Intelligence
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Intelligence
• Most of you would probably consider yourselves
intelligent. I would agree.
• On your paper, describe if you are intelligent or
not. List whatever “intelligent” qualities that you
have and why someone would agree with you.
• But, how can we tell for sure?
– Take an intelligence test?
– The two most popular tests are…
• The Stanford-Binet
• The Weschler
Alfred Binet
• Designed an intelligence test to
identify which children needed
special attention in school.
• Mental Age
– an idea that our intelligence
increases as we get older
– Ex. The average 10 yr old will
have a mental age of 10
– A 16 yr old should have a mental
age of...
• Binet’s test searched for those
whose mental age lagged
behind their real age.
Stanford-Binet IQ Test
• Louis Terman, Stanford Professor
– Used Binet’s research to create the
measure we know as IQ and the test
known as the Stanford-Binet IQ test.
• IQ stands for intelligence quotient.
– A person’s IQ score on this test is
calculated by the following formula…
• IQ = (Mental Age / Chronological Age) x 100
IQ Scores
• A 8 year old has a mental
age of 10, what is her IQ?
• A 40 year old has the
mental age of 10, what is
his IQ?
• A boy has the mental age
of 10 and an IQ of 200,
how old is he?
• IQ=Mental
age/Chronological age
X 100.
• Above ~130 = gifted
• Below ~70 = mental
retardation
Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale
• David Weschler constructed a
different type of IQ test
– Well actually three tests, a
different one for adults, older
kids, and younger kids.
– The test for adults is called the
Weschler Adult Intelligence
Scale (WAIS)
WAIS
• What you should really know about the
Weschler tests is that they test
intelligence on many different subtests
– In other words, it accounts for multiple
types of skills
– Contains questions requiring test-takers to
show…
• Verbal IQ: Defining terms, solving math word
problems, and compare and contrast
• Performance IQ: Duplicating a pattern with
blocks, correctly ordering pictures so they tell a
story, and identifying missing elements in pictures
– Scores are placed on a normal curve against
the rest of the population.
• What is this “bell curve” also known as?
WAIS
IQ and Nature vs. Nurture
• One problem with these
intelligence tests is that
people are scoring higher
on them every year and we
do not know why.
• Flynn effect
– The phenomenon that we are
scoring better on these tests
and becoming more intelligent
year after year.
– Does this suggest that nature
or nurture plays a role in
intelligence?
The Flynn Effect
• Performance on IQ scores has steadily increased
over generations
– Environmental factors?
• Reduction in malnutrition
• Access to schooling
• Technological advances
Constructing Intelligence Tests
• All intelligence tests must be…
– Standardized
– Reliable
– Valid
Standardization
• A test must be pretested to a representative
sample of people and form achievement norms (a
normal distribution).
• Once standardized, a test can be given to the
population
– Ex. SAT test contains some experimental questions
on which you will not be evaluated.
– When each group of students answers these
questions, they are helping standardize future exams.
Group Differences in Intelligence Test Scores
• The Bell curve is different for Whites v. Black.
• Math scores are different across genders and
the highest scores are for Asian males.
Why?
Nature or Nurture
Test Bias?
Tests do discriminate.
But some argue that their sole purpose is
to discriminate.
We have to look at the type of
discrimination.
Reliability
• The extent which a test
yields consistent results
over time.
– Ex. Say you take an IQ test
three times and your scores
are 115, 92, and 133.
– Would you believe your
intelligence is being
accurately measured by this
test?
• NO, because the test is not
reliable.
Reliability
• A test’s reliability can be
measured in several ways.
– Split-half Reliability
• Split a test into two halves and see if
people perform equally well on both parts.
• The closer the correlation coefficient is
to +1.0 of the two halves, the more
reliable the test.
– Equivalent-form Reliability
• The correlation between performance on
tests that are available in several
equivalent forms (Ex. Form A and Form B).
– Test-retest Reliability
• Correlation between a person’s score on
test they have taken multiple times.
Validity
• The extent to which a test measures what it is
supposed to measure.
– Ex. A personality test is only valid if it truly measures
a person’s personality. A career inventory is only valid
if it actually measures for what jobs a person is best
equipped.
Validity
• Validity can also be measured in many
ways
– Content Validity/Face Validity
• How well a measure reflects the entire range
of material it is supposed to be testing.
• Ex. If you really wanted to find a good chef,
a test that required someone to create an
entrée and a salad dressing as well as a cake
would have greater content validity.
– Criterion-related Validity (Two types)
• Concurrent Validity
– Measures how much of a characteristic a
person has now.
• Predictive Validity
– Measure of future performance.
Validity and Reliability
• A TEST CANNOT BE VALID IF IT IS NOT
RELIABLE.
