The Cutting Edge Approach
with Assistive Technology
Presenters:
Lorraine Norwich MSIS, BSME
Assistive Technology Specialist and
Vocational Evaluator
and
Eileen Slutsky, M.A., CRC, CVE
Director, Disability & Assessment
Services
Jewish Vocational Service
Los Angeles
Manufacturing One Task jobs have
gone offshore and we need to
place consumers in Multi Task jobs
Assistive Technology plays a key
role in this process
Overview
Vocational Practices
Assistive Technology used in
Vocational Practices
Universal Design
Application of Assistive Technology
with Vocational practices
Examples Of Creative Approaches And
Success Stories
Discussion
VOCATIONAL PRACTICES
Workforce Development
All programs that prepare people for
work, including educational segments,
special programs, and job training and
employment programs that involve job
seeking skills training and placement
Accreditation
In 2001, the Commission on Accreditation
of Rehabilitation Facilities (CARF)
included Assistive Technology as a
service category in its Employment and
Community Services Standards Manual.
This move to review and accredit this
area demonstrated the need for quality
control in measuring accuracy for
Assistive Technology services. Standards
for other services also look at the use of
Assistive Technology and necessary
accommodations.
http://www.carf.org/
Standardized Vocational
Evaluation Tests Used at
Community Work Services and
Jewish Vocational Services
Vocational evaluation tests the person's
transferable skills to assess:
•Aptitudes
•Achievement Skills
•Vocational interests
•Strengths and limitations
•General abilities
•Specific needs and interests
Academic Tests
RAI Reading Index
RAI Arithmetic Index
ABLE II
ABLE IIII
WRAT 3
Tests of Adult Basic Education
RAI Reading Index
Picture/Word Association
Word Decoding
Phrase Comprehension
Sentence Comprehension
Paragraph Comprehension
RAI Arithmetic Index
Addition and Subtraction of Whole
Numbers
Multiplication and Division of Whole
Numbers
Fractions
Decimals and Percentages
No calculator is allowed, unless there a
person has no functional vision.
ABLE II and ABLE III
Vocabulary
Reading Comprehension
Spelling
Language
Number Operations
Problem Solving
WRAT III
Reading - From a list of words
Spelling
Arithmetic ( 15 minute test)
Interest Inventories
Harrington O’ Shea
Career Clusters
COPS Career Occupational Preference
System - Combined Interests, Aptitudes and
Work Values
O’Net shows occupations
http://online.onetcenter.org/
Examples of Psychometrics
Bennett Mechanical Comprehension
Test – diagrams with written words
Minnesota Paper Form Board Test Spatial Relations uses only diagrams
Minnesota Clerical Test- Speed and
Attention to Detail with words and
numbers
Work Samples
Crawford Small Parts Dexterity Test Fine/Finger and Manual Dexterity
Bennett Hand Tool Test - Skill and
Dexterity with Tools
Whole Body Range of Motion (V9)
Size Discrimination/Bi-Manual Ability (V2)
Examples of Computer
Testing
SRA Computer Operator Aptitude Battery to
determine ability to do computer
programming that includes
Sequence Recognition
Format Checking
Logical Thinking
ProveIt software application testing
http://www.proveit.com/default.htm
Qwiz
Additional Tests used at
Jewish Vocational Service
Los Angeles
Interest Inventories
Self-Directed Search
VPI (Vocational Preference Inventory) –
Gordon Occupational Checklist II
COPES (Career Orientation Placement & Evaluation Survey)
COPS-PIC (Career Occupational Preference System Picture
Inventory Of Careers)
SPOC (Sistema de Preferencia Ocupatcional de Carreras)
WRIOT (Wide Range Interest Opinion Test)
EUREKA
OASYS
Occupational Briefs
Academic - Achievement Tests
ABLE (Adult Basic Learning Examination) Screening
Battery
TABE (Tests of Adult Basic Eucation)
RAI Reading Index-12 (goes through 12th grade)
RAI Arithmetic Index-12 (goes through 12th grade)
Gates-Mac Ginitie Reading Test (Level AR: Adult
Reading)
CASAS (Comprehensive Adult Skills Assessment
System)
The Woodcock-Johnson III Complete Battery (Tests
of Achievement & Tests of Cognitive Abilities)
Bateria III Woodcock-Munoz (Pruebas de
Aprovechamiento & Pruebas de Habilidades
Cognitivas)
Comprehensive Assessment
Batteries
CareerScope
APTICOM
DAT (Differential, Aptitude Tests)
Aptitude Tests
Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal
PTI-Oral Directions Test
Employee Aptitude Survey
SRA Mechanical
Clerical Ability Battery
Minnesota Rate of Manipulation
Purdue Pegboard
CALIP (Computer Aptitude, Literacy and Interest
Profile)
Aptitude Tests (Con’t.)
