Projects & Multiple
Intelligence Theory
Science Education for Diversity Project
AUB Team
Today’s Presenters: Sahar Alameh
Nada Radwan
Steps to be followed when planning for a project:
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Question: or problem to be solved
Research: a review of what has already been done by other
scientists
Hypothesis: what you think the answer will be; an educated
guess
Materials: like the ingredient list for a recipe, everything you
need
Procedure: how to carry out a controlled experiment, like
recipe instructions
Results: your observations, what happened during the
experiment
Conclusion: the answer--if you found one--to original question
or problem
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The following are project ideas described by students. Read
each of them. Modify each project to fit implementation steps.
1. The caring and feeding of plants.
There are only six simple steps to follow, in order for you to
get the job done. The first step is to get three plants of the
same kind. The second is to get a small amount of fertilizer or
manure. Now comes the third step, which is to set each plant
in a different amount of sunlight. The fourth step is to water
and feed the plant as much as you want. The fifth step is to
repeat steps one through four. Now finally step six. Record
given information, like the amount of leaves, health, height,
etc. So, if you want to do a quick and easy experiment for your
science project, this is the project for you.
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Question
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Research
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Hypothesis
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Materials
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Procedure
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Results
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Conclusion
2. Potato Plants
What I did for my science project is on POTATO PLANTS.
What my partners and I did is we planted 3 potatoes in
different plant pots with different kinds of products, like
vinegar, plain water, salt, and sugar. We took the plants and
stuck toothpicks in the potato. I thought that the plants
wouldn't grow that far, but they did. Our name wasn't very
creative, but it told what our project was about.
My partners and I are very proud of our project. The project
was very interesting, and a very good experiment. If I was
asked to do this experiment again, I think I would be very
happy to.
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Question
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Research
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Hypothesis
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Materials
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Procedure
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Results
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Conclusion
Projects – Main Points
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Projects are one of the most advanced
cooperative learning strategies that a class can
engage in, because:
Projects provide a framework within which
individual students must conduct detailed
inquiries into a topic or theme
Students come together to share with each other
what they know so the entire class develops a
greater understanding of the topic or theme at
hand.
Projects – Students
Projects require students to engage in:
 Investigation
 Representation
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Projects – Students (Cont’d)
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In the course of investigating and representing
topics during a project, students use a variety of
the skills taught in primary school:
Four major domains of language (listening,
speaking, reading, and writing)
Many kinds of math (addition, subtraction,
multiplication)
The context of the project allows students to
apply the skills to real-life situations (they master
the skills more fully)
Projects – Teachers
Teachers conducting projects with their class
guide their class through three main project
phases:
 Initial Planning
 Field Work
 Presentation
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Projects – Teachers (Cont’d)
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Initial Planning:
Teacher selects the broad curricular area that
the students’ project (or projects) will focus on.
The teacher then works with the class to help
students design questions about the topic that
their research in the project will answer.
Projects – Teachers (Cont’d)
Questions you need to answer when helping students
decide what project to do:
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Is the project appropriate for the age of the student?
Will the students be able to find the materials for the project?
Will the student work alone or in a group?
If working with other students, how should the project be
structured to make sure that there is positive goal
interdependence with individual accountability?
How can students be encouraged to use more then one
intelligence?
How will you evaluate the project?
Projects – Teachers (Cont’d)
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Field Work:
Once students have selected the questions they
want to answer about the topic the teacher has
guided them to, the teacher has to help the
students make a plan for going outside the
classroom to answer those questions.
Projects – Teachers (Cont’d)
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Presentation:
The teacher must encourage students to
represent the knowledge they gain in different
formats.
The teacher must provide an opportunity for
the students to share their knowledge with
each other.
Projects - Evaluation
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Evaluating science projects:
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Clarity of the problem
Background reading was appropriate
The hypothesis is stated clearly and
reflected the background readings
The experimental design demonstrated
understanding of the scientific method
Apparatus and equipment were used
appropriately
Observations were clearly summarized
Interpretation of data conformed with
observations
Conclusions are appropriate
Student is able to answer questions
related to project (If a group project all
members should be able to answer all
questions)
The project is the students work (or the
work of the group)
A scale such as the
following can be used to
evaluate each of the above:
• Poor
• Fair
• Satisfactory
• Good
• Excellent
Projects – Evaluation
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Projects are usually graded by rubrics, which
enable teachers to come up with a composite
score evaluating all aspects of the work the
child accomplished in the project.
Theory or Multiple
Intelligences
Feelers / Thinkers Activity
Fill out the table by responding to the
situations posed.
 Calculate your score.
