good friend?
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Use a graphics program on the
computer and create a character web
for Wilbur.
Use symbols on a Venn diagram to
compare Wilbur and Charlotte.
Draw the farm and label the items,
people, and buildings.
Use a storyboard to show the progress
of the plot to this point.
What is the message that you think the
writer wants people to remember?
Draw a symbol that illustrates your
ideas.
When you think of the title, do you
agree or disagree that it is a good
choice? Why or why not?
B l o o m ’s T a x o n o m y
R e v is it e d
Anderson,Krathwohl, Airasian, Cruikshank, Mayer, Pintrick,
Raths, Wittrock, Eds. (2001). A taxonomy for l
learning, teaching and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s
taxonomy of educational objectives. New York:
Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.
Directions: Complete the chart to show what you
know about ________________
Write as much as you can.
Description of the
Description
Steps in Developing It
Strategy
Useful For
Place to Use It in the
Curriculum
Tomlinson - 02
•
•
In 1948 an informal meeting held in Boston was attended by a group of
college and university examiners who believed that a common
framework for classifying intended student learning outcomes could
promote the exchange of test items, testing procedures, and ideas
about testing. As examiners, these individuals were responsible for
preparing, administering, scoring, and reporting results of
comprehensive examinations for undergraduate courses taught at their
respective universities.
Since developing good multiple-choice items is time-consuming, the
examiners hoped to create significant labor savings by facilitating the
exchange of items. They proposed to establish a standard vocabulary
for indicating what an item was intended to measure. Such regularized
meanings were to result from a set of carefully defined categories and
subcategories into which any educational objective and, therefore, any
test item could be classified. Initially the framework could be limited to
the mainstays of all instruction, cognitive objectives.
Anderson, Krathwohl, et al., 2001
•
•
•
The original group always considered the framework a work in
progress, neither finished nor final. Indeed, only the cognitive domain
was developed initially. The affective domain was developed later
(Krathwohl, Bloom and Masia, 1964), and although both Simpson
(1966) and Harrow (1972) provided frameworks for the psychomotor
domain, the original group never did.
Further, there was a great deal of concern among the members of the
original group that the Taxonomy would freeze thought, stifling the
development of new frameworks. That this did not occur is evident
from the many alternative frameworks that have been advanced since
the Handbook was published.
In a memorandum circa 1971 Bloom stated: “Ideally each major field
should have its own taxonomy of objectives in its own language – more
detailed, closer to the special language and thinking of its experts,
reflecting its own appropriate sub-divisions and levels of education, with
possible new categories, combination of categories and omitting
categories as appropriate.”
Anderson, Krathwohl, et al., 2001, p. xxvii
A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of
Educational Objectives
 Factual Knowledge
The Knowledge Dimension
 Knowledge of terminology
 Knowledge of specific details and elements
 Conceptual Knowledge
 Knowledge of classifications and categories
 Knowledge of principles and generalizations
 Knowledge of theories, models, and structures
A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of
Educational Objectives
 Procedural Knowledge
The Knowledge Dimension
 Knowledge of subject-specific skills and algorithms
 Knowledge of subject-specific techniques and methods
 Knowledge of criteria for determining when to use appropriate procedures
 Metacognitive Knowledge
 Strategic knowledge
 Knowledge about cognitive tasks, including appropriate contextual and conditional
knowledge
 Self-knowledge
A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of
Educational Objectives
1.
2.
3.
REMEMBER
1.1
1.2
Recognizing
Recalling
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
Interpreting
Exemplifying
Classifying
Summarizing
Inferring
Comparing
Explaining
3.1
3.2
Executing
Implementing
UNDERSTAND
APPLY
The Cognitive Dimension
A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of
Educational Objectives
4.
5.
6.
ANALYZE
4.1 Differentiate
4.2 Organizing
4.3 Attributing
EVALUATE
5.1 Checking
5.2 Critiquing
CREATE
6.1 Generating
6.2 Planning
6.3 Producing
The Cognitive Dimension
Revised Taxonomy Review
The following are either possible test questions or tasks you might have
students complete. Decide which category from the revised taxonomy
you believe these task or questions belong.
• Which British novelist wrote Charles Dickens?
• What would happen if there was a flat income
tax rather than a graduated income tax?
• Was that report written from a pro-environment
or pro-business point of view?
• Write the numbers that are needed to solve
this problem: Pencils come in packages that
contain 12 each and cost $2.00 each. John
has $5.00 and wishes to buy 24 pencils. How
many packages does he need to buy?
Revised Taxonomy Review
The following are either possible test questions or tasks you might
have students complete. Decide which category from the revised
taxonomy you believe these task or questions belong.
• Density = Mass/Volume: What is the density of a
material with a mass of 18 pounds and a volume
of 9 cubic inches?
• What are the positive and negatives
consequences of the year-round proposal for
schools?
• Locate an inorganic compound and tell why it is
inorganic.
• “Nation” is to “president” as “state is to
___________.
• Why does air enter a bicycle tire pump when you
pull up on the handle?
Revised Taxonomy Review
The following are either possible test questions or tasks you might have
students complete. Decide which category from the revised taxonomy
you believe these task or questions belong.
• Solve for x: x2 + 2x – 3 = 0 using the technique of
completing the square.
• In your review of the chemistry experiment report, do
you believe the author’s conclusion follows from the
results of the experiment?
• What is the author’s purpose in writing the essay you
read on the Amazon rain forests?
• What alternative methods could you use to find what
whole numbers yield 60 when multiplied together?
• The student will be able to generate alternative ways
of increasing the brightness of the light in a circuit
without changing the battery.
RAFT
Doug Buehl cited in: Teaching Reading
in the Content Areas: If Not Me Then
Who BillMeyer & Martin, 1998
Directions: Complete the chart to show what you
know about ________________
Write as much as you can.
