Information Technology
Key Techno-Economic Driver of 21st
Century
Shri Rajeeva Ratna Shah
Secretary
Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion
Ministry of Commerce & Industry
Government of India
The Broadening Sphere of Information
Technology
DATA
INFORMATION
KNOWLEDGE
Computation
Communication
Cognition
Old Economy
Capitalist Society
(Legacy System)
New Economy
Information Society
(Knowledge Society)
Core: Competition is the
Core: Collaboration and
key since capital is a limited sharing is the key since
and scarce resource
knowledge is inexhaustible
Capital diminishes with
sharing
Knowledge increases with
sharing
Capital investments are one
time and subject to low
obsolescence
Knowledge investments need
continuous up-gradation
and have high obsolescence
Knowledge of the
st
21
STHULA-JAGAT
Macrocosm
Century
SOOKSMA-JAGAT
Microcosm
NETWORKS
NANOTECH
NEURONS
ATOMS
Building Blocks
& Knowledge
Tools of 21st
Century
BIOTECH
COMPUTERS
GENES
BITS
INDIA – GIANT STRIDES IN IT SECTOR
• Industry size US $ 14 billion: Export US $ 12 billion
• 2008 target export: US $ 50 billion
• CAGR (5 years):exceeding 50%
• Job creation: a million direct jobs & indirectly 2-3 Million jobs
• India is hosting 62 SEI/CMM – level 5 companies, which represents
more than half of world total.
• 250 Fortune 500 companies are sourcing software service from India
• 250 Software companies in India have ISO – 9000 certification.
India as an International BPO Hub
Remote Delivery of Services
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Custom Software
Call Centers
Transcription Services
Transaction Services
Engineering Design
Product and Process Development
An Emerging $ 100-150 billion Global Outsourcing:
Access to Low Cost Talent
COUNTRY ADVANTAGE LIKELY TO BE
COMODITIZED
Country advantage
(45-55% savings)
100
60-65
Vendor advantage
(30-40% savings)
10-15
Original
Cost
base
Factor
Cost
Savings
Does not
Include gains from
Over-delivery and
continuous
15improvement
45-55
Additional
Telecom
& management costs
Task migration
8-13
Off-shore
Location
cost
5-7
ConsoliTask
ation,
Reengi
Standar- neering
Dization
& superior
skills
Task level
improvement
30-35
3-5
Economies of
scale
Process
Reengine
-ering
New cost
base
Task aggregation
And process level
improvement
INDIA AS AN EMERGING DESIGN SOURCE
• Hardware/embedded Software design
emanating from MNC’s in India
• e.g. Philips DVD video codec; Apple iPod audio codec; TI
OMAP; Microsoft J#; Adobe Reader for Palm & iPaq;
Intel “start-up” utility; Cisco IOS core components;
hp-ux, OpenView kernel; Oracle Pro c components
• “Hi-tech” hardware/software product
design by Indian IT companies
e.g. MBIL 3rd global optical disk manufacturer; VXL
Instruments 3rd global terminal manufacturer;
HiCal supplies magnetics for global No 1 mobile
handset manufacturer; ImpulseSoft possibly
the first global Bluetooth wireless earphone;
Manmar imaging software for Ultrasound
scanners; Purple Vision signal processor;
INDIA AS AN EMERGING R&D HUB
 Microsoft, Intel, CISCO, DELL have major R&D
centers in India – The biggest outside US
 Monsato - R & D base in India - first outside USA
 GE - T9he Jack Welch Research Center in Bangalore
 HP Labs India has built a Prototype that Scan
Handwritten Mail through a Small Handheld Device
 The Daimler Chrysler Research Center in Bangalore
engaged in Fundamental and Applied Research in
Avionics, Simulation and Software Development
 Whirlpool’s Pune Research Lab develops Refrigerators
and Air Conditioners for Asia and Australia
 GE Motors India Developed a Noiseless Motor for GE’s
Most Sophisticated Washing Machine Lines in the USA
SUPERCOMPUTING
Synonymous to Technologies which
help in achieving high computational
and storage capability for Mission
Critical & Grand Challenge problems
in Scientific & Engineering and now in
Business computing domains.