SRA Word Processor Battery
CSSI (Customer Service Skills
Inventory)
Sales Aptitude Test
Teamwork-KSA
SRA Pictorial Reasoning
Work Samples
JEVS/VITAS
Valpar Component Work Samples
Independent Perceptual Screening (Spatial Aptitude)
Small Tools-Mechanical
Numerical Sorting
Upper Extremity Range of Motion
Multi-Level Sorting
Simulated Assembly
Whole Body Range of Motion
Tri-Level Measurement
Soldering and Inspection (Electronic)
Electrical Circuitry and Print Reading
Others
Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices
TONI-3 (Tests Of Non-verbal Intelligence-3)
BETA III
Adult Learning Style Profile
Social And Prevocational Information Battery
(Revised)
SIV (Survey of Interpersonal Values)
TTS (Thurstone Temperament Schedule)
MBTI (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator)
BESI (Barriers to Employment Success Inventory)
ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY
USED IN VOCATIONAL
PRACTICES
Assistive Technology
Categories
Communications Aids
Computer Access Aids
Vision Aids
Education and Learning Aids
Ergonomic Equipment
Hearing and Listening
Mobility and Transportation
Seating and Positioning
Memory Aids
Communication Aids
Computer Access Aids
Computer Software and Input
Devices
and
Vision and Reading Aids
Scanners and Screen Readers
Scanning is a process of using an
electronic input device to convert
analog information such as print
material, maps, photographs, etc., into
a digital format usable by a computer or
hand held device.
A screen reader is a software program
that uses synthesized speech to "speak"
text and graphics out loud. This type of
program is used by people with learning
disabilities and people who are blind
and visually impaired.
JAWS
Used mainly for People who are
visually impaired
Hot keys – are used to work with Jaws
e.g.. Open is Ctrl + O
Dolphin
http://www.dolphincomputeraccess.com/product
s.asp?cat=1
Lunar Plus
Magnifier with
Speech
Pocket Hal
Kurzweil 3000
Used for People who are Learning
Disabled – Mouse Driven
Read & Write Gold
http://www.texthelp.com/rwg.asp?
q1=products&q2=rwg
Inbuilt and Downloadable
Accessibility Features
Microsoft
http://www.microsoft.com/enable/products/wind
owsxp/default.aspx
Apple Accessibility
http://www.apple.com/accessibility/
Narrator, the free screen reader, included in
Windows XP and can be accessed simply by
pressing the 'windows' key and U.
You have to copy what you are going to listen
to
ORCA from Sun Microsystems
Note: All of the above have limited features.
New Operating System
Vista
http://www.microsoft.com/enable/products/wi
ndowsvista/
ReadPlease
Free Version of this Screen reader
Web Site for 2003 version
http://www.readplease.com/
You have to copy what you are going to
listen to
Magnification Software
MAGic, Zoomtext and BigShot
Closed Circuit Television (CCTV)
Versatile
PC Compatible
Free Standing
Portable
Hand Held Devices
Digital Hand held devices allow people
to walk around and listen to information
Comparison of devices
http://www.rfbdnj.org/equipcompare.htm
l
Comparison of Digital Software Products
http://www.rfbdnj.org/softcompare.html
Hand Held Device
Telex
Designed for people who have a visual impairment
or learning disability, this DAISY CD Player also
accepts standard CDs and MP3 CDs. The player
will provide instant access to specific page
numbers and chapters in the DAISY structure, and
includes a full numeric keypad with book-marking
feature.
