Federal Legislation Impacting Agricultural Education and Extension: 1950 - on (Thanks to Gary Moore, NCSU) Post Sputnik Legislation Legislation affecting Ext. and Ag. Ed. After the 1950s was more complex and convoluted than earlier legislation. We will discuss only the parts of the acts impacting AgEd or Ext., even though the act may have numerous other components. National Defense Education Act (1958) This act was passed because of Sputnik “The Congress finds that an educational emergency exists and requires action by the federal government. Assistance will come from Washington to help develop as rapidly as possible those skills essential to the national defense.” A major purpose of the act was strengthen the teaching of mathematics, sciences and modern foreign languages National Defense Education Act (1958) Established a student loan program for college The George-Barden Act of 1946 was amended Area Vocational Schools were to be built to train “technicians” skilled in math and science $15 million dollars for the next five years was authorized for this purpose Vocational Education Act of 1963 This was a MAJOR piece of federal legislation. It replaced the Smith-Hughes Act. Categorical funding for specific vocational disciplines such as agricultural education was abolished. Funding went to states on the basis of their population in certain age categories States decided how to spend the money Vocational Education Act of 1963 Expanded the scope of agricultural education to include all areas of agriculture, not just farming. No longer required “supervised practice on a farm”. The idea was to expand the scope of SAE, not do away with it, but that is what some states did. Expanded the scope of home economics education to include all areas of home economics, not just homemaking. Vocational Education Act of 1963 Established work study programs for vocational students to provide financial support States had to submit plans for what they planned to do Eliminated federal supervision/control of vocational programs Funding for vocational education was substantially increased Sea Grant Program (1966) The National Sea Grant College and Program Act Established a program (under the Dept. of Commerce) to provide for applied research, formal education and extension for development of marine and Great Lake resources. About 2/3 of the states involved have incorporated these activities in the extension service. Educational Amendments (1968) Amended the 1963 Vocational Education Act Increased funding for vocational education Funds could be used for high school programs, people who have left school, retraining, special needs students, construction of area vocational schools, vocational guidance, contracting vocational education with private institutions, ancillary services (research, teacher training) and administering the state plan. Educational Amendments (1968) Did not categorically fund specific vocational programs, with one exception Specifically allocated money to Consumer and Homemaking Education Of the general appropriations to each state 25% had to be spent on disadvantaged populations 25% had to be spent on out-of-school individuals seeking employment 10% had to be spent on handicapped individuals Educational Amendments (1968) Authorized money for: Curriculum development (this is the only place agricultural education is mentioned in the act) Residential vocational schools (schools with dorms) Research (National Center for Vocational Education Research was established) Leadership development (selected vocational leaders could get advanced degrees) Rural Development Act (1972) Title V impacted Extension Authorized rural development and small-farm extension programs Administration of programs to be part of Extension Established State Rural Development Advisory Councils Educational Amendments (1976) The Educational Amendments of 1976 have five Titles, Title II is concerned with vocational education Authorized more money for vocational education Purpose of the act was to extend, improve and maintain programs overcome come sex discrimination/bias develop new programs Educational Amendments (1976) Monies could be spent on vocational education programs, work study, energy education, area school facilities, support sex equity positions, placement services, Industrial Arts (now Technology Education), support services for females in non-traditional programs, day care services, displaced homemakers, residential vocational centers. Educational Amendments (1976) There were special appropriations for the disadvantaged Consumer and Homemaking received special funding Every vocational program had to be evaluated every five years Food and Agriculture Act (1977) A Major Farm Bill Authorized $260 million for Extension Authorized agricultural and forestry extension activities at 1890 institutions 4% of Smith-Lever Funds must go to 1890 institutions Extension leaders of 1862 and 1890 institutions are to develop a comprehensive state-wide plan for extension Food and Agriculture Act (1977) Added the use of solar energy with respect to agriculture and solar energy demonstration projects Established a national food and human nutrition research and education program Required the secretary of agriculture to evaluate the Extension Service by 1979 Food and Agriculture Act (1977) Directed the secretary to assist the Agency for International Development (AID) with