– Ex. If you take a career inventory several times and
your results show you a different job path each time,
the test is not reliable nor could it possibly be valid
(accurate).
• However, a test can be RELIABLE while not being
VALID.
– Ex. A career inventory could tell you that you should
be a chef every time you take it.
– This is reliable, but it may or may not be valid.
– If the person hates to cook, the test is not valid.
Types of Tests
• Two common types of tests
are aptitude tests and
achievement tests.
– Aptitude Tests
• Measure ability or potential
• Ex. Intelligence tests because their
purpose is to express your
potential.
– Achievement Tests
• Measure what one has learned or
accomplished.
• Ex. Almost all tests you take in
school.
Brain Size and Intelligence
Is there a link?
• Small +.15 correlation
between head size and
intelligence scores
(relative to body size).
• Using an MRI we found
+.44 correlation with
brain size and IQ
score.
Brain Function and Intelligence
• Higher performing
brains use less
glucose than lower
performing brains.
• Neurological speed is
also a bit quicker.
Intelligence: Day Two
PICK UP NOTES FROM THE STAND
To answer your questions:
Yes, we’re doing stuff today.
No, we can’t play in the snow.
Yes, I hate AISD sometimes too.
No, Dr. Cavazos/Mr. Dhalla/Obama/[insert
name here] is not to blame.
Yes, we’ll finish up early today because I know
you don’t want to be here.
No, Dez still didn’t catch it.
Defining Intelligence
• Okay, so how should we define intelligence?
– Typically, intelligence is defined as the ability to
gather and use information in productive ways.
– However, there are many definitions of intelligence
and no consensus has been made on the proper
definition.
According to this
definition, are both
Einstein and Babe Ruth
intelligent?
Theories of Intelligence
• Fluid Intelligence
– Our ability to solve abstract
problems and pick up new
information and skills.
• Crystal Intelligence
– Our ability to use knowledge
accumulated over time.
• Crystallized intelligence goes
up over time while fluid
intelligence declines in old
age.
Theories of Intelligence
• One fundamental issue of debate is whether intelligence
refers to a single ability, a small group of abilities, or a
wide variety of abilities.
Theories of Intelligence
• Charles Spearman’s G Factor
– Spearman argued that intelligence
could be expressed by a single
factor, from which all the many
different specific abilities stem.
• This factor Spearman labeled the
g factor.
– Spearman used factor analysis to
show that the primary components
of intelligence can indeed be
expressed by using a single
number
• a statistical technique that takes
multiple items and meshes
(correlates) them into one number.
Theories of Intelligence
• Howard Gardner’s
Multiple Intelligences
– Believes there are multiple
intelligences.
– Came up with this idea by
studying savants
– Seven, but may be more…
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Linguistic
Logical-Mathematical
Musical
Bodily-Kinesthetic
Spatial
Interpersonal
Intrapersonal
Multiple Intelligences
• Howard Gardner disagreed with Spearman’s g and instead
came up with the concept of multiple intelligences.
• He came up with the idea by studying savants (a condition
where a person has limited mental ability but is
exceptional in one area).
Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences
Linguistic
Logical-Mathematical
Spatial
Musical
Bodily-Kinesthetic
Interpersonal
Intrapersonal
Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences
Linguistic
Logical-Mathematical
Spatial
Musical
Bodily-Kinesthetic
Interpersonal
Intrapersonal
• Often measured on IQ
tests with reading
comprehension and
vocabulary tests
Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences
Linguistic
Logical-Mathematical
Spatial
Musical
Bodily-Kinesthetic
Interpersonal
Intrapersonal
• Often measured on IQ
tests with analogies,
math problems and logic
problems
Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences
Linguistic
Logical-Mathematical
Spatial
Musical
Bodily-Kinesthetic
Interpersonal
Intrapersonal
• Ability to form mental
images of objects and
think about their
relationships in space
Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences
Linguistic
Logical-Mathematical
Spatial
Musical
Bodily-Kinesthetic
Interpersonal
Intrapersonal
• Ability to perceive and
create patterns of
rhythms and pitches
Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences
Linguistic
Logical-Mathematical
Spatial
Musical
Bodily-Kinesthetic
Interpersonal
Intrapersonal
• Ability for controlled
movement and
coordination
Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences
Linguistic
Logical-Mathematical
Spatial
Musical
Bodily-Kinesthetic
Interpersonal
Intrapersonal
• Ability to understand
other people’s emotions,
motives and actions
Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences
Linguistic
Logical-Mathematical
Spatial
Musical
Bodily-Kinesthetic
Interpersonal
Intrapersonal
• Ability to know oneself
and to develop a sense
of identity
1. Rearrange the following letters to make a word and
choose the category in which it fits.