 When all participants have completed the
table and the scoring, ask participants to
turn to the participant sitting beside them.
Discuss the results. Give specific
examples in support of the results (or to
prove that this is not your learning style).
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Feelers/Thinkers Activity
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When in a new learning situation, you learn best
when you:
SCORING
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SECTION 1 SCORING
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If your total ranges from 5 – 6 on section 1, your learning style
probably agrees with Feelers
If your total is 4, you are undecided
If your total ranges from 0 – 3, your learning style probably
agrees with Thinkers,
SECTION 2 SCORING
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If your total ranges from 5 – 6 on section 1, your learning style
probably agrees with Thinkers
If your total is 4, you are undecided
If your total ranges from 0 – 3, your learning style probably
agrees wit Feelers
My Student’s Possible Learning
Styles
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Think of a student (or 2 if you desire) in
your class. Discuss with participant next to
you this student's preferred learning style
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Fill out the chart.
The Butterfly Graph
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The concept of butterfly will be introduced in
7 different “ways”
 The graph presented: one axis is numbered
from 1 – 7 for each “way” the concept is
presented, the other axis is numbered from
1 – 10 for how closely ‘way’ matches to
learning preference.
 Connect the dots; circle the highest points in
your graph.
1. Butterfly Wing
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One of a pair of movable organs for flying
2. Butterfly Wing
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Measure the length of the wings of a
butterfly (shown below) and find a relation
between the length of a butterfly’s wings
and its speed.
3. Butterfly Wing
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Now watch this animation of a wing of a
butterfly.
4. Butterfly Wing
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Can you imitate the motion of the wings of
a butterfly?
5. Butterfly Wing
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With your group-mates, write a song about
a butterfly describing its wings. When you
are done, sing the song you have just
written to the whole class.
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For 6. and 7. watch the facilitators.
The Butterfly Graph
Theory of Multiple Intelligences.
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Logical/ mathematical
Verbal/Linguistic
Visual/Spatial
Bodily/Kinesthetic
Musical
Interpersonal
Intrapersonal
Linguistic intelligence
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consists of the ability to think in words and
to use language to express and appreciate
complex meanings. Authors, poets,
journalists, speakers, and newscasters
exhibit high degrees of linguistic
intelligence
Logical mathematical
intelligence
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makes it possible to calculate, quantify,
consider propositions and hypotheses and
carry out complex mathematical
operations. Scientists, mathematicians,
accountants, engineers, and computer
programmers all demonstrate strong
logical mathematical intelligence.
Spatial intelligence
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instills the capacity to think in threedimensional ways as do sailors, pilots,
sculptors, painters, and architects. It
enables one to perceive external and
internal imagery, to recreate, transform,
and modify images, to navigate oneself
and objects through space, and to produce
or decode graphic information.
Bodily kinesthetic intelligence
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enables one to manipulate objects and fine-tune
physical skills. It is evident in athletes, dancers,
surgeons, and craftspeople. In Western
societies, physical skills are not as highly valued
as cognitive ones, and yet elsewhere the ability
to use one’s body is a necessity for survival as
well as an important feature of many prestigious
roles.
Musical intelligence
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is evident in individuals who possess
sensitivity to pitch, melody, rhythm, and
tone. Those demonstrating the
intelligence include composers,
conductors, musicians, critics, instrument
makers, as well as sensitive listeners.
Interpersonal intelligence
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is the capacity to understand and interact
effectively with others. It is evident in successful
teachers, social workers, actors, or politicians.
Just as Western culture has recently begun to
recognize the connection between mind and
body, so too has it to come to value the
importance of proficiency in interpersonal
personal behavior.
Intrapersonal intelligence
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refers to the ability to construct an
accurate perception of oneself and to use
such knowledge in planning and directing
one’s life. Some individuals with strong
intrapersonal intelligence specialize as
theologians, psychologists, and
philosophers.
A PERSONAL INVENTORY
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The inventory below enables readers to identify their
strengths as well as the intelligences they seldom use.
We hope that such an assessment will serve as a guide
in discovering intelligence areas that may be more
developed. The inventory features the eight intelligences
and boxes in which to assess the current level of
professional and personal use.
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Assign a 3 to any intelligence used extensively, a 2 for
moderate use, a 1 for infrequent use, and a 0 if never
used. The total for each intelligence than can range from
a low of zero to a high of six.
A PERSONAL INVENTORY
Reference: Campbell, L., Campbell, B., & Dickinson, D. (1996). Teaching and learning through Multiple
Intelligences. MA: Allyn & Bacon.