agricultural research and extension in developing countries Established a National Agricultural Research and Extension Users Advisory Board Tu n is A lg ie rs T U N IS IA C o n s ta n t in e O ra n R abat C a s a b la n c a M e d it e rra n e a n Se a MOROCCO M a rra k e c h Tr ip o li B echar B a n g h a zi A le x a n d r i a C a ir o A L G E R IA E l A a iu n W e s te r n L IB Y A EGYPT S a h a ra A l Ja w t A sw a n Ta m a n r a s s e t Re d M A U R I TA N IA M A LI N IG E R N o u a k c h o tt Se a Port F a y a -L a rg e a u Sudan L o m b o u c to u E R IT R E A Nem a Agadez D akar B a n ju l S E N E G A L THE G A M B IA B is s a u G U IN E A N ia m e y B am ako CHAD K h a r to u m Z in d e r A s m a ra A l F a s h ir B U R K IN A G U IN E A B IS S A U C o n a kry D J IB O U T I N ' D ja m e n a Kano O uagadougou M a id u g u r i D jib o u ti S U DAN B E N IN N IG E R IA B e rb e ra A d d is IV O R Y F r e e to w n COAST S IE R R A LEO NE M o n r o v ia TO G O GHANA A b u ja P o r to -N o v o Lagos A b id ja n E T H IO P I A A F R IC A N Lom a A c c ra L IB E R I A Ababa Waw CENTRAL R E P U B L IC CAMEROO N Ju b a B angui Ya o u n d e S O M A L IA M a la b o UGANDA E Q U AT O R IA L G U IN E A K is a n g a n i CAMEROON Z A IR E RWANDA P o in te - N o ir e N a ir o b i K ig a li GABON B r a z z a v ille So u th BURUNDI La ke In d ia n V ic to ria B u ju m b u r a M om basa La ke K in s h a s a K a le m ie ANG O LA Ta n g a n y ika Luanda D a r e s S a la a m M beya M a la n je La ke M A L AW I N y a sa ANG O LA Oc ean N d o la L o b ito L i lo n g w e N a c a la Z A M B IA N a m ib e M enongue Lusaka H a ra re M O Z A M B IQ U E B u la w a y o W in d h o e k B e ir a A n t a n a n a r iv o BOTSW ANA To lia r a S O U T H A F R IC A W a lv i s B a y M ADAG ASC AR ZAM BABW E N A M IB IA G a b oro n e P r e to r i a L u d e r itz M a p u to J o h a n n e s bu rg M babane M a se ru LESOTHO S W A Z IL A N D D u rba n In d ia n SO UTH C a p e To w n A F R IC A Ocean P o r t E li z a b e th 0 500 1 0 0 0 N a u t ic a l M i le s Ocean Z a n z ib a r Kananga TA N Z A N I A A tla n tic M o g a d is h u K E N YA K a m p a la CONGO L i b r e v i lle Renewable Resources Extension Act (1978) Provided for educational programs concentrating on renewable resources, which includes fish and wildlife management, range management, timber management, and watershed management, as well as forest and rangebased outdoor recreation, trees and forests in urban areas, and trees and shrubs in shelter belts. Smith-Lever Amendment (1980) Inserted references to rural energy in Section 2. Agriculture and Food Act (1981) A Major Farm Bill Authorized appropriations for Extension programs (including 1890 programs) Provided for the employment and training of professionals and paraprofessional aides to engage in nutrition education of low-income families. Agriculture and Food Act (1981) Authorized aquaculture extension work Authorized rural development programs and small farm extension programs Authorized the secretary of agriculture to conduct an annual evaluation of agricultural research, extension and teaching programs. Carl Perkins Act (1984) This was the most significant rewrite of vocational education legislation since 1963. Two broad themes Accessibility to all persons Improve the quality Carl Perkins Act (1984) Fifty-seven (57) percent of state funds were allocated to special populations - vocational education was to be accessible to everyone handicapped (10%) disadvantaged (10%) adult retraining (12%) single parents & homemakers (8 1/2%) sex bias & stereotyping (3 1/2%) incarcerated (1%) Carl Perkins Act (1984) Forty-three (43) percent of state funds were allocated for program improvement funds were not to be used to maintain existing programs Consumer and Homemaking received special funding but 1/3 had to be spent in economically depressed areas There will be a full time sex equity coordinator and $60,000 is allocated to that Food Security Act (1985) A major farm bill Provided grants to upgrade 1890 institutions’ extension facilities Made several technical amendments to fine tune past farm bills Smith-Lever Amendment (1985) Added language that the Extension Service give “…instruction and practical demonstrations of existing or improved practices or technologies.” Authorized Extension to enter into agreements with private organizations and individuals. (in other words extension could accept money from the private sector) Improve 1890s extension facilities Food, Agriculture, Conservation and Trade Act (1990) A major farm bill Directed the Extension Service to catalogue the federal, state, and local laws and regulations that govern the handling of unused or unwanted agricultural chemicals and agricultural chemical containers. Educational materials regarding this were to be developed. Food, Agriculture, Conservation and Trade Act (1990) Charged the Extension Service with teaching composting Expanded natural resources educational programs Established a water quality coordination program Provided for the assistance for the control of weeds and pests Food, Agriculture, Conservation and Trade Act (1990) Expanded EFNEP Established five regional aquaculture centers for research and Extension activities Repealed previous solar energy provisions National Forest Dependent Rural Communities Economic Diversification Act (1990) Directed the Extension Service to provide