Roller Mouse
PerFit Mouse
Trackballs
Keyboards
Examples of Alternative
keyboards
Colored Keyboards
Keyboards
Examples of Alternative
keyboards
Left handed
Keyboard
Large Print labels
Hands Free Input
Speech to Text
Dragon Naturally Speaking
Speech to Text Software
Education, Learning and
Memory Aids
Inspiration
Hand Held Devices – Palm Pilots
Watches that Vibrate and/or beep
Color Coding devices
Inspiration
Learning Tool
Integrates visual learning software into
lesson plan
Organize thinking using graphic organizer
Visually represent concepts and
relationships.
Technology Used on
Computers –PC & Macintosh, Interactive
White Board, Hand Held Devices,
Tablet PC
Hand Held Devices
PDA, and Pocket PC,
Blackberry
Time Management
Organizational Management
Work when moving around that
can be downloaded to a PC
Watches
Braille
Watch
Jumbo Talking
Vibrate or Show
Information
Talking Calculator
Ergonomic
Surfaces
Resolutions are
important
Lighting and
Glare control
is important
Ergonomics
One Off Designs and Lending
Library
Team up with a University or Library:
In the Boston Area we have
 Worcester Polytechnic
 UMass Lowell
• The Adapted Activities Library at
Fernald School
http://www.adaptedsolutions.org/
Other Options for Accessing AT
Department of Rehabilitation
Office for Students with Special Needs
Medicare (limits on what is covered)
Medicaid (limits on what is covered)
Third Party Insurance
AT Workstation Options
AT Workstation Options
Assistive Technology used at
JVSLA
JAWS Screenreading Software
MAGic Magnification Software with Speech Option and
Keyboard
ZoomText Magnification Software with Speech Option and
Keyboard
Kurzweil 1000 Scan and Read System
2 Clearview 70 Closed Circuit Televisions (CCTV)
Duxbury Braille Translation Software
Juliet Pro Braille Embosser (Printer)
Plextalk Portable Computer Compatible Recorder
Test Talker Software
Virtual Pencil Software
19-Inch Flat Screen Monitors & Other Large Computer Monitors
Assistive Technology used at
JVSLA (Con’t.)
21-Inch TV/VCR
Talking Calculators
Large Keyed and Display Calculator
4-Track Tape Recorders (Handi-0Cassette II & Table Top
Model)
Large Print Display Adding Machine
Variety of Handheld Magnifiers
Variety of Portable Lighting
Writing Guides
Bold-lined Paper
20/20 Pens
Variety of Reading Stands
Assistive Technology used at
JVSLA (Con’t.)
Ergonomic Trackball and Mouse Options
Ergonomic Keyboards
Flexible Keyboard
Electronically Controlled Multi-level Table
Computer Monitor Filter
Adjustable Tables and Anthrocarts (multi-adjustable
computer desks)
Ergonomic and Adjustable Chairs
Foot Rests
ErgoRest Arm Supports
Issues for Orientation to AT, Test
Administration , & Other Situations
Physical Orientation
Hands-on Tasks
Computerized Tests
Interpreting Test Results
Utilization in Career Exploration
Utilization in Employment Skills Training
Utilization in Job Seeking Skills Training
Utilization in Placement
UNIVERSAL DESIGN
The design and production of
products that promote equal
opportunity for use by individuals
with or without disability.
www.buffalostate.edu/offices/disabilityservic
es/glossary.htm
Usability
It is a term used to denote the ease with which
people can employ a particular tool or other
human-made object in order to achieve a
particular goal. Usability can also refer to the
methods of measuring usability and the study
of the principles behind an object's perceived
efficiency or elegance.