Description of the
Description
Steps in Developing It
Strategy
Useful For
Place to Use It in the
Curriculum
Tomlinson - 02
RAFT
Assignments
• What is it?
Role Audience Format Topic
• How might I use it?
• Examples . . .
• An AUDIENCE of fellow writers, students,
citizens, characters, etc.
• The ROLE of writer, speaker, artist, historian,
etc.
• How to produce a written, spoken, drawn, acted,
etc. FORMAT
• A deeper level of content within the TOPIC
studied.
RAFT
RAFT is an acronym that stands for
Role of the writer.
What is the writer’s role: reporter, observer,
eyewitness?
Audience.
Who will be reading this writing: the teacher, other
students, a parent, people in the community, an editor?
Format.
What is the best way to present this writing: in a letter,
an article, a report, a poem?
Topic.
Who or what is the subject of this writing: a famous
mathematician, a prehistoric cave dweller, a reaction to a
specific event?
RAFT Activities
Role
Audience
Format
Topic
Gingerbread Man
Our Class
Oral Response
I never should
have listened to
the fox
Squanto
Other Native
Americans
Pictographs
I can help the
inept settlers
Band Member
Other Band
Members
Demo Tape
Here’s how it
goes
Monet
Van Gogh
Letter
I wish you’d shed
more light on the
subject
Water Vapor
Water
A Love Letter
You make me so
hot
Battery
Loose Wire
A Newspaper
Article
Man has shocking
experience
Multiplication Fact
Division Fact
Invitation to a
Family Reunion
Here’s how we’re
related
R.A.F.T.
Role
Audience
Format
Topic
A
RAFT is…
• … an engaging, high level strategy that
encourages writing across the curriculum
• … a way to encourage students to…
–
–
–
–
…assume a role
…consider their audience, while
…examine a topic from their chosen perspective, and
…writing in a particular format
• All of the above can serve as motivators by giving
students choice, appealing to their interests and
learning profiles, and adapting to student
readiness levels.
RAFTs can…
• Be differentiated in a variety
of ways: readiness level,
learning profile, and/or
student interest
• Be created by the students
or Incorporate a blank row
for that option
• Be used as introductory
“hooks” into a unit of study
• Keep one column consistent
while varying the other
columns in the RAFT grid
RAFT:
ROLE
AUDIENCE
FORMAT
TOPIC
Sample RAFT Strips
Math
History
Science
Language Arts
Role
Audience
Format
Topic
Middle School
Diary Entry
I Wish You Really
Understood Where I Belong
N.Y. Times
Public
Op Ed piece
How our Language Defines
Who We Are
Huck Finn
Tom Sawyer
Note hidden in a
tree knot
A Few Things You Should
Know
Rain Drop
Future Droplets
Advice Column
The Beauty of Cycles
Lung
Owner
Owner’s Guide
To Maximize Product Life
Rain Forest
John Q. Citizen
Paste Up
“Ransom” Note
Before It’s Too Late
Reporter
Public
Obituary
Hitler is Dead
Martin Luther King
TV audience of
2010
Speech
The Dream Revisited
Thomas Jefferson
Current Residents
of Virginia
Full page
newspaper ad
If I could Talk to You Now
Fractions
Whole numbers
Petition
To Be Considered A Part of
the Family
Semicolon
A word problem
Students in your
Set of directions
How to Get to Know Me
class
Format based on the work of Doug Buehl cited in Teaching Reading in the Content Areas: If Not Me Then Who?, Billmeyer and Martin, 1998
Sample RAFT Strips
Role
Audience
Format
Topic
Our Class
Oral Response
I never should have listened
to the fox
Squanto
Other Native
Americans
Pictographs
I can help the inept settlers
Band Member
Other Band
Members
Demo Tape
Here’s how it goes
Positive Numbers
Negative Numbers
Dating Ad
Opposites Attract
Rational Numbers
Irrational Numbers
Song
Must you go on forever?
Decimals
Fractions
Poem
Don’t you get my point?
Perimeter
Area
Diary Entry
How your shape affects me
Monet
Van Gogh
Letter
I wish you’d shed more light
on the subject!
Joan of Arc
Self
Soliloquy
To recant, or not to recant;
that is the question
Tree
Urban Sprawl
Editorial
My life is worth saving
Thoreau
Public of his day
Letter to the
Editor
Why I moved to the pond
Young Chromosome
Experienced
Chromosome
Children’s Book
What becomes of us in
mitosis?
First Grader
Kindergartner
Ad
What’s best about 1st grade?
Gingerbread Man
RAFT Strips, cont’d
Role
Audience
Format
Topic
Hal (Henry V, Part
1)
Self
Diary Entry
My friend Falstaff-past,
present, future
Magnet
First Graders
Letter
Here’s what I’m attracted
to…
Transparency
Slide Show
Personal Ad
Spruce up your presentation
LBJ
Viet Nam Vet
Apology Letter
What was I thinking…
Computer
Fifth Graders
Flow Chart
Turning data into a graph
with EXCEL
P Waves
S Waves
Dear John Letter
Why we have to stop seeing
each other
Carbon Atom
Hydrogen Atom
Personal Ad
Atom seeking atom
A Variable in an
Equation
Real Numbers
Ad for the Circus
What is my value in the
balancing act?
Return Key
Middle Schoolers
Captain Kirk’s
Bulletin to his crew
When to beam to another
paragraph
Conductor
The Band
Mime
How to play this style of
music
Basic Multiplication
Fact
Basic Division Fact
Invitation to a
family reunion
Here’s how we’re related
Grade 6
Social Studies RAFT
Students will
Know:
Names and roles of groups in the feudal class system.
Understand:
Roles in the feudal system were interdependent. A person’s
role in the feudal system will shape his/her perspective on events.