Advanced Computing
High Performance Computing
Cluster Computing
Parallel Processing
Vector Processing
High Performance Computing (HPC)
Key
Technology
for Selfreliance
India Entered
in Late 80s –
Due to Export
Control
Significant
Developments
made since
late 80’s
Strategic and
Key
Economic
Sectoral
Applications
EVOLUTION OF PARAM SUPER COMPUTERS
PARAM PADMA
Performance
1000 GFLOPS
100 GFLOPS
PARAM
10000
20 GFLOPS
10 GFLOPS
PARAM
Open Frame
PARAM 9000
5 GFLOPS
PARAM
ANANT
PARAM 8600
1 GFLOPS
PARAM 8000
Year
1991
1993
1995
1997
1999
2000
2002
PARAM Padma
PARAM Padma (Param 20K)
 One TF Peak Computing Power with several 100s
GF Sustained Power on International Bench marks
 5 TB Primary storage & 10 TB Secondary storage
 Interconnect @ 2.5 GBPS two way with very low
latency
 Flexible and Scalable Program development,
System Engineering and System Management tools
Applications of Supercomputing
• Bio technology & bio computation
– Molecular Modeling
– Genomic Sequencing
•
•
•
•
•
Nano technology & nano computation
Atmospherics & Oceanics
Weather Forcasting
Climate modeling
Computational Fluid dynamics for Space Science
Applications
• Seismic Data Processing
• Structural Mechanics
Future Developments
Computational Grids –
Connecting Number of
HPC Sites
IGrid –
A Project to Link 8 HPC Sites
Providing 10 Teraflops of
Computing Power and
Petabytes of Storage
I Grid
DELHI
KANPUR
GUW AHATI
KOLKATTA
M UM BAI
PUNE
HYDERABAD
BANGALORE
CHENNAI
Applications of Biotechnology
Agricultural
Biotech
•New crop researchtransgenic crops
•Bio fertilizers
•Bio – pest control
•Bio – resource
Development
i.e. Bio-Diversity Parks
Animal Biotech
•Vaccines for animals
•Acqua –
culture/marine
biotech
•Seri - biotech
Medical Biotech
•New drug discovery-
Pharmaceutical biotech
•Diagnostics Applications
•Therapeutic Applications
•Prophylactic biotech
Bio-informatics as a gateway
to New Drug Discovery
Bio-informatics has been defined as the
discipline that generates computational tools,
databases, methods & procedures to support
‘genomic’ and ‘post genomic’ research. Bioinformatics has been also described as a graceful
blending of computer science and biotechnology.
Bio-technology
per
se
is
experimentation in-vivo (in real life) and
in-vitro (in test tubes); bio-informatics carries the
experimentation a step further and makes it insilico (in silicon / micro chip).
Stupendous size of Genomic Data
• Genome sequencing taken up for 100 organisms
• Human Genome has 3.2 billion pairs of DNA sequences
• Data exploding @ 5000 DNA sequences or 2 million
nucleotides/day
• Refinement, review, reclassification and annotation of the
above data
Information explosion a challenge to Knowledge
Management
Super computational support is required for
numerous functions involved in post genomic
R&D
•
in-silico-computation and in-silico
simulation
•
In silico - drug target identification
•
In silico - drug design
(pharmaco – genomics)
•
In silico - toxicity testing
•
In silico modelling
The experimental (left) and computational (right) hierarchies will
increasingly become codependent as the research community models
greater biological complexity
Current and Expected Sustained Capability
Requirements for Major Community
Problem Class
Sustained Capability
1999
> 1012 flops
Sustained Capability
2010
1014 flops
1012 flops
> 1014 flops
1012 flops
> 1014 flops
Gene modeling
> 1015 flops
1017 flops
Phylogeny trees
1011 flops
1013 flops
> 1010 flops
1012 flops
Sequence assembly
Binary sequence
comparison
Multiple sequence
comparison
Protein family
classification
EMERGING NODEs OF DRUG DISCOVERY
RELATED BIOTECH R&D
IITs, CSIR Labs, DBT Labs
Private Sector Players
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
ICGEB: International Centre for Genetic Engineering &
Biotechnology
CBT:Centre for Bio-Chem Technology
IIT - Delhi
JNU – Jawaharlal Nehru University
NII – National Institute of Immunology
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(b) Calcutta
Cluster
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
Bose Institute
ISI: Indian Statistical Institute
IICB: Indian Institute of Chemical Biology
Deptt. of Biophysics & Molecular Biology
Jadavpur University
IIT - Khargpur
(1) TCG: The Chatterjee Group
(c) Bangalore
Cluster
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
IISc: Indian Institute of Science
IIT – Madras
Deptt. of Crystallography & Biophysics – Madras
Bio-informatics Centre – Madurai
(1)
(2)
(3)
Strand Genomics
Metahelix
Kshema Technologies
(d) Hyderabad
Cluster
(1)
(2)
CCMB: Centre for Cellular & Molecular Biology
CDFD: Centre for DNA Fingerprinting & Diagnostics
(1)
(2)
Satyam Computers
TCS: Tata Consultancy
Services
Shanta Biotech
(a) Delhi Cluster
(3)
(e) Pune-Bombay
Cluster
(1)
(2)
Bio-informatics Centre
IIT – Bombay
Spectramind e-services
Nicholas Piramal
TCG
Mascon Global Ltd.