INTELLIGENCE
Logical/ mathematical
Verbal/Linguistic
Visual/Spatial
Bodily/Kinesthetic
Musical
Interpersonal
Intrapersonal
Naturalist
PROFESSIONAL
USE
PERSONAL USE
TOTAL
Multiple Intelligences Content
Area Chart
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On a scale of 1 to 3 (1 being weak, 2
average and 3 strong) assign a number
that you believe best incorporates the
intelligence in given content area.
Fill out the “Multiple Intelligences
Content Area Chart”.
Discuss your chart before you report
your results to the other teams.
Multiple Intelligences Content
Area Chart
Intelligence
1.
Linguistic
1.
Logical/ Mathematical
1.
Spatial
1.
Musical
1.
Kinesthetic
1.
Interpersonal
1.
Intra-personal
1.
Naturalist
Mathematics
Science
Multiple Intelligences
/Cooperative Learning Chart
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Theory of
Cooperative
In your groups,
Multiple
Learning
discuss how Multiple
Intelligences
Intelligences can
reinforce Cooperative
Learning.
Fill out the chart.
Report to the group
as a whole.
Application of Multiple Intelligences
on Classroom Practices
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Connection between Multiple
Intelligences and Cooperative Learning
Connection between Multiple
Intelligences and Active, student
Centered learning
Connection between Multiple
Intelligences and project approaches to
teaching
Theory of Multiple Intelligences
Cooperative Learning
Linguistic intelligence
involves sensitivity to spoken
and written language, the
ability to learn languages, and
the capacity to use language to
accomplish certain goals. This
intelligence includes the ability
to effectively use language to
express oneself rhetorically or
poetically; and language as a
means to remember
information. Writers, poets,
lawyers and speakers are
among those that Howard
Gardner sees as having high
linguistic intelligence.
Students are encouraged to
discuss issue and write
reports both in student
centered and cooperative
leanring. They have to do
this since cooperative
learning requires
discussions and writing
Theory of Multiple
Intelligences
Cooperative Learning
Logical-mathematical
intelligence consists of the
capacity to analyze
problems logically, carry
out mathematical operations,
and investigate issues
scientifically. In Howard
Gardner's words, it entails
the ability to detect patterns,
reason deductively and think
logically. This intelligence is
most often associated with
scientific and mathematical
thinking.
Depends on the problem
given to students. In
science this is very
essential especially if
inquiry is used (requires
students to analyze
problems and come up
with solutions (remember
the problems given to
participants.
This is possible in both
cooperative learning and
student-centered learning
Theory of Multiple Intelligences
Cooperative Learning
Musical intelligence
involves skill in the
performance, composition,
and appreciation of musical
patterns. It encompasses the
capacity to recognize and
compose musical pitches,
tones, and rhythms.
According to Howard
Gardner musical intelligence
runs in an almost structural
parallel to linguistic
intelligence.
This is not encouraged in
regular lessons, unless
students are taking music
classes
Theory of Multiple Intelligences
Cooperative Learning
Bodily-kinesthetic
intelligence entails the
potential of using one's
whole body or parts of the
body to solve problems. It is
the ability to use mental
abilities to coordinate bodily
movements. Howard
Gardner sees mental and
physical activity as related.
In cooperative this is
encouraged is students
are working cooperatively
in a lab where they have to
coordinate bodily
movements especially
hands when working with
equipment. The same
thing happens in studentcentered learning.
However the best place to
develop this intelligence is
in sports activities or
dancing.
Theory of Multiple Intelligences
Cooperative Learning
Spatial intelligence
involves the potential to
recognize and use the
patterns of wide space
and more confined
areas.
This is emphasized in
math and science
when students
recognize and use
patterns
Theory of Multiple Intelligences
Cooperative Learning
Interpersonal intelligence
is concerned with the
capacity to understand the
intentions, motivations and
desires of other people. It
allows people to work
effectively with others.
Educators, salespeople,
religious and political leaders
and counsellors all need a
well-developed interpersonal
intelligence.
This is essential in
cooperative and studentcentered learning because
students have to reach
solutions through
negotiation and
discussion with others.
They have to do it in a
respectful way.
Theory of Multiple Intelligences
Cooperative Learning
Intrapersonal intelligence
entails the capacity to
understand oneself, to
appreciate one's feelings,
fears and motivations. In
Howard Gardner's view it
involves having an effective
working model of ourselves,
and to be able to use such
information to regulate our
lives.
To be able to work with
others in CL and student
centered learning students
have to be confident in
their own abilities and
where they are effective
and where they are not.
They are not afraid to
express their fears and
weaknesses with any
embarrassments.
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Theory or Multiple Intelligences