TAPEREKA
A. city
B. fruit
C. bird
D. vegetable
2. Find the answer that best completes the analogy
people : democracy :: wealthy :
A. oligarchy
B. oligopoly
C. plutocracy
D. timocracy
E. autocracy
Which does not belong?
Logic
• 2. The day before the day before yesterday is
three days after Saturday. What day is it today?
• A. Monday
B. Tuesday
C. Wednesday
D. Thursday
E. Friday
• 1. At the end of a banquet 10 people shake hands
with each other. How many handshakes will there
be in total?
A. 100
B. 20
C. 45
D. 50
E. 90
Gardner’s Three New Intelligences
• Naturalistic intelligence
• Spiritual intelligence
• Existential intelligence
Theories of Intelligence
• Sternberg's Triarchic Theory
– He stated that three types of
intelligence exist…
• Analytical Intelligence
– School smarts (like the basic Binet IQ).
• Experiential Intelligence
– The ability for one to use their
knowledge in creative ways.
• Practical Intelligence
– Street smarts, or the ability to apply what
you know in the real world.
– This intelligence that makes Sternberg unique.
– If intelligence depends on context (real
world applications) than how can any type of
classical intelligence test really work?
Sternberg’s Triarchic
Theory
Practical
Intelligence
Analytical
Intelligence
Creative
Intelligence
Sternberg’s Triarchic
Theory
Practical
Intelligence
Analytical
Intelligence
Creative
Intelligence
Ability to cope with
the environment;
“street smarts”
Sternberg’s Triarchic
Theory
Practical
Intelligence
Analytical
Intelligence
Creative
Intelligence
Ability to analyze
problems and find
correct answers;
ability measured by
most IQ tests
also called logical
reasoning
Sternberg’s Triarchic
Theory
Practical
Intelligence
Analytical
Intelligence
Creative
Intelligence
Form of intelligence
that helps people see
new relationships
among concepts;
involves insight and
creativity
Theories of Intelligence
• Daniel Goleman’s Emotional Intelligence (EQ)
– Research shows that people with highest IQs are not
always the most successful people.
– Goleman and many others argue that a combination of
IQ and EQ is essential for success.
Now what do you think?
• Last class, you answered how you thought you
were intelligent. What about now?
• On your paper, describe all the ways in which you
find yourself intelligent. School? Sports? Arts?
If you can come up with an area where you’re
smart, write it down and describe why!
More Questions
• If a doctor gives you 3 pills and tells you to take
one pill every half hour, how long would it take
before all the pills had been taken?
• Answer: 1 hour! Take the 1st pill right away, half
an hour later take the 2nd and half an hour after
that the 3rd.
Total time spent: 1 hour!
• Divide 30 by half and add ten. What do you get?
• Answer: 70! Think about it. What does half
really mean? It's 0.5! What is 30 divided by
0.5? 60! Now 60 + 10 = 70!
• If you had only one match and entered a COLD
and DARK room, where there was an oil lamp, an
oil heater and a candle. Which would you light
first?
• Answer: The match! If you didn't light it first
you wouldn't be able to light anything else!
• A man builds a house with four sides of
rectangular construction, each side having a
southern exposure. A big bear comes along.
What color is the bear?
• Answer: White! If all walls face south, the house
must be on the North Pole.
• How many animals of each species did Moses take
with him in the Ark?
• Answer: None. It was Noah, not Moses!
• Two fathers and two sons go fishing. They catch
three fish and equally share them without
cutting one up. How is this possible?
• Two fathers and two sons = Grandfather, Father,
and Son
•
• 52 Bicycles have no seats but are still complete.
How is this possible?
• It’s a deck of cards.
• 18 people are found dead with their necks broken
in a cabin in the wilderness. How did they die?
• Their plane crashed.
• When is 4 half of 5?
• When it is a roman numeral (IV), half of fIVe
• What is something that when you take away the
whole, there is still some left?
• Wholesome!
• Who won the 1996 Cricket World Cup?
• Sri Lanka, idiots. I mean seriously, how could you
not know that. Sanath Jayasuriya played out of
his mind that tournament.
• You have a dime and a dollar, you buy a dog and a
collar, the dog is a dollar more than the collar,
how much is the collar?
• Collar is 5 cents, dog is $1.05
• A man left home running. He ran a ways and
turned left. Ran the same distance and turned
left again Ran the same distance and turned left
again. When he got home there were two masked
men. Who were they?
• The catcher and the umpire. Hooray baseball!
• Why is it against the law for a man living in
North Carolina to be buried in South Carolina?
• He’s alive.
• Before Mount Everest was discovered, what was
the highest mountain in the world?
• Still Mount Everest.
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Intelligence