Accessibility
Web accessibility means that people
with disabilities can perceive,
understand, navigate, and interact with
the Web, and that they can contribute to
the Web. Web accessibility also benefits
others, including older people with
changing abilities due to aging.
Combining Accessibility and
Usability
Helps with use of product
Incorporate all users
Make the product Universal for all users
no matter what level of ability they have
Why is Usability Important
When working with a web site or product if it
is difficult to use, people do not use it.
With a web site you need to:
shortening the time to accomplish tasks,
reducing the number of mistakes made,
reducing learning time,
improve people's satisfaction with a system.
Laws, Acts and Consortiums
Section 508 - Section 508 is a part of
the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 which
requires that electronic and information
technology developed, procured,
maintained, or used by the Federal
government be accessible to people
with disabilities.
Laws, Acts and Consortiums (con’t.)
The Web Accessibility Initiative - WAI
WAI (created by the World Wide Web
Consortium (W3C) in 1997) is a set of
guidelines intended for web developers,
authors, and designers- about how to
make web content accessible to people
with disabilities.
Computer Testing
Use of Computer testing software
Use of ProveIt a web based testing
software
http://www.proveit.com/default.htm
Categories of Testing
Accounting
Call Center
Financial
Healthcare
Industrial
Legal
Microsoft Office
Categories of Testing cont
Microsoft Office in Spanish, Italian,
Portuguese
Different Software languages e.g. Java,
C++
TechTest
Get Results that show
Question Level Statistics that give
Basic
Intermediate
Advance
Test results are broken down into for statistics e.g. Internet
Explorer
Question Type Statistics
Application Basics
Favorites
Internet Navigation
Internet Options
Standard Buttons
Use of Different Tests
Data Entry
Main function is to determine Data Entry
Can also be used to
To see if people know keyboard and
mouse skills
Can they find numbers and letters
How quickly can they learn
Different languages
If the tester does not know many
different languages you can use
different language tests.
Tests can be used to both test
Computer
Language Skills
Web Based
Company is dedicated to working with
different vocational rehabilitation
organizations to make ProveIt
Accessible
Universal
Usable
APPLICATION OF
ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY
WITH VOCATIONAL
PRACTICES
Assistive Technology with
Vocational Evaluations
Vocational evaluations can be
administered with Assistive Technology
These tests can help identify areas that
will be helped with Assistive Technology
Combining Assistive Technology
and Vocational Testing
Standardized tests can be used with AT to
determine grade point level
AT can be used to determine typing speed
AT can be used with Math
AT can be used to help teach English as
second language
AT can be used to assess aptitudes
Assess how a person approaches the AT &
applies previously acquired knowledge of
its use
When do you combine the
Assistive Technology with the
Vocational Evaluations
When working with Individuals
who are Blind and Visually
Impaired
Have a Needs Assessment, including
an AT Assessment first, followed by any
necessary training
Provide the vocational evaluation
When working with Learning
Disabilities
Do the vocational evaluation first and
then the assistive technology evaluation
Assistive Technology to
determine grade point
level
Tests are scanned into alternate format
Screen readers are used to administer the
tests
Magnification software, CCTV’s, large print,
and Braille can be used
Compare test administered without Assistive
Technology
Assistive Technology with
Math
Do testing without a calculator
Administer testing with a calculator
Administer tests with a talking calculator
Choose the functions and how you hear them
Scientific Notebook can be used with Braille
and speech with third party vendors
Assistive Technology can
determine typing speed
Dragon Naturally Speaking can be used
with some typing tests
Different input devices like alternate
keyboards – small keys or flat keyboard
show different typing speeds
Examples of how Grade Point
averages change with
Assistive Technology
Example of Change in Grade
Point Average
Scores without Assistive TechnologyScores with Assistive Technology
Percentile Stanine Grade Level
PercentileStanine Grade Level
Able 2
Reading Comprehension
60
6
9
65
6
11
WRAT 3
StandardGrade
Score Score
Arithmetic
79
5
StandardGrade
Score Score
87
7
Example of Change in Grade
Point average cont.
