Vocational Education Since
1900
The Need
The public was disenchanted with the
school system in the early 1900s.
Schools were out-of-touch with the realities of
the real world
There was a need for a
different type of education
Another Need
Farmers needed systematic help to fight their
problems (such as the boll weevil)
The once a year Farmer’s Institute was not enough
The competing programs offered by state boards of
agriculture, the General Education Board, universities
and agricultural societies was merely a hodge podge of
activity
Simply put, there was a need for something like
the Extension Service.
First stirrings….extension
Farm Demonstration Work in the South to
fight the boll weevil and the subsequent
hiring of county agents by the General
Education Board was the start of extension.
Early Efforts to Organize Support
Governor Douglas of Massachusetts
appointed a commission to study schools in
that state.
In 1906 the Douglas Commission
recommended that vocational education be
added to the school curriculum.
Precursors to the Smith Acts
Burkett-Pollard Bill (NE) (1906)
sought federal aid for the teaching of
agriculture in normal (teacher training) schools
Clay-Livingston Bill (GA) - 1907
sought federal aid to establish an agricultural
high school in each congressional district in the
United States
Precursors……cont…..
Nelson Amendment (1907)
Amendment to the Morrill Act of 1890
provided $5,000 for five years, $25,000
annually after five year to land-grant colleges
for general support.
One special provision of the
amendment opened the door
to prepare teachers of
agriculture . . .
Nelson Amendment
money could be used “for providing courses
for the special preparation of instructors for
teaching the elements of agriculture and the
mechanical arts.”
summer school sessions for teachers were
utilized extensively (especially elementary
teachers)
some 4 year teacher training in agriculture
started
Precursors…
Davis Bill (MN) (1907)
sought federal support for secondary school
instruction in agriculture, home economics and
the mechanical arts and branch experiment
stations
Precursors…
McLaughlin Bill (1909)
sought federal support for extension work
Dolliver (IA)-Davis (MN) Bill (1910)
sought federal support for extension work and
secondary vocational education (Dolliver submitted two
bills one for extension, one for vocational education but
they were combined by the Senate Ag Committee.
Things looked good for the bill but Dolliver
unexpectedly died)
Precursors
Page Bill (1911, 1912, 1913)
sought federal support for extension work, branch
experiment stations and secondary vocational education
(this was basically the Dolliver bill)
The bill never passed for a variety of reasons
bills tried to accomplish too much, which divided the
support
Some folks supported extension but not vocational
education and vice versa
Page was not very skilled as a legislator
The Incompetent Senator!
Carroll S.
Page (VT)
Senator Page
The Morrill Act has
proven to be the
beginning … for
really carrying
vocational education
to the masses of our
people.
Precursors
Smith-Lever Bill (1912)
goal was to establish the extension service
This competed with the Page Bill
The Great Compromise
The supporters of vocational
education would support the Smith-Lever Bill. In
return, a Commission on National Aid to Vocational
Education would be created to study the need for
federal funding for vocational education.
Finally!!
Smith-Lever Act (1914)
established the extension service
Commission on National Aid to
Vocational Education
As part of the compromise, the Commission was
“stacked” with supporters of Vocational Education
The Commission collected data and held hearings
The Commission reported there was a need for
vocational education in the schools and that it
should be federally funded.
It took some time for the bill they drafted to pass
because of issues surrounding World War I.
(Charles Prosser, a committee member wrote the
legislation. Smith and Hughes didn’t)
Finally!!
Smith-Hughes Act (1917)
provided federal funds to
support vocational education in
the public schools
The Smith Acts
Smith-Lever Provisions
“there may be inaugurated in connection
with the (land-grant) college or
colleges...agricultural extension work which
shall be carried on in cooperation with the
United States Department of Agriculture…”
Smith-Lever Provisions
“...in any State in which two or more such
colleges have been or hereafter may be
established, the appropriations hereinafter
made to such State shall be administered by
such college or colleges as the legislature of
such State may direct”
Smith-Lever Provisions
“That cooperative agricultural extension
work shall consist of the giving of
instruction and practical demonstrations in
agriculture and home economics to persons
not attending or resident in said colleges in
the several communities, and imparting to
such persons information on said subjects
through field demonstrations, publications,
and otherwise”
Smith-Lever Provisions
Each state was to receive “...$10,000 of
which shall be paid annually…”
Additional funds were to be disbursed to
states on the basis of “the rural population
of each State bears to the total rural
population of all the States”
Note: Legislators in the Midwest wanted the act
to say farm population. The South had a much
larger rural population than farm population.