Be Able to Do:
Research
See events through varied perspectives
Share research & perspectives with peers
Feudal System Raft
cont’d
Role
Audience
Format
Topic
King
The Subjects
Proclamation
Read My Lips,
New Taxes
Knight
Squire
Job Description
Chivalry, Is it
for You?
Lord
King
Contract
Let’s Make a
Deal
Serf
Animals
Lament Poem
My So Called
Life
Monk
Masses
Illuminated
Manuscript
Do As I Say,
Not As I Do
Lady
Pages
Song
ABC, 123
Following the RAFT activity, students will share their research and perspectives in
mixed role groups of approximately five. Groups will have a “discussion agenda”
to guide their conversation.
-Kathryn Seaman
Self Portrait RAFT
High School Art
Students will
Know:
Characteristics of self portrait
Appropriate use of artistic materials
Principles of Design
Definition of artistic expression
Understand:
Each artist has a personal style
Personal style reflects the individual’s culture, time, and
personal experiences.
Use of materials and style are related
Be Able to Do:
Analyze an artist’s personal style and use of materials
Create a facsimile of an artist’s personal style and use of
materials
Self Portrait RAFT
Role
Audience
Format
Topic
Norman
Rockwell
Masses
Illustration
What You See
is What You
Get
Van Gogh
Self
Oil Painting
Can I Find
Myself In
Here?
Andy Warhol
Someone you
want to know
the true you
Photograph
Now you see
Me, Now you
Don’t
Rueben
Self
Oil Painting
Props Make
the Person
Goya
School
Charcoal
On the Side,
but Central
RAFT Assignments
Grade 10 English
Know: Voice, Tone, Style
Understand:
•
Every writer has a voice
•
Voice is shaped by life experiences and reflects the writer
•
Voice shapes expression
•
Voice affects communication
•
Voice and style are related
Be Able to Do:
•
Describe a writers voice and style
•
Mimic a writer’s voice and style
•
Create a piece of writing that reflects a writer’s voice and style
Role
Audience
Format
Topic
Edgar Allen Poe
10th grade writers
Letter
Here’s how I found my voice
Garrison Keillor
10th grade writers
E mail
Here’s how I found my voice
Emily Dickinson
Self
Diary entry
Looking for my voice
10th grader
English teacher
Formal request
Please help me find my voice
Teacher
10th graders
Interior monologue
Finding a balance between voice
and expectations
3 authors
The public
Visual symbols/logos
annotated
Here’s what represents my voice
3 authors from different
genre
One another
Conversation
What shaped my voice and style
RAFT Planning Sheet
Know
Understand
Do
How to Differentiate:
• Tiered? (See Equalizer)
• Profile? (Differentiate Format)
• Interest? (Keep options equivalent in
learning)
Role
Audience
• Other?
Format
Topic
Graphic
Organizers
Directions: Complete the chart to show what you
know about ________________
Write as much as you can.
Description of the
Description
Steps in Developing It
Strategy
Useful For
Place to Use It in the
Curriculum
Tomlinson - 02
Graphic Organizers
• How do they address the diverse
needs of students?
• Under what conditions might they
best be used
• Examples….
• Suggestions…
• Resources
[www.graphicorganizers.com]
Graphic Organizer:
Identifying Similarities and Differences
COMPARISON MATRIX
Items to Be Compared
Nutrients
Calcium
Vitamin C
Sugar
Content
Fiber
Juice
Apples
Oranges
Pears
Grapes
Double Cell Diagram
Two items linked by characteristics or attributes.
Venn Diagram Expanded
Three items linked by characteristics or attributes
GRAPHIC ORGANIZER
Venn Diagram
(a visual display of similarities & differences)
Used to show the interaction of a complex event or complex
phenomenon
defining the components of the problem and attempted solutions
Used to describe the stages of something, the steps in a linear
procedure, a sequence of events or the goals, actions, and outcomes
of a historical figure or character in a novel
Graphic Organizers
A graphic organizer
forms a powerful
visual picture of
information and
allows the mind to
see patterns and
relationships.
http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/learning/lr2grap.htm
http://www.sdcoe.k12.ca.us/score/actbank/torganiz.htm
Graphic Organizers
Download graphic organizers
and keep them in a file for
student use.
Graphic organizers can be
extended to make them more
complex. On this graphic
organizer have some students
justify their selections and
provide evidence of how these
events have shaped our lives
today.
http://webcenter.netscape.teachervision.com/
Ocean Beach Elementary School
http://www2.sandi.net/ocean/go.html
ThinkDots
An Instructional Strategy for
Differentiation by
Readiness, Interest or Learning
Style
Kay Brimijoin, 1999
Directions: Complete the chart to show what you
know about ________________
Write as much as you can.
Description of the
Description
Steps in Developing It
Strategy
Useful For
Place to Use It in the
Curriculum
Tomlinson - 02
ThinkDOTs
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After a conceptual unit has been presented and students are familiar
with the ideas and associated skills, “Think DOTS” is an excellent activity
for students to construct meaning for themselves about the concept they
are studying. The instructor first defines readiness levels, interests or
learning styles in the class, using on-going assessment.
Each student is given a set of activity cards on a ring, a die, and an
activity sheet. Each student rolls the die and completes the activity on the
card that corresponds to the dots thrown on the die. Each student then
completes the activity on the activity sheet.
Materials:
1.
8 ½ x 11 inch paper
2.
Hole punch
3.
Metal or plastic rings
4.
Dice
5. Scissors
6. Markers or dots
7. Laminating materials
ThinkDOTs pg. 2
Construction:
1. For each readiness level, six activities should be created.
2. On an 8 ½ x 11 inch page divided into six sections (this can be done
easily on the computer by creating a 2 x 3 cell table and saving it as
a template), the activities should be written or typed in each section.
3. On the back of each page, dots corresponding to the dots on the
faces of a die should be either drawn or affixed (you can use Avery
adhesive dots) on each of the six sections of the page.