RAI Reading Index
Score





Picture/Word Association
Word Decoding
Phrase Comprehension
Sentence Comprehension
Paragraph Comprehension
Score with
Kurzweil 3000
9
13
11
12
8
8
13
12
12
7
Proficiency
Score
7
10
10
9
10
Difference in Math scores
RAI Arithmetic Index
Score



Addition and Subtraction of Whole Numbers
Multiplication and Division of Whole Numbers
Fractions

Decimals and Percentages
Score with
Voice
Proficiency
Score
13
14
1
14
13
0
11
11
10
1
5
11
Example on how we can
determine which input devices
to use
Determining input devices
Input Device
Traditional
Mouse
Button
Time is took in seconds
Extra Clicks
10
Did Not work
Logitech
10
63.75
1
Kensington
10
76.25
3
10
47
0
10
76.25
3
Trackball
Contour Roller Mouse
Perfit Mouse
More Testing for input devices
Mouse Type
Logitech Trackball
Roller Mouse
2 clicks per 20 seconds
5 clicks per 20 seconds
Working with English as a
second language
Example of ProveIt
Italian – English Bilingual – 79%
Basic -83%
Intermediate – 88%
Advanced – 62%
Italian Microsoft Word 200 – 37%
Basic -40%
Intermediate – 40%
Advanced – 20%
Reading Comprehension
Use a screen reader, magnification software,
CCTV’s, large print, and Braille to obtain the
information
Get a Textbook as a word document and use a
screen reader to help with the reading of the
information. Use Inspiration as an
organizational tool for writing information
Using AT in Other Vocational
Services
Employment Skills Training
JVS’ CoffeeWorks Program
For client who was visually impaired: talking
calculator, liquid level indicator, money
identifier
Job Seeking Skills
Same AT as for Vocational Evaluation
Placement/Employment
EXAMPLES OF CREATIVE
APPROACHES AND
SUCCESS STORIES
Practical Issues
How to deal with referrals with
incomplete preparation
How to educate the referral source that
should already know what to do
How to evaluate the client’s approach to
the AT, given that preparation may not
be ideal
Practical Issues (Con’t.)
How to deal with not having the exact
AT the client has been using
How to coordinate with the referring
counselor about the procurement of AT
in a timely manner for placement
How to educate employers about AT, to
demystify it and present it as positive
Test Administration & Other Situations
Utilizing AT
Physical Orientation
Hands-on Tasks
Computerized Tests
Interpreting Test Results
Utilization in Career Exploration
Utilization in Employment Skills Training
Utilization in Job Seeking Skills Training
Technical Support
How should technical support be
incorporated into companies if:
The product is a dedicated Assistive
Technology product
The product has a Universal design
implementation
Accessible Web Design
Training website examples – elearning
eacademy
Home page web sites
University web sites
Job Descriptions
• Look at the areas of need
• Determine what is needed
• Assistive Technology can be one of
the solutions.
DISCUSSION
Are we testing with state of
the art tests
Do the vocational tests need to be
changed
Do we need to incorporate Assistive
Technology features into the tests
How do we incorporate features into the
testing
What support is needed with these
features
Support
What kind of support do we need
with vocational practices
What kind of online learning do we
need
How do we incorporate Assistive
Technology with the online
learning
Conclusion
Jobs are changing at a very rapid pace.
Assistive Technology helps provide some
solutions.
AT can have an empowering effect on its
users, as it opens up previously closed doors.
We all use technology, and AT exemplifies
many sophisticated versions of it.
Use of AT promotes public education and
awareness.
Staff using AT can serve as positive role
models.
Student interns learning about AT will be
future promoters of its use.
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