Projects & Multiple Intelligence Theory Science Education for Diversity Project AUB Team Today’s Presenters: Sahar Alameh Nada Radwan Steps to be followed when planning for a project: Question: or problem to be solved Research: a review of what has already been done by other scientists Hypothesis: what you think the answer will be; an educated guess Materials: like the ingredient list for a recipe, everything you need Procedure: how to carry out a controlled experiment, like recipe instructions Results: your observations, what happened during the experiment Conclusion: the answer--if you found one--to original question or problem The following are project ideas described by students. Read each of them. Modify each project to fit implementation steps. 1. The caring and feeding of plants. There are only six simple steps to follow, in order for you to get the job done. The first step is to get three plants of the same kind. The second is to get a small amount of fertilizer or manure. Now comes the third step, which is to set each plant in a different amount of sunlight. The fourth step is to water and feed the plant as much as you want. The fifth step is to repeat steps one through four. Now finally step six. Record given information, like the amount of leaves, health, height, etc. So, if you want to do a quick and easy experiment for your science project, this is the project for you. Question Research Hypothesis Materials Procedure Results Conclusion 2. Potato Plants What I did for my science project is on POTATO PLANTS. What my partners and I did is we planted 3 potatoes in different plant pots with different kinds of products, like vinegar, plain water, salt, and sugar. We took the plants and stuck toothpicks in the potato. I thought that the plants wouldn't grow that far, but they did. Our name wasn't very creative, but it told what our project was about. My partners and I are very proud of our project. The project was very interesting, and a very good experiment. If I was asked to do this experiment again, I think I would be very happy to. Question Research Hypothesis Materials Procedure Results Conclusion Projects – Main Points Projects are one of the most advanced cooperative learning strategies that a class can engage in, because: Projects provide a framework within which individual students must conduct detailed inquiries into a topic or theme Students come together to share with each other what they know so the entire class develops a greater understanding of the topic or theme at hand. Projects – Students Projects require students to engage in: Investigation Representation Projects – Students (Cont’d) In the course of investigating and representing topics during a project, students use a variety of the skills taught in primary school: Four major domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) Many kinds of math (addition, subtraction, multiplication) The context of the project allows students to apply the skills to real-life situations (they master the skills more fully) Projects – Teachers Teachers conducting projects with their class guide their class through three main project phases: Initial Planning Field Work Presentation Projects – Teachers (Cont’d) Initial Planning: Teacher selects the broad curricular area that the students’ project (or projects) will focus on. The teacher then works with the class to help students design questions about the topic that their research in the project will answer. Projects – Teachers (Cont’d) Questions you need to answer when helping students decide what project to do: Is the project appropriate for the age of the student? Will the students be able to find the materials for the project? Will the student work alone or in a group? If working with other students, how should the project be structured to make sure that there is positive goal interdependence with individual accountability? How can students be encouraged to use more then one intelligence? How will you evaluate the project? Projects – Teachers (Cont’d) Field Work: Once students have selected the questions they want to answer about the topic the teacher has guided them to, the teacher has to help the students make a plan for going outside the classroom to answer those questions. Projects – Teachers (Cont’d) Presentation: The teacher must encourage students to represent the knowledge they gain in different formats. The teacher must provide an opportunity for the students to share their knowledge with each other. Projects - Evaluation Evaluating science projects: Clarity of the problem Background reading was appropriate The hypothesis is stated clearly and reflected the background readings The experimental design demonstrated understanding of the scientific method Apparatus and equipment were used appropriately Observations were clearly summarized Interpretation of data conformed with observations Conclusions are appropriate Student is able to answer questions related to project (If a group project all members should be able to answer all questions) The project is the students work (or the work of the group) A scale such as the following can be used to evaluate each of the above: • Poor • Fair • Satisfactory • Good • Excellent Projects – Evaluation Projects are usually graded by rubrics, which enable teachers to come up with a composite score evaluating all aspects of the work the child accomplished in the project. Theory or Multiple Intelligences Feelers / Thinkers Activity Fill out the table by responding to the situations posed. Calculate your score. When all participants have completed the table and the scoring, ask participants to turn to the participant sitting beside them. Discuss the results. Give specific examples in support of the results (or to prove that this is not your learning style). Feelers/Thinkers Activity When in a new learning situation, you learn best when you: SCORING SECTION 1 SCORING If your total ranges from 5 – 6 on section 1, your learning style probably agrees with Feelers If your total is 4, you are undecided If your total ranges from 0 – 3, your learning style probably agrees with Thinkers, SECTION 2 SCORING If your total ranges from 5 – 6 on section 1, your learning style probably agrees with Thinkers If your total is 4, you are undecided If your total ranges from 0 – 3, your learning style probably agrees wit Feelers My Student’s Possible Learning Styles Think of a student (or 2 if you desire) in your class. Discuss with participant next to you this student's preferred learning style Fill out the chart. The Butterfly Graph The concept of butterfly will be introduced in 7 different “ways” The graph presented: one axis is numbered from 1 – 7 for each “way” the concept is presented, the other axis is numbered from 1 – 10 for how closely ‘way’ matches to learning preference. Connect the dots; circle the highest points in your graph. 1. Butterfly Wing One of a pair of movable organs for flying 2. Butterfly Wing Measure the length of the wings of a butterfly (shown below) and find a relation between the length of a butterfly’s wings and its speed. 3. Butterfly Wing Now watch this animation of a wing of a butterfly. 4. Butterfly Wing Can you imitate the motion of the wings of a butterfly? 5. Butterfly Wing With your group-mates, write a song about a butterfly describing its wings. When you are done, sing the song you have just written to the whole class. For 6. and 7. watch the facilitators. The Butterfly Graph Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Logical/ mathematical Verbal/Linguistic Visual/Spatial Bodily/Kinesthetic Musical Interpersonal Intrapersonal Linguistic intelligence consists of the ability to think in words and to use language to express and appreciate complex meanings. Authors, poets, journalists, speakers, and newscasters exhibit high degrees of linguistic intelligence Logical mathematical intelligence makes it possible to calculate, quantify, consider propositions and hypotheses and carry out complex mathematical operations. Scientists, mathematicians, accountants, engineers, and computer programmers all demonstrate strong logical mathematical intelligence. Spatial intelligence instills the capacity to think in threedimensional ways as do sailors, pilots, sculptors, painters, and architects. It enables one to perceive external and internal imagery, to recreate, transform, and modify images, to navigate oneself and objects through space, and to produce or decode graphic information. Bodily kinesthetic intelligence enables one to manipulate objects and fine-tune physical skills. It is evident in athletes, dancers, surgeons, and craftspeople. In Western societies, physical skills are not as highly valued as cognitive ones, and yet elsewhere the ability to use one’s body is a necessity for survival as well as an important feature of many prestigious roles. Musical intelligence is evident in individuals who possess sensitivity to pitch, melody, rhythm, and tone. Those demonstrating the intelligence include composers, conductors, musicians, critics, instrument makers, as well as sensitive listeners. Interpersonal intelligence is the capacity to understand and interact effectively with others. It is evident in successful teachers, social workers, actors, or politicians. Just as Western culture has recently begun to recognize the connection between mind and body, so too has it to come to value the importance of proficiency in interpersonal personal behavior. Intrapersonal intelligence refers to the ability to construct an accurate perception of oneself and to use such knowledge in planning and directing one’s life. Some individuals with strong intrapersonal intelligence specialize as theologians, psychologists, and philosophers. A PERSONAL INVENTORY The inventory below enables readers to identify their strengths as well as the intelligences they seldom use. We hope that such an assessment will serve as a guide in discovering intelligence areas that may be more developed. The inventory features the eight intelligences and boxes in which to assess the current level of professional and personal use. Assign a 3 to any intelligence used extensively, a 2 for moderate use, a 1 for infrequent use, and a 0 if never used. The total for each intelligence than can range from a low of zero to a high of six. A PERSONAL INVENTORY Reference: Campbell, L., Campbell, B., & Dickinson, D. (1996). Teaching and learning through Multiple Intelligences. MA: Allyn & Bacon. INTELLIGENCE Logical/ mathematical Verbal/Linguistic Visual/Spatial Bodily/Kinesthetic Musical Interpersonal Intrapersonal Naturalist PROFESSIONAL USE PERSONAL USE TOTAL Multiple Intelligences Content Area Chart On a scale of 1 to 3 (1 being weak, 2 average and 3 strong) assign a number that you believe best incorporates the intelligence in given content area. Fill out the “Multiple Intelligences Content Area Chart”. Discuss your chart before you report your results to the other teams. Multiple Intelligences Content Area Chart Intelligence 1. Linguistic 1. Logical/ Mathematical 1. Spatial 1. Musical 1. Kinesthetic 1. Interpersonal 1. Intra-personal 1. Naturalist Mathematics Science Multiple Intelligences /Cooperative Learning Chart Theory of Cooperative In your groups, Multiple Learning discuss how Multiple Intelligences Intelligences can reinforce Cooperative Learning. Fill out the chart. Report to the group as a whole. Application of Multiple Intelligences on Classroom Practices Connection between Multiple Intelligences and Cooperative Learning Connection between Multiple Intelligences and Active, student Centered learning Connection between Multiple Intelligences and project approaches to teaching Theory of Multiple Intelligences Cooperative Learning Linguistic intelligence involves sensitivity to spoken and written language, the ability to learn languages, and the capacity to use language to accomplish certain goals. This intelligence includes the ability to effectively use language to express oneself rhetorically or poetically; and language as a means to remember information. Writers, poets, lawyers and speakers are among those that Howard Gardner sees as having high linguistic intelligence. Students are encouraged to discuss issue and write reports both in student centered and cooperative leanring. They have to do this since cooperative learning requires discussions and writing Theory of Multiple Intelligences Cooperative Learning Logical-mathematical intelligence consists of the capacity to analyze problems logically, carry out mathematical operations, and investigate issues scientifically. In Howard Gardner's words, it entails the ability to detect patterns, reason deductively and think logically. This intelligence is most often associated with scientific and mathematical thinking. Depends on the problem given to students. In science this is very essential especially if inquiry is used (requires students to analyze problems and come up with solutions (remember the problems given to participants. This is possible in both cooperative learning and student-centered learning Theory of Multiple Intelligences Cooperative Learning Musical intelligence involves skill in the performance, composition, and appreciation of musical patterns. It encompasses the capacity to recognize and compose musical pitches, tones, and rhythms. According to Howard Gardner musical intelligence runs in an almost structural parallel to linguistic intelligence. This is not encouraged in regular lessons, unless students are taking music classes Theory of Multiple Intelligences Cooperative Learning Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence entails the potential of using one's whole body or parts of the body to solve problems. It is the ability to use mental abilities to coordinate bodily movements. Howard Gardner sees mental and physical activity as related. In cooperative this is encouraged is students are working cooperatively in a lab where they have to coordinate bodily movements especially hands when working with equipment. The same thing happens in studentcentered learning. However the best place to develop this intelligence is in sports activities or dancing. Theory of Multiple Intelligences Cooperative Learning Spatial intelligence involves the potential to recognize and use the patterns of wide space and more confined areas. This is emphasized in math and science when students recognize and use patterns Theory of Multiple Intelligences Cooperative Learning Interpersonal intelligence is concerned with the capacity to understand the intentions, motivations and desires of other people. It allows people to work effectively with others. Educators, salespeople, religious and political leaders and counsellors all need a well-developed interpersonal intelligence. This is essential in cooperative and studentcentered learning because students have to reach solutions through negotiation and discussion with others. They have to do it in a respectful way. Theory of Multiple Intelligences Cooperative Learning Intrapersonal intelligence entails the capacity to understand oneself, to appreciate one's feelings, fears and motivations. In Howard Gardner's view it involves having an effective working model of ourselves, and to be able to use such information to regulate our lives. To be able to work with others in CL and student centered learning students have to be confident in their own abilities and where they are effective and where they are not. They are not afraid to express their fears and weaknesses with any embarrassments.