training and educational programs in rural communities that are economically dependent upon forest resources in an attempt to diversify the economic base of the community. Perkins II (1990) The Carl Perkins Act is rewritten Special populations is still a major focus, Money can be used to support existing programs Academic and vocational education was to be integrated Articulation between secondary and postsecondary institutions National Agricultural Research, Extension and Teaching Act (1994) Established extension education programs on Native American reservations Provided technical assistance and training in subsistence agriculture to Native Americans and Alaskan natives National Agricultural Research, Extension and Teaching Act (1994) Provided grants for on-farm education and assistance directed at accommodating disability in farm operations. The Department of Agriculture Reorganization Act (1994) Reorganized USDA Established the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service to coordinate efforts between USDA and the states School-to-Work Opportunities Act (1994) A variety of programs were established for students to get them more involved with the world of work and postsecondary education Grants were given to some states to develop programs This is for all students Funding is temporary FAIR Act (1996) Our current farm bill is titled the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act. Title VIII contains provisions for Research, Extension, and Education Some people call it the Freedom to Farm Act. However, because other sections of the bill were so controversial little attention was paid to this section of the bill. Most extension related items were merely extended. However, there were a few new twists. It contains provisions for extension, but for the first time has language for secondary agricultural education. FAIR Act (1996) Authority for secondary and 2-year post secondary education in agriscience and agribusiness are added to the Secretary's food and agricultural education authorities This was an attempt to transfer national leadership for secondary agricultural education to USDA from USDE It partially succeeded, language is present in the bill authorizing it--but there is no money to do it, so nothing has happened FAIR Act (1996) Even though the national leadership for agricultural education did not move (one representative in the house effectively blocked the move) a $500,000 challenge grant program to improve secondary agricultural education has been established under authority of the USDA. USDE provides national leadership for agricultural education but USDA is providing funds to improve the program FAIR Act (1996) A National Research, Education, and Economics Advisory Board is established. (This 30-member advisory board replaces three separate advisory committees) FAIR Act (1996) There were provisions in the act related to: Native American extension programs 1890 extension programs Appropriations for the Extension Service Other provisions of the Act contain language reducing price supports for many agricultural commodities The Fund for Rural America was created to enhance community development Perkins III (1996) This is the legislation vocational education is currently operating under The purpose of this Act is to develop more fully the academic, vocational, and technical skills of secondary students and postsecondary students who elect to enroll in vocational and technical education programs (little emphasis on special populations) Perkins Perkins III (1996) At the local levels funds can be spent on: strengthening the academic, and vocational and technical skills of students providing students with strong experience in and understanding of all aspects of an industry developing, improving, or expanding the use of technology in vocational and technical education providing professional development programs to teachers, counselors, and administrators Perkins III (1996) conducting evaluations of the vocational and technical education programs ...including how the needs of special populations are being met initiating, improving, expanding, and modernizing quality vocational and technical education programs linking secondary vocational and technical education and post-secondary vocational and technical education, including implementing tech-prep programs. Legislative Mandates for Extension Various minor amendments and laws have mandated that Extension work in the following areas: Nutrition and family education Urban gardening Pest management Farm safety and rural health Rural development Pesticide impact assessment Groundwater quality Financially stressed and/or dislocated farmers Food safety Legislative Mandates for Extension Agricultural telecommunications youth-at-risk Renewable resources Subsistence farming on Native American reservations Establish and operate centers of rural technology Outreach and assistance for socially disadvantaged farmers Rural health and safety education Nutrition education and consumer education 1890 extension work Legislative Mandates for Extension Natural-resourcebased economic development Conclusion Legislation for extension and agricultural education during the past 50 years has been influenced greatly by changing societal and environmental concerns. Federal legislation has often mandated what we are to do. The focus has shifted to helping certain groups of people.