Others
(1) Avestha Gengrame
(2) Syngene
(3) DSQ - Software
India’s Inherent Strengths
• High international profile of Software industry
• Vibrant pharmaceutical industry and rapidly emerging biotech industry
• World class network of educational and research
institutions
• Rich Biodiversity
• Large population having reservoirs of valuable diagnostic
and clinical data
• Known strengths in mathematics, logic and computational
skills
Nano World
Nanotechnology is concerned with the
design and manufacture of molecular scale
devices by manipulation and placement of
individual atoms and molecules with
precision on the atomic scale as opposed to
the “top down” fabrication techniques
employed in today’s microelectronics
technology.
Dimensions in Scale
10-2 m
1 cm
10 mm
10-3 m
0.1 cm
1 mm
10-4 m
0.1 mm
100 μm
Visible
spectrum
10-5 m
10-6 m
Human hair
~ 60-100 m
0.01 mm
10 μm
Red blood cells
with white cell
~2-5 m
1 μm
1000 nm
10-7 m
0.1 μm
100 nm
10-8 m
0.01 mm
10 nm
10-9 m
1 nm
10-10 m
Head of a pin
1-2 mm
100 nanometers
The Nanoworld
1 nanometer (nm)
0.1 nm
DNA
~2.5 nm
width
Atoms of silicon
spacing ~tenths of nm
Nano Scene
Nano materials
Nano actuators
Nano sensors
• Carbon nanotubes
• Dielectric and ferroelectric
• Materials
• Multifunctional polymers
• Bio compatible materials
Scalpel, tweezers & Nano tools
Nano electronics
• Artificial muscle
• Nanorobot components
• Nano- and Micro-pumps
• Nano- and Micro-motors
•••
Nano systems
- Resonant Tunneling Devices
•••
•NEMS (Nano Electro Mechanical Systems)
•Nano-machines and robots
•
•Tele-surgery
• delivery
•Drug
•Reconfigurable Systems
•••
- Single Electron Transistors
- Quantum well structures
- Memories
- Logic circuits
- IR Detectors
- Sensors
The Importance of Large
Domestic Markets:
With a Billion People India is a
Latent World Scale Market.
The Emerging Market:
Focus of Large Firms, NGOs and Government
5-10 million, Rich
Large Firms
NGOs,
Government
PPP> $10,000, 50-60 m
PPP $ 3-10,000, 150m
PPP $2-3,000, 150 m
PPP , $ 2000, 500 m
The Emerging Market: India
Traditional and Emerging Focus
Traditional
MNC Business
Model
Some MNCs?
Future
Opportunity?
Local
Firms
5-10 million, Rich
PPP> $10,000, 50-60 m
PPP $ 3-10,000, 150m
PPP $2-3,000, 150 m
PPP > $ 2000, 500 m
The Poor Have Purchasing Power
What Durables Do they Own ?
Slums
Chawls
Others
Average Number Owned
5.4
6.5
8.7
Basic Kitchen Durables
- Gas Stove
- Pressure Cooker
- Mixer
56
74
74
70
89
81
82
88
85
Conveniences
- Fridge
- Toaster
- Washing Machine
- Kitchen Sink
- Telephone
- Two Wheeler
24
1
2
3
21
0
38
2
10
8
27
4
60
18
26
31
55
13
Entertainment
- TV - B/W
- TV – Color
- Cable (local)
- 2 – in - 1
43
47
65
35
25
67
71
43
16
79
73
48
DIGITAL DIVIDE RESEARCH THEMES
•
Focus on technologies that
are:
– Relevant
– High impact
– Pervasive
– Cutting edge
– Cost-effective
– Replicable
– Scalable
World Computer
An information technology device that can
be used by anyone, irrespective of wealth,
education or infrastructure availability
• Low cost
• Minimal infrastructure operations
• Usable by illiterates
Digital Village
Bits for All
Link organic, affordable
information devices (and
therefore people) in a costeffective manner
• Integration of
the research
• Allow villagers
to express
themselves
• Manage costs
and finances
Tomorrow’s Tools
Devices to connect the digital
to the real world
PROJECTS UNDERWAY
World Computer
Rural OS
Speech Interfaces
Visual Language
Interfaces for All
Interlingua Web
Literacy Learning thru Pictures
Low cost computing Ca:sh
SARI
Rural Hisaab
Mapping for the Masses
Digital Village
Bits for All
Rural WiFi
DakNet
Digital Gangetic Plain
Off-line Internet Access
Rural VOIP
Ad hoc networks
Efficient networks
SACs
New Projects Underway
Community
Connection
Grassroots
ICT
Digital Mandi
Infothela
Tomorrow’s Tools
Digital Craft Revival
Digital Music
Infosculpture
Suchik
Polysensors
Complex RF Imp Analysers
UV-VIS Spectrometer
Powersensors
ThinkCycle
BRICS
Semantic Legacy document
Resistive interfaces
Voice biometrics
DIGITAL DIVIDE PROJECTS
eGovernance &
Education
Digital Village
Applications
& Services
Economic
Development
CONTINUED
Health &
Agriculture
Communications
& Content
Census
SARI
ca:sh
Baatchit
Interlingua Web
Digital Mandi
UV-VIS
Spectrometer
Rural VOIP
& VMOIP
Suchik
Rural Fab Lab
PolySensors
Infothela
Tomorrow’s
Tools
Interfaces,
Sensors, & Tools
Numeric
Interfaces
Power
Sensors
Gram Chitra
World
Computer
OS, Languages &
Access Devices
Rural OS 1.0
Multi-Literate
Interfaces
iPAQ
Simputer
802.rural
DakNet
Rural p2p
Meshes
Bits For All
Communications
Infrastructure
BITS FOR ALL: 802.RURAL
(AFFORDABLE RURAL COMMUNICATIONS)
DakNet
• Last-mile “seed”
infrastructure
• Store-and-forward wireless
networking for rural
connectivity
• Mobile Access Points
can be mounted on buses,
mopeds…
• High-bandwidth
(supports voice and
data transmission)
• Pilot testing
underway
Rural Multihop
• Last20
mile
solutio
n
•
Anten
nas,
repeat
ers,
and
multih
op
networ
king
Rural p2p Meshes
•
Ubiqui
tous
broad
band
covera
ge
•
Innova
tive
routin
g
algorit
hms
enable
CHITRA
(E-GOVERNANCE PLATFORM, NATIONAL
SECURITY)
• Low-cost GPS/GIS
platform on handheld
computers empowering
villagers to create local
maps
• Applications include:
– Census data collection
– Educating schoolchildren on
mapping
– Automating land records
– Epidemiological data
collection for infectious
diseases
– Forestry management
– Disaster management planning
• GPS.Everywhere
VALUE EXAMPLES
Rural Wi-Fi
• Empowers village
women, children to
automatically create
maps, collect info
• Enables quality state
government decisionmaking
• Enables high quality
census data collection
from grassroots
• National ID card
program
• Defence/security
applications
• Water quality and
medical extension
GIS
• Tests, demonstrates
lower cost rural
connectivity with
telecom features
• Enables villages to
receive apps, egovernance services
along the rural
communications
wireless trunk
• Enables a new breed
of apps, services to
villages not typically
connected by
advanced
communications
CA:SH
• Enables mobile data
collection, monitoring &
medical services in the
midst of rural
communities
• Expands coverage
significantly of
delivering & monitoring
rural healthcare, esp to
women & children
• Quality Information for
decision-making
• Quick tracking of
disease patterns in rural
communities
AFFORDABLE RURAL COMMUNICATION – E-GOVERNANCE
DIGITAL VILLAGE: INFOTHELA
(E-GOVERNANCE)
• “Information or e-Governance Cart”
for providing and exchanging
information
• Pedal driven vehicle outfitted with a
PC on connected via wireless
technology
• Pedaling charges battery pack
• Accommodates diagnostic
equipments (e.g. blood pressure
testing machine)
• Mobile platform for bringing ICTs
directly to the user
The Dynamics of BOP Markets:
1. The Poorest Live in Highest Cost Sub Economies
2. They have Purchasing Power
3. Significant % of Poor are Geographically
Concentrated
4. The Rural/Urban Economic Divide is a Myth
5. The Poor Accept New Technologies
6. There is a Significant Multiplier Effect to
Infrastructure Investments among the Poor
7. Women are Key to Developing these Markets
We Need to go Beyond Quality:
Scale and Geographic Scope
USA,
Europe,
China Japan
World
Scale
Domestic
Market
Small
Domestic
Market
India
China
India,
Brazil
Local Firms
S.Korea,
Taiwan
Finland
Switzerland
Global Firms
Emerging Markets as the Test Bed of
Innovation: Criteria
Scale of Operations
New Price-Perf.
Levels
800 million
Indian Consumers
4500 million
Global
Consumers
Innovative High
Tech. Solutions
Sustainable
Development
INDIA HAS THE POTENTIAL FOR BECOMING
ONE OF THE WORLD’S LARGEST AND THE
MOSTINNOVATIVE MARKET FOR….
1. Cement
2. Processed Food
3. Confectionary
4. Footwear
5. Textiles
6. Two Wheelers
7. TVs
8. Wireless Devices
9. Public Transportation
10.Waste Management
11. Water
12. Primary Health
13. Hospitality
14. Retailing
15. Agri Inputs
16. Desert Farming
17. Adult Education
18. Art Restoration
19. Solar Power
20. Refrigeration
Thank You
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