4. The pages should be laminated for durability.
5. Then each page should be cut into the six sections.
6. Use a hole punch to make holes in one corner or in the top of each
activity card.
7. Use a metal or plastic ring to hold each set of six cards together
(you can get 100 metal rings from Office Suppliers in Roanoke for
$9.00)
8. Create an Activity Sheet to correspond to the lesson for easy
recording and management.
ThinkDOTs pg. 3
Suggestions:
1. Use colored paper and/or colored dots to indicate different
readiness levels, interests or learning styles.
2. Have students work in pairs.
3. Let students choose which activities – for example: roll the
die and choose any three; create complex activities and
have students choose just one to work on over a number of
days.
4. After students have worked on activity cards individually,
have them come together in groups by levels, interest or
learning style to synthesize
ThinkDOTs pg. 4
Application:
• 1. Use “ThinkDOTS” to lead students into
deeper exploration of a concept.
• 2. Use “ThinkDOTS” for review before
assessment.
• 3. Use “ThinkDOTS” as an assessment.
“Generic” ThinkDOTS for High School
Literature – Concept : Prejudice
Prejudice
• Discuss how prejudice and discrimination are not only harmful to the victim, but
also to those who practice them.
Scapegoating
• Imagine a group of people that could be scapegoats. List and describe
stereotypes of this group and the treatments they received because of them.
Articles
• Read the article. What could be reasons for the persecution? How can you
justify and minds of those responsible?
Photography
• Photographs tell stories. Write a caption for the photo and explain why you
chose it.
Genetics
• Certain characteristics are blamed on genetics. Do genetics impact the
characteristics of your group? Explain the reasoning behind your answer. Use
your science knowledge.
Stereotypes
• Your group was persecuted. Identify a group who has been persecuted in more
recent years. Compare the two and give reasons why.
“Generic” ThinkDOTS for High School
Literature – Concept : Prejudice
Prejudice
• Is it possible to grow to adulthood without harboring some prejudice? Why or
why not?
Scapegoating
• What is scapegoating? Explore the word’s etymology and hypothesize about its
present day meaning. How was your group scapegoated?
Articles
• Read the article. What is genocide? Did the people in your article face
genocide? Why?
Photography
• Look at the clothing, hair, setting, body language, and objects to help determine
social, economic, country of origin and so on. Can you see the emotions in the
people? How? Do you think they are related?
Genetics
• Do genetics cause brown hair? How? List one way genetics affects your group
(in your opinion). If genetics don’t affect your group explain why.
Stereotypes
• Identify stereotypes your group faced. Pick a clique in the school and discuss
the traits of that group. Are they stereotyped?
“Generic” ThinkDOTS for High School
Literature – Concept : Prejudice
Prejudice
• Discuss the following statement: “Genocide can never be eliminated because it
is deeply rooted in human nature.” Do you agree or disagree? Provide evidence
from your readings for your position.
Scapegoating
• Identify and discuss the scapegoating that took place in your group. Compare
the scapegoating of your group to that of a present day group.
Articles
• Read the article. If you were the person behind the persecution and were asked
why you did what you did, what would you say?
Photography
• Compare two photographs taken of similar events. What are the similarities and
differences? What might be the significance of these similarities and
differences?
Genetic
• Did genetics have an impact on the Aryan race? Why? Does it in the group you
are studying? Why?
Stereotypes
• Name a group you stereotype and discuss those traits that you stereotype. What
were the stereotypes your group had?
Directions: Complete the chart to show what you
know about ________________
Write as much as you can.
Description of the
Description
Steps in Developing It
Strategy
Useful For
Place to Use It in the
Curriculum
Tomlinson - 02
Complex Instruction
As Interpreted by Carol Tomlinson,
University of Virginia
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Materials and instructions must be in multiple languages so that all
students have their language represented. Pictorial/visual representations
are also helpful.
Reading and writing are integrated into the task in ways which make them
a means to accomplish a fascinating end.
Multiple intelligences should be drawn upon in a real world way.
Tasks must require many different talents in order to be completed
adequately.
Teachers move among groups, asking questions about student work and
thought, probing decisions, and facilitating understanding.
Teachers methodically engage in “assignment of status” (looking for
student strengths, especially nontraditional areas), and pointing them out
to the class with explanations of why the skills are important ones in the
real world.
Teachers delegate authority for learning increasing it over time as they
support students in gaining skills needed to manage the authority well.
Complex Instruction
Elements
• Students work together in small groups (heterogeneous
in nature) at learning centers on a task which calls upon
the skills of all students in the group.
• Groups change often so all students in a class work with
all others in variety of contexts.
• Multilingual groups must include a bilingual student to
serve as a bridge. Students are encouraged to speak in
their own language in the group.
• Tasks must be open-ended.
• Tasks must be intrinsically interesting to the students.
• The tasks must be uncertain (fuzzy).
• The tasks must be challenging.
• Tasks must involve the use of real objects.
A Sample of a Complex Instruction
Task for Tenth Graders in English
The task card reads:
We have been working with how writers’ lives (and ours) are like
metaphors which they (we) create through actions an deeds—
including writing. Robert Frost wrote a poem called “The Road
Not Taken.” Your task is to analyze the poem as a metaphor for
Frost’s life. To do that, you should:
 Find the poem, read it, interpret it, and reach consensus on what’s
going on with it and what it means.
A Sample of a Complex Instruction Task for
Tenth Graders in English (cont’d.)
 Research Frost’s life, making a “stepping stones” diagram of his life, similar
to the ones you created for your own life earlier this month.
 Be certain that your final products demonstrate your understanding of
metaphor, the relationship between varied art forms in communicating
human meaning, and details of the people and poem with whom/which you
are working.
 As usual, you should appoint a group leader and materials monitor.
Determine the best roles for each person in your group to play in
completing your task. Develop a written work plan, including a timeline and
group conference times. In the end, be ready to share the rubric by which
your group’s work should be assessed (including required elements as well
as your own sense of what else constitutes an appropriate product.) You
may have up to 30 minutes to make your presentation(s) – plus a ten
minute question exchange with others in the class who view your work.
Virginia History and Geography
Key Concepts and Understandings:
 Locations of places can be describe using terms that show relationships.
 Locations of places can be described using reference systems on maps.
 Reasons can be identified for locations of places.
 Relationships within places include how people depend upon the
environment.
 Places may be represented and described in many different ways.
Key Skills:
 Reading maps (d)
 Using and making symbols (d)
 Inference/drawing conclusions (r)
 Use of research to achieve understanding (b)
 Planning (t)
 Writing (b)
 Collaboration (s)
Key Facts:
 Essential vocabulary (legend, latitude, longitude, Mid-Atlantic Region,
Atlantic Ocean)
 Geographic regions of Virginia (e.g., Tidewater, Piedmont, etc.)
 Key features of each Virginia region
Getting Acquainted with Virginia
A Complex Instruction Task for 4th Graders
You’ll soon be on your way to learning more about Virginia than most adults
know. Here’s a way to start becoming experts. This task is designed to draw
on the strengths of everyone in your group. Six task cards will help you know
what you need to do.
Task Card No. 1
Give as many ways as you can to locate Virginia (where is it in relation to
bodies of water, continents, other states, in the U.S.). Find an interesting
and useful way to show us what you figure out about Virginia’s location.
Task Card No. 2
Use reference systems (like numbered grids, latitude, longitude, parallels and
meridians) to locate Virginia precisely on globes and maps. Create a set of
instructions we can use to locate Virginia as you did. Assume we know
nothing about using maps an globes.
Getting Acquainted with Virginia
A Complex Instruction Task for 4th Graders
Task Card No. 3
Draw or sketch places in Virginia with large populations. Create symbols for a
map that help us figure out why so many people live there and post them on a
blank map. Make legend to help us interpret the symbols. Do the same with
great Virginia places for recreation (sketches, symbols/legend).
Task Card No. 4
Find 4 cities or towns in Virginia where important or famous people lived. Have
each of the people talk to us about that place, what it was like to be there, how
they influenced the place and how the place influenced them.
Task Card No. 5
Select one of the people in #4 and complete a “Now and Then” chart to show
what these things were like in that person’s town when they were there and
what they would be like now:
transportation, recreation, population size,
major ways of making money, important resources, life span, ways of
communicating. It’s fine to draw and/or write on the chart.
Getting Acquainted with Virginia
A Complex Instruction Task for 4th Graders
Task Card No. 6
Interview someone that has lived in our town a very long time. Find
out what has changed, what has stayed the same, what seems better,
what seems worse, interesting things the person has done while
they’ve lived here, and other things you think are interesting. Get
the person to tell you a story about something that happened here.
Find a way to help us get to know this person – and this town through
the eyes of this person.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
This Complex Instruction task draws on the following intellectual
skills:
Fluency – generating many ideas
Spatial interpretation (figuring out codes)
Translation of print ideas into oral/visual form (creativity)
Reading and research
Dramatic ability
Questioning/interviewing
Planning/evaluating plans
A Complex Instruction Task for Middle
School U.S. History
Background: The class is studying the pre-Civil War era. An emphasis is on change and the courage
required for change. They are exploring change in economics, beliefs, views of government, and
culture during this time. One book they are reading in common is Get On Board: The Story of
the Underground Railroad by Jim Haskins.
The Task: For six weeks, students work in groups of six on their Complex Instruction task as they do
many other in-class tasks related to their topic and concepts. The teacher often relates class work
and discussion to the CI task. Sometimes students will have all or part of a class period to work on
the CI task. The CI task is often homework as well.
The CI Instructions
Your group must develop and write a scenario (probably at least 5 pages in length) that describes
a time, place, and set of circumstances in which your CI task will be rooted.
•
One or more slaves will try to flee to freedom.
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Who are they?
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What are their circumstances?
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Be sure to include location, time in history, living circumstances over an extended period, gender,
age, family, and stories that help us experience their world and thought.
Middle School U.S. History
• Each person in your group must take on a role. Here are your
choices:
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A slave fleeing
An abolitionist
A Quaker
A slave owner
A freed slave
A Native American
Another role of your choice (clear it with the teacher)
• Everyone’s role must be rooted in your group scenario.
• Through research, reading and class, gather data about your role
and one other role adopted by someone in your group. In the end,
each role should be researched by 2 group members to provide
greater insight and maximum data. You have primary responsibility
for “your” role, but secondary responsibility to help someone else
achieve a rich and accurate understanding of “their” role.
• Generate as many data sheets as you can about “your” own role
and your secondary role. There’ll be times to share written work.
Middle School U.S. History
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Create your own rich, historically defensible framework of your group scenario. Be
sure to include detail that reflects:
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Political and economic events
Culture of the person and times
Culture of others involved in your scenario
The Underground Railroad experience
Relevant laws
Tensions leading to the Civil War
We’ll use a rubric so you’re sure how to do a high quality job.
Be sure the underlying theme of your work reflects issues of courage and change.
(Include fear, loss, gain, and resolve to act.)
You will have several opportunities (with assigned roles) to take part in history circles
with your group so you can learn from and help one another. A big point here is to give
everyone a chance to see similar events through different eyes.
Ultimately, you will need to be a part of either two or three depiction teams which
literally “show” us the essence of what it was like to be a part of the unfolding scenario
at a key point. You can negotiate with the teacher what your assignments will be.
Among forms your depictions can take are:
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A speech
A sermon
An oral story
A written story
Paintings or drawings with narration cards
Middle School U.S. History
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Songs with narration
A book chapter
An interior monologue
A series of letters
A trial enactment
An annotated and illustrated timeline
A series of editorials from a specified newspaper
A set of contrasting editorials from contrasting newspapers
A format or your choice (clear this with your teacher)
• Whatever your depictions, they must include at least three
perspectives on events – all of them accurate in historical detail and
rich in insight.
• In the end, your group will exhibit for one or more groups who will
respond to your work – as will at least one adult.
• There will be time in class to learn, ask questions, show ideas, get
unstuck, and plan.
If you have other ideas to make your work
more interesting, let me know!
Directions: Complete the chart to show what you
know about ________________
Write as much as you can.
Description of the
Description
Steps in Developing It
Strategy
Useful For
Place to Use It in the
Curriculum
Tomlinson - 02
WebQuests
A WebQuest is an inquiry-oriented activity
in which most or all of the information
used by learners is drawn from the Web.
WebQuests are designed to use learners’
time well, to focus on using information
rather than looking for it, and to support
learners’ thinking at the levels of analysis,
synthesis, and evaluation. The model was
developed in the early 1995 at San Diego
State University by Bernie Dodge with
Tom March.
Uses of Webquests
Learning Center Activities
Hook the computer up to your TV
to use as a station. Find webquests
that help students process the “Big
Ideas” in your curricular unit.
Tiered Assignments
Locate 3 different webquests at
varying levels of complexity that
help students apply the unit’s
skills or ideas.
Anchor Activity for Research
Create your own Filamentality site to assist
students in carrying out their research.
The Power of Webquests
According to Bernie Dodge (1997), a webquest is an inquiry-oriented
activity in which students interact with information gleaned primarily
from resources on the Internet.
http://webquest.sdsu.edu/
http://www.ozline.com/webquests/intro.html
http://www.kn.pacbell.com/
Check out the digital dozen and Filamentality
Webquest Design Patterns
http://webquest.sdsu.edu/designpatterns/HS/t-webquest.htm
http://projects.edtech.sandi.net/staffdev/buildingblocks/p-index.htm/
Webquests as Powerful Teaching Tools in Math and Science
http://www.enc.org/features/focus/archive/webquests/
http://wcvt.com/%7Etiggr/
Bones and the Badge Webquest
http://projects.edtech.sandi.net/kearny/forensic/index.htm
http://studenthome.nku.edu/~webquest/gabbard/index.htm
http://www.internet4classrooms.com/tide.htm
Steps for Guiding Student Research
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Assess, Find, or Create Student Interests
Help Students Find a Question(s) to Research
Develop a Plan of Action to Guide the Research
Help Locate Multiple Resources
Provide Methodological Assistance
Develop a Research Question(s) to Answer
Provide Managerial Assistance
Help to Find Products and Audiences
Provide Feedback/Escalate the Process
Evaluate
227
Assess, Find, and Create Interest
Investigations Stem from Many Sources:
– Individual interests
– Curricular units of study
– Problems that exist in the world (city, state,
community, global, etc.)
– Unresolved questions
– Someone asking students to generate solutions to
problems
Strategies for Generating Interest:
– Sharing articles from Discover, Newsweek,
newspapers
– Guest speakers
– Student interest inventories/questionnaires
– Questions that students ask
– Student identified problems
– I wonder bulletin boards
– Interest centers
228
If
I ran the
school . . . . . . .
Name _________________ Grade__________Teacher________
If I ran the school, I would choose to learn about these ten things.
I am really interested in:
I am really interested in:
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The Stars and Planets
Birds
Dinosaurs and fossils
Life in the Ocean
The Human Body
Genetics
Animals
Outer Space
Insects
Chemistry
Diseases
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Families
Countries
My Community
Famous People
Holidays
Explorers
Travel and
Transportation
Wars
History of Long Ago
The Future
229
Interest-A-Lyzers
Interest-A-Lyzer Family of
Instruments
Author: Joseph S. Renzulli
Copyright 1997
80 pages
ISBN: 0-936386-69-X
Grade Level: K-12
This manual describes the six
interest assessment tools that
comprise the Interest-A-Lyzer
"Family of Instruments." Dr.
Renzulli discusses the importance
of assessing student interests and
provides suggestions for
administering and interpreting
these instruments in the school
setting. Sample pages from each
interest assessment tool are
included in the appendix.
http://www.creativelearningpress.com
230
Famous People
Technology
History
Economy
The Future
Communication
TOPIC GENERATOR
My Topic
Problems
Fine Arts/
Literature
Geography
Science
Mathematics
Ecology
231
Who Does Research?
What kinds of questions would these people ask?
Person
Questions They Ask?
Doctors
Newspaper
Reporters
Teacher
Writer
Historian
Geographer
Wildlife Biologist
Name(s) __________________________________________
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Questions, Questions, Everywhere
Researchers are always
asking questions about
the world around them.
They notice things that
are interesting, they make
observations and wonder
why certain things
behave as they do, and
they are sensitive to
problems. Generate
some of your own
questions that you
WONDER about.
Categories
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Eating habits
Rules
Culture
Community
Friendship
School
Growing Up
Beliefs
Homeless
Elderly
233
Help Students Find a
Question(s) to Ask
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Listening to their questions
Observing their actions
As they begin to wonder why
Their pattern of reading
interests
Favorite subjects
Extracurricular activities
When they mention a concern
Casual statements or opinion
Interest in particular topics
234
Generating Research Questions
Cube 1
•
Cube 2
Cube 1 Words
Who, What, When, Where,
Why, How
Cube 2 Words
Is, Can, Will, Could (Should,
Would), Might, Did
•
Roll the dice to generate beginning
questions. Select one word from each cube
to generate possible questions.
Use research phrases to prompt possible
research questions.
It might be interesting to know if?
It might be interesting to know how?
It might be interesting to know why?
Historically, I wonder how or why?
I wonder if _____ is related to ____?
What factors influenced..?
If I _____, I wonder if _____will
occur?
235
Question Boxes
Fill out the boxes with your questions.
Is
Did
Can
Will
Might
Should,
Would,
Could
Who
What
When
Where
Why
How
Name(s) ______________________________________
236
Provide Methodological
Assistance
• Shift from learning
about to learning how to
gather, categorize,
analyze, and interpret
data.
• Learn the different types
of research conducted
by professionals and
the tools and methods
they use to conduct
their research.
How to gather data from
your questions
Interviews (questioning
individuals, asking openended questions)
Surveys and questionnaires
(make one)
Recording notes
Recording references
Designing an experiment
237
Provide Managerial
Assistance
• Provide access to
people and
equipment.
• Help students to
design a way to
gather data,
organizing findings,
and report findings.
238
Develop a Plan of Action to
Guide the Research
WHAT:
This is what I plan to
research.
PROBLEMS:
These are the problems
that I may encounter.
RESOURCES:
STEPS:
These are the resources I
need to conduct my study.
Here are the steps I need
to take to accomplish my
plan.
AUDIENCE:
PRODUCT:
This is the audience
who could benefit from
my research.
This is the type of
product that I could
create.
239
Research Planning Sheet
Name________Date_______Class_________
Problem Finding: Identify the research problem or the area of interest you
wish to investigate.
Problem Focusing: State the research question(s) that will guide your study.
Research Design: Identify the type of research that you will use in your
study.
 Descriptive
 Correlational
 Historical
 Experimental
 Developmental
 Case and Field
240
Sample Selection: Explain the type of sampling that you will use.
Who:________________ How many:____________
How:
Random
Systematic
Stratified
Cluster
Data Collection: Identify how you will collect your data.
Observation
Interviews
Survey
Document analysis
Experimental results
Questionnaires
Data Analysis: Identify the type of research that you will use in your study.
 Qualitative
Mean, mode, median, range, variance, standard deviation, frequency
Chi Square
T-Test
Correlation
Other
 Quantitative
Domains
Themes
Taxonomies
Other
Reporting Results: In what format will you report your results? Who will be
your audience?
241
Research Questions
References
Books
Question #1
Journals
Videos/CD/Films
Question #2
Person
Question #3
Newspapers
Color code your question and answer cards
so they match.
Glue computer disk holder on the back of
the research folder.
Provide examples of how to cite sources on
each reference page.
Data File
Research Folder Design
242
Name
Date
School
Homeroom
My Activities:
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________________
________________
________________
________________
________________
________________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
Evaluation:
 I completed my goals.
 I used my time wisely.
 I did my best thinking.
Something I learned today:
Next time I plan to:
243
Help Locate Multiple
Resources
•
•
•
•
Books
Magazines
Individuals for interviews
Places to write for
information
• Historical documents
• Other researchers
• Use the “web” and other
electronic resources
244
Help Identify Final
Products and Audiences
• Products are authentic to
the discipline
• Products show evidence of
growth in content and in
skill usage
• Products uses multiple
references
• Products help to explain
what has been learned
• Show evidence of
increased problemsolving, planning, and
decision-making
abilities;
• Show evidence of
increased proficiency
with methodological
skills;
• Show evidence of
increased
understanding of
research procedures;
• Approximate the types
of products that
practicing
professionals create in
their fields.
245
Evaluate the Process
Modified from
Name of Student:
Title of Project:
Date Started:
Date Completed:
1.
Variety of Resources Used to Complete the Project ………………………………
2.
Level of Resources Used to Complete the Project
3.
Level of Advanced Knowledge Gained While Completing the Project …………………..
4.
Time and Effort Put Into Completing the Project
……………………………………………
5.
Authentic Methodology Used During the Project
…………………………………………..
6.
Care and Attention to Detail in Completing the Project…………………………………..
7.
Quality of Final Project in Comparison to Others His/Her Age……………………………
8.
Task Commitment While Completing the Project
…………………………………………..
9.
Independent While Completing the Project
………………………………………….
10.
Appropriate of Audience for the Project ………………………………………….
11.
Originality and Uniqueness of the Final Project
………………………………
………………………………………….
246
Two Views of Assessment
Assessment is For:
Assessment is For:
Gate Keeping
Nurturing
Judging
Guiding
Right Answers
Self Reflection
Control
Information
Comparison to
Others
Comparison to Task
Use with Single
Activities
Use Over Multiple
Activities
Tomlinson
“..a grade (is)….an inadequate report of an
imprecise judgment of a biased and variable judge
of the extent to which a student has attained an
undefined level of mastery of an unknown
proportion of an indefinite amount of materials”
Paul Dressell,
Michigan State University
 How do learners benefit from a grading system that reminds
everyone that students with disabilities or who speak English as
a Second Language do not perform as well as students without
disabilities or for whom English is their native tongue?
 What do we gain by telling our most able learners that they are
“excellent” on the basis of a standard that requires modest
effort, calls for no intellectual risks, necessitates no persistence,
and demands that they develop few academic coping skills?
 In what ways do our current grading practices motivate
struggling or advanced learners to persist in the face of
difficulty?
 Is there an opportunity for struggling learners to encounter
excellence in our current grading practices?
 Is there an opportunity for advanced learners to encounter
struggle in our current grading practices?
Thoughts About Grading and Differentiation
I need to grade for success in the same
way I teach and assess for success.
If much of the time I give a student work
appropriate for his or her current needs, I
must then grade the student’s work on the
basis of clearly delineated criteria for
quality work on that task.
I need to give students consistent,
meaningful feedback that clarifies for
them--and for me--present successes and
next learning steps.
I need to look for growth patterns over
time when I assign report card grades.
Tomlinson, C. A. (2001). Grading for success. Educational Leadership, 58(6), 12-15.
We could, for example, use record keeping systems and reporting mechanisms that speak to elements such
as..
Achievement [noted by standardized scores].
Progress [measured against standards or individual goals].
Growth [in comparison with self].
Habits and attitudes.
Work quality (Wiggins, 1999).
[Tomlison & Allan, 2000, p. 110]
Differentiated Report Cards
On report cards, I need to find a way to show individual growth and
relative standing to students and parents
A = Excellent Growth
B = Very Good Growth
C
= Some Growth
D = Little Growth
F = No Observable
1 = The student is
Above Grade
Level
2 = The student is
Working At
Grade Level
3 = The student is
Working Below Grade Level
Growth
Tomlinson, 2001
Effect Size
Strategy
 1.61 Compare and Contrast
 1.0
Summarizing & Notetaking
 .80
Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition
 .77
Homework [meaningful] & Practice
 .75
Nonlinguistic Representations
 .73
Cooperative Learning
 .61
Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback
 .61
Generating and Testing Hypotheses
 .59
Questions, Cues, Advanced Organizers
Marzano, ASCD
Key Characteristics of Effective Scaffolding
1. SCAFFOLDING PROVIDES CLEAR DIRECTIONS
• Explains precisely what must be done to achieve success
• Anticipates and addresses problems and insecurities
• Uses user-friendly language and format to minimize confusion
• Places a premium on clarity
• Speeds the learner toward success
2. SCAFFOLDING CLARIFIES PURPOSE
• Is built around essential questions
• Clarifies meaning and worth
• Helps keep the big picture central and in focus
• Makes work purposeful and mindful
• Links with key concepts and principles
• Requires emphasis on sorting and sifting (vs. gathering)
• Leads students to construct new understandings
3. SCAFFOLDING KEEPS STUDENTS ON TASK
• Provides a pathway or route for the learner
• Allows freedom within parameters
• Serves as a guard rail to keep students from going over the edge
• Provides a progression of tasks that is both controlling and
liberating
4. SCAFFOLDING PROVIDES CLEAR
EXPECTATIONS FOR QUALITY
• Provides examples of quality work
• Addresses elements needing learner attention
• Provides clear indicators of quality for each element
• Addresses content, process and product
5. SCAFFOLDING POINTS STUDENTS TO WORTHY
SOURCES OF HELP AND INFORMATION
• Helps students avoid weak and unreliable information
• Focuses on interpretation of good information vs.
wandering in fog
• Ensures a high signal-to-fog ratio
• Does not eliminate choice, but supports making useful choices
• Speeds the learner toward success
6, SCAFFOLDING REDUCES UNCERTAINTY, SURPRISE
& DISAPPOINTMENT
• Goal is to maximize learning efficiency
• Scaffolding is refined by watching students work
7. SCAFFOLDING DELIVERS EFFICIENCY
• Requires hard work, but not wasted work
• Maximizes time on task
• Creates momentum
• Directs energy to insight
• Accelerates the drive toward meaning
PROVIDING SUPPORT NEEDED FOR A STUDENT TO SUCCEED
IN WORK SLIGHTLY BEYOND HIS/HER COMFORT ZONE.
¨FOR EXAMPLE
• Directions that give more structure--or less
• Tape recorders to help with writing
beyond the student’s grasp
• Re-teaching/extended teaching
• Reading buddies (with appropriate
directions)
• Double entry journals (at appropriate
challenges)
• Gearing reading materials to student
reading level
• Use of manipulations (when needed)
• Icons to help interpret print
• Use of manipulatives (when needed)
• Clear criteria for success
• SQ3R type strategies
• Teaching through multiple modes
• Use of organizers
• New American Lecture
• Use of study guides
• Modeling
Adapted from: Jamie Mckenzie [email protected] Dec. 1999 • Scaffolding for Success • Tomlinson • 00
Management Hints
Giving Directions
• If the whole class is doing the same activity
then give the directions to the whole group.
• Do not give multiple task directions to the
whole class.
• For small group work, tape directions so
students can listen to them repeatedly
• Use task cards to give directions to small
groups.
• A general rule is that once the teacher has
given directions the students can’t interrupt
while he/she is working with a small group
– Ask Me Visors
Assigning Groups
• Clothes pins with student’s
names to assign them to a
particular task
• Color code children to certain
groups (a transparency with
students names in color works
well)
• Cubing allows you to assign
groups by interest or readiness
level
Handling Materials
• Assign jobs to different students (materials
handler, table captain)
• As a teacher ask yourself, “Is this
something I have to do myself, or can the
students learn to do it?”
• Remember that you have to teach children
how to become responsible for their own
things.
Transitions
• Directions for transitions need
to be given with clarity and
urgency.
–Time limit for transition
–Address the acceptable noise
level
–Rehearsal
Routines for Handling Paperwork
• Color-coded work folders
• Portfolios
• Baskets for each curricular area or class
period
• Filing Cabinet
Key to these organizational patterns is
that the children have access to their
own work and know how to file and/or
find what they need to accomplish a
task.
Time
Must be flexible in order to address
every child’s readiness level
– Catch-up days
– Anchoring Activities
– Postcards for Writing Ideas
– Independent Investigations
Thinking it Over
Aha’s!
Huh?
These ideas
square with my
beliefs.
These are the ideas
that are going
around in my head.
Three points I
want to
remember.
Some of the ideas I am
leaving here with today
are…..
This made me wiggle in my
seat.
The Business of Schools Is to produce work that engages students, that is so
compelling that students persist when they experience difficulties, and that is
so challenging that students have a sense of accomplishment, of
satisfaction—indeed, of delight—when they successfully accomplish the tasks
assigned.
Inventing Better Schools * Schlechty
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Ideas and Strategies that Support Differentiated Instruction