Smith-Lever Provisions
A state could not receive the additional
funds “...until an equal sum has been
appropriated for that year by the legislature
of such State, or provided by State, county,
college, local authority, or individual
contributions from within the State, for the
maintenance of the cooperative agricultural
extension work provided for in this Act.”
Smith-Lever Provisions
“That before the funds herein appropriated
shall become available to any college for
any fiscal year, plans for the work to be
carried on under this Act shall be submitted
by the proper officials of each college and
approved by the Secretary of Agriculture”
Smith-Lever Provisions
“ ...no portion of said moneys shall be
applied, directly or indirectly, to the
purchase, erection, preservation, or repair of
any building or buildings, or the purchase or
rental of land, or in college-course teaching,
lectures in colleges, promoting agricultural
trains, or any other purpose not specified in
this Act…”
Smith-Hughes Provisions
The first paragraph of the Smith-Hughes
Act contained four statements:
1. “to provide for the promotion of vocational
education;”
• The word “promotion” is misleading, a more correct
word would be “establishment”.
Tidbit: Since the person (Charles Prosser) who wrote the bill was
Director of the National Society for the Promotion of Industrial
Education, the word promotion might allude to this organization
Smith-Hughes Provisions
2. “to provide for cooperation with the States in the
promotion of such education in agriculture and the
trades and industries;”
• This statement defined what made up vocational education.
Why is home economics not mentioned? The word home
economics appears 17 other times in the Act. It is believed by
some that home economics was not included in the earlier
drafts of the bills. Legend has it that Prosser’s wife made him
include home economics. The fact that it is missing here gives
credence to that legend.
• Trades and industries covered a broad range of jobs.
Smith-Hughes Provisions
3. “to provide for cooperation with the States in the
preparation of teachers of vocational subjects;”
• There was much concern over the supply of qualified teachers.
Two different paths were taken in regards to vocational teacher
training:
 Agriculture and Home Economics went with a 4 year college
degree as a requirement. At that point in time, few public school
teachers had four year degrees. This was designed to assure a
quality, well-educated teacher and enhance the status of of the
field.
 Trade and Industries chose to pull teachers out of industry. The
belief was the master craftsman made the best teacher.
Smith-Hughes Provisions
4. “and to appropriate money and regulate its
expenditure.”
• This wording as to the purpose of an act is a little
strange. It should be self evident.
Smith-Hughes Funds
Provided money to pay salaries of
teachers, supervisors, and directors of
agricultural subjects
• Tidbit: Director is an unusual word until one notes
that agricultural schools had been established prior
to Smith-Hughes in Massachusetts. The person in
charge of these schools was a Director. Since
Prosser had been associate superintendent for
vocational education in Massachusetts, this wording
isn’t that strange at all.
Smith-Hughes Funds
Provided money to pay salaries of
teachers of trade, home economics and industrial
subjects (but no more than 20% of the total money allocated for
this purpose could be spent in the area of home economics)
• Question: Why could Smith-Hughes funds be used to pay
salaries of supervisors and directors in agriculture but not in
home economics or trades and industries?
• Question 2: Why was home economics limited to 20%?
Smith-Hughes
Tidbit: Teachers who received their salaries
from the Smith-Hughes Act were often
called “Smith-Hughes teachers” to
distinguish them from teachers in schools
not receiving Smith-Hughes funding.
Agriculture and home economics was
taught in many other schools but not all
schools received Smith-Hughes monies
because of limited funds.
Smith-Hughes Funds
Providing money for teacher training
Tidbit: State supervisors of each vocational subject were
given authority over the teacher trainers. Federal level
supervisors checked the qualifications and approved of the
hiring of teacher educators. Many universities became
very dependent upon federal funds to pay
vocational teacher educators. When
this funding was abolished it created
shock waves in many states and
institutions of higher education.
Smith-Hughes Funds
The states did not have to use all the
provisions of the act. For example, if there
were no agriculture programs, it didn’t have
to ask for the agriculture money. However:
Before a state could receive monies for salaries
for any vocational teacher, it must first accept
the teacher training monies. This indicates the
federal government was serious about training
teachers.
Smith-Hughes Funding
Specific amounts of money were allocated to each
vocational discipline:
Agricultural appropriations were based on each state’s
rural population
Home economics appropriations were based on each
state’s urban population
Trade and industrial appropriations were based on each
state’s urban population
There was to be a 50-50 federal-state match on all
salaries
Smith-Hughes Act - Agriculture
“...under public supervision or control...”
“...controlling purpose...shall be to fit for useful
employment…”
“...shall be of less than college grade…”
“...meet the needs of persons over fourteen years of age
who have entered upon or who are preparing to enter
upon the work of the farm or of the farm home…”
• Question: Does the previous phrase also mean adult education?
Smith-Hughes - Agriculture
“...that such schools shall provide for directed
or supervised practice in agriculture, either on a
farm provided for by the school or other farm,
for at least six months per year”
• This was interpreted to mean that each student
(including adults) is to have a “project” (crops or
livestock).
• If the teacher is to supervise it, then the teacher will
need to be employed during the summer. This is the
basis for 12 month employment of agriculture
teachers.
Smith-Hughes Funds
Provided money to create a “Federal Board for
Vocational Education for the administration of this
act and for the purpose of making studies,
investigations, and reports to aid in the
organization and conduct of vocational education”
• Question: Why did Congress create a special board to
administer vocational education?
• Answer: They were afraid to turn vocational education over to
the entrenched education bureaucrats who had been classically
educated (remember what happened at UNC.)
Federal Board for
Vocational Education
The Board Consisted of:
Secretary of Agriculture
Secretary of Commerce
Secretary of Labor
Commissioner of Education
Three citizens appointed by the President
• agriculture
• manufacturing and commerce
• labor
Federal Board
“The Commissioner of Education may
make such recommendations to the Board
relative to the administration of this act as
he may from time to time deem advisable.”
“It shall be the duty of the chairman of the
board to carry out the rules, regulations, and
decisions which the board may adopt.”
Federal Board
The Federal Board hired a staff to handle the daily
operations and do the real work.
Charles Prosser was hired as the Executive Director
Federal supervisors were hired in the areas of:
•
•
•
•
•
Agriculture (N=7)
Trades and Industries (N=7)
Home Economics (N=3)
Commercial Subjects (N=3) (see next slide)
Research (3)
Federal Board
Tidbit: One of the areas of investigation the
Federal Board could pursue (as specifically
mentioned in the act) was commercial
education. Also, a division of commercial
education was established with three federal
supervisors, but no Smith-Hughes money was
allocated to salaries of teachers of Commercial
Education. A little strange.
Today we would call Commercial Education
Marketing Education and Business Education.
Original Federal Regions
West Central
Pacific
Ag and T&I had
regional offices.Two Ag
supervisors worked the
South; one was for Black schools.
North Atlantic
North Central
Southern
Federal Regions -1920
Pacific
In 1920 one region was
eliminated and all the regional
people moved to Washington.
North Central
North Atlantic
Southern
Federal Board
Because of the depression, the federal government
was restructured in the 1930s.
In 1933 the administrative responsibilities and
staff of the Federal Board were transferred to the
Department of the Interior, Office of Education.
The Federal Board continued to operate as an
advisory board until 1946 when it was abolished.
(Clarence Poe was a member)
Memorandum of Understanding
In 1918 a Memorandum of Understanding
(MOU) was established between federal
officials responsible for vocational
agriculture and for extension.
This MOU was revised from time to time.
A brief description of each program was
provided, then specific duties of each were
outlined.
Memorandum of Understanding
Unless the activity is specifically related to
classes taught, the agriculture teacher is not
to do extension activities. However, it is
recognized there may be isolated instances
where the agricultural teacher is called upon
by farmers in the school district. This
should represent a “small and incidental”
part of the job.
Memorandum of Understanding
Teachers of vocational agriculture or
representatives of vocational agricultural
work should be invited to participate in all
meetings conducted by the extension
service for the formulation of county and
State agricultural programs.
Memorandum of Understanding
The extension service should not enroll
vocational agriculture students in 4-H.
Services should not
overlap.
America at War
Millions of Acres
The War Years (WWI)
360
350
340
330
320
310
300
290
280
270
260
1914
1915
1916
1917
Acres in crop production
1918
The War Years (WWI)
300
Oats
Rye
Cotton
Hay
Hogs
Beef Cattle
Milk Cows
Sheep
Wool
250
200
150
100
50
0
Price Gain (%)
Food Production Act -1917
Signed into law on August 10, 1917
This is the “sleeper” extension act
Food Production Act Provisions
Livestock Production ($885,000)
Disease and pest control, enlargement of
livestock production, conservation and
utilization of meat
Food Production Act Provisions
