Intelligence Pick up notes from the iPad cart! Intelligence • Most of you would probably consider yourselves intelligent. I would agree. • On your paper, describe if you are intelligent or not. List whatever “intelligent” qualities that you have and why someone would agree with you. • But, how can we tell for sure? – Take an intelligence test? – The two most popular tests are… • The Stanford-Binet • The Weschler Alfred Binet • Designed an intelligence test to identify which children needed special attention in school. • Mental Age – an idea that our intelligence increases as we get older – Ex. The average 10 yr old will have a mental age of 10 – A 16 yr old should have a mental age of... • Binet’s test searched for those whose mental age lagged behind their real age. Stanford-Binet IQ Test • Louis Terman, Stanford Professor – Used Binet’s research to create the measure we know as IQ and the test known as the Stanford-Binet IQ test. • IQ stands for intelligence quotient. – A person’s IQ score on this test is calculated by the following formula… • IQ = (Mental Age / Chronological Age) x 100 IQ Scores • A 8 year old has a mental age of 10, what is her IQ? • A 40 year old has the mental age of 10, what is his IQ? • A boy has the mental age of 10 and an IQ of 200, how old is he? • IQ=Mental age/Chronological age X 100. • Above ~130 = gifted • Below ~70 = mental retardation Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale • David Weschler constructed a different type of IQ test – Well actually three tests, a different one for adults, older kids, and younger kids. – The test for adults is called the Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) WAIS • What you should really know about the Weschler tests is that they test intelligence on many different subtests – In other words, it accounts for multiple types of skills – Contains questions requiring test-takers to show… • Verbal IQ: Defining terms, solving math word problems, and compare and contrast • Performance IQ: Duplicating a pattern with blocks, correctly ordering pictures so they tell a story, and identifying missing elements in pictures – Scores are placed on a normal curve against the rest of the population. • What is this “bell curve” also known as? WAIS IQ and Nature vs. Nurture • One problem with these intelligence tests is that people are scoring higher on them every year and we do not know why. • Flynn effect – The phenomenon that we are scoring better on these tests and becoming more intelligent year after year. – Does this suggest that nature or nurture plays a role in intelligence? The Flynn Effect • Performance on IQ scores has steadily increased over generations – Environmental factors? • Reduction in malnutrition • Access to schooling • Technological advances Constructing Intelligence Tests • All intelligence tests must be… – Standardized – Reliable – Valid Standardization • A test must be pretested to a representative sample of people and form achievement norms (a normal distribution). • Once standardized, a test can be given to the population – Ex. SAT test contains some experimental questions on which you will not be evaluated. – When each group of students answers these questions, they are helping standardize future exams. Group Differences in Intelligence Test Scores • The Bell curve is different for Whites v. Black. • Math scores are different across genders and the highest scores are for Asian males. Why? Nature or Nurture Test Bias? Tests do discriminate. But some argue that their sole purpose is to discriminate. We have to look at the type of discrimination. Reliability • The extent which a test yields consistent results over time. – Ex. Say you take an IQ test three times and your scores are 115, 92, and 133. – Would you believe your intelligence is being accurately measured by this test? • NO, because the test is not reliable. Reliability • A test’s reliability can be measured in several ways. – Split-half Reliability • Split a test into two halves and see if people perform equally well on both parts. • The closer the correlation coefficient is to +1.0 of the two halves, the more reliable the test. – Equivalent-form Reliability • The correlation between performance on tests that are available in several equivalent forms (Ex. Form A and Form B). – Test-retest Reliability • Correlation between a person’s score on test they have taken multiple times. Validity • The extent to which a test measures what it is supposed to measure. – Ex. A personality test is only valid if it truly measures a person’s personality. A career inventory is only valid if it actually measures for what jobs a person is best equipped. Validity • Validity can also be measured in many ways – Content Validity/Face Validity • How well a measure reflects the entire range of material it is supposed to be testing. • Ex. If you really wanted to find a good chef, a test that required someone to create an entrée and a salad dressing as well as a cake would have greater content validity. – Criterion-related Validity (Two types) • Concurrent Validity – Measures how much of a characteristic a person has now. • Predictive Validity – Measure of future performance. Validity and Reliability • A TEST CANNOT BE VALID IF IT IS NOT RELIABLE. – Ex. If you take a career inventory several times and your results show you a different job path each time, the test is not reliable nor could it possibly be valid (accurate). • However, a test can be RELIABLE while not being VALID. – Ex. A career inventory could tell you that you should be a chef every time you take it. – This is reliable, but it may or may not be valid. – If the person hates to cook, the test is not valid. Types of Tests • Two common types of tests are aptitude tests and achievement tests. – Aptitude Tests • Measure ability or potential • Ex. Intelligence tests because their purpose is to express your potential. – Achievement Tests • Measure what one has learned or accomplished. • Ex. Almost all tests you take in school. Brain Size and Intelligence Is there a link? • Small +.15 correlation between head size and intelligence scores (relative to body size). • Using an MRI we found +.44 correlation with brain size and IQ score. Brain Function and Intelligence • Higher performing brains use less glucose than lower performing brains. • Neurological speed is also a bit quicker. Intelligence: Day Two PICK UP NOTES FROM THE STAND To answer your questions: Yes, we’re doing stuff today. No, we can’t play in the snow. Yes, I hate AISD sometimes too. No, Dr. Cavazos/Mr. Dhalla/Obama/[insert name here] is not to blame. Yes, we’ll finish up early today because I know you don’t want to be here. No, Dez still didn’t catch it. Defining Intelligence • Okay, so how should we define intelligence? – Typically, intelligence is defined as the ability to gather and use information in productive ways. – However, there are many definitions of intelligence and no consensus has been made on the proper definition. According to this definition, are both Einstein and Babe Ruth intelligent? Theories of Intelligence • Fluid Intelligence – Our ability to solve abstract problems and pick up new information and skills. • Crystal Intelligence – Our ability to use knowledge accumulated over time. • Crystallized intelligence goes up over time while fluid intelligence declines in old age. Theories of Intelligence • One fundamental issue of debate is whether intelligence refers to a single ability, a small group of abilities, or a wide variety of abilities. Theories of Intelligence • Charles Spearman’s G Factor – Spearman argued that intelligence could be expressed by a single factor, from which all the many different specific abilities stem. • This factor Spearman labeled the g factor. – Spearman used factor analysis to show that the primary components of intelligence can indeed be expressed by using a single number • a statistical technique that takes multiple items and meshes (correlates) them into one number. Theories of Intelligence • Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences – Believes there are multiple intelligences. – Came up with this idea by studying savants – Seven, but may be more… • • • • • • • Linguistic Logical-Mathematical Musical Bodily-Kinesthetic Spatial Interpersonal Intrapersonal Multiple Intelligences • Howard Gardner disagreed with Spearman’s g and instead came up with the concept of multiple intelligences. • He came up with the idea by studying savants (a condition where a person has limited mental ability but is exceptional in one area). Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Linguistic Logical-Mathematical Spatial Musical Bodily-Kinesthetic Interpersonal Intrapersonal Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Linguistic Logical-Mathematical Spatial Musical Bodily-Kinesthetic Interpersonal Intrapersonal • Often measured on IQ tests with reading comprehension and vocabulary tests Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Linguistic Logical-Mathematical Spatial Musical Bodily-Kinesthetic Interpersonal Intrapersonal • Often measured on IQ tests with analogies, math problems and logic problems Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Linguistic Logical-Mathematical Spatial Musical Bodily-Kinesthetic Interpersonal Intrapersonal • Ability to form mental images of objects and think about their relationships in space Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Linguistic Logical-Mathematical Spatial Musical Bodily-Kinesthetic Interpersonal Intrapersonal • Ability to perceive and create patterns of rhythms and pitches Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Linguistic Logical-Mathematical Spatial Musical Bodily-Kinesthetic Interpersonal Intrapersonal • Ability for controlled movement and coordination Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Linguistic Logical-Mathematical Spatial Musical Bodily-Kinesthetic Interpersonal Intrapersonal • Ability to understand other people’s emotions, motives and actions Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Linguistic Logical-Mathematical Spatial Musical Bodily-Kinesthetic Interpersonal Intrapersonal • Ability to know oneself and to develop a sense of identity 1. Rearrange the following letters to make a word and choose the category in which it fits. TAPEREKA A. city B. fruit C. bird D. vegetable 2. Find the answer that best completes the analogy people : democracy :: wealthy : A. oligarchy B. oligopoly C. plutocracy D. timocracy E. autocracy Which does not belong? Logic • 2. The day before the day before yesterday is three days after Saturday. What day is it today? • A. Monday B. Tuesday C. Wednesday D. Thursday E. Friday • 1. At the end of a banquet 10 people shake hands with each other. How many handshakes will there be in total? A. 100 B. 20 C. 45 D. 50 E. 90 Gardner’s Three New Intelligences • Naturalistic intelligence • Spiritual intelligence • Existential intelligence Theories of Intelligence • Sternberg's Triarchic Theory – He stated that three types of intelligence exist… • Analytical Intelligence – School smarts (like the basic Binet IQ). • Experiential Intelligence – The ability for one to use their knowledge in creative ways. • Practical Intelligence – Street smarts, or the ability to apply what you know in the real world. – This intelligence that makes Sternberg unique. – If intelligence depends on context (real world applications) than how can any type of classical intelligence test really work? Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory Practical Intelligence Analytical Intelligence Creative Intelligence Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory Practical Intelligence Analytical Intelligence Creative Intelligence Ability to cope with the environment; “street smarts” Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory Practical Intelligence Analytical Intelligence Creative Intelligence Ability to analyze problems and find correct answers; ability measured by most IQ tests also called logical reasoning Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory Practical Intelligence Analytical Intelligence Creative Intelligence Form of intelligence that helps people see new relationships among concepts; involves insight and creativity Theories of Intelligence • Daniel Goleman’s Emotional Intelligence (EQ) – Research shows that people with highest IQs are not always the most successful people. – Goleman and many others argue that a combination of IQ and EQ is essential for success. Now what do you think? • Last class, you answered how you thought you were intelligent. What about now? • On your paper, describe all the ways in which you find yourself intelligent. School? Sports? Arts? If you can come up with an area where you’re smart, write it down and describe why! More Questions • If a doctor gives you 3 pills and tells you to take one pill every half hour, how long would it take before all the pills had been taken? • Answer: 1 hour! Take the 1st pill right away, half an hour later take the 2nd and half an hour after that the 3rd. Total time spent: 1 hour! • Divide 30 by half and add ten. What do you get? • Answer: 70! Think about it. What does half really mean? It's 0.5! What is 30 divided by 0.5? 60! Now 60 + 10 = 70! • If you had only one match and entered a COLD and DARK room, where there was an oil lamp, an oil heater and a candle. Which would you light first? • Answer: The match! If you didn't light it first you wouldn't be able to light anything else! • A man builds a house with four sides of rectangular construction, each side having a southern exposure. A big bear comes along. What color is the bear? • Answer: White! If all walls face south, the house must be on the North Pole. • How many animals of each species did Moses take with him in the Ark? • Answer: None. It was Noah, not Moses! • Two fathers and two sons go fishing. They catch three fish and equally share them without cutting one up. How is this possible? • Two fathers and two sons = Grandfather, Father, and Son • • 52 Bicycles have no seats but are still complete. How is this possible? • It’s a deck of cards. • 18 people are found dead with their necks broken in a cabin in the wilderness. How did they die? • Their plane crashed. • When is 4 half of 5? • When it is a roman numeral (IV), half of fIVe • What is something that when you take away the whole, there is still some left? • Wholesome! • Who won the 1996 Cricket World Cup? • Sri Lanka, idiots. I mean seriously, how could you not know that. Sanath Jayasuriya played out of his mind that tournament. • You have a dime and a dollar, you buy a dog and a collar, the dog is a dollar more than the collar, how much is the collar? • Collar is 5 cents, dog is $1.05 • A man left home running. He ran a ways and turned left. Ran the same distance and turned left again Ran the same distance and turned left again. When he got home there were two masked men. Who were they? • The catcher and the umpire. Hooray baseball! • Why is it against the law for a man living in North Carolina to be buried in South Carolina? • He’s alive. • Before Mount Everest was discovered, what was the highest mountain in the world? • Still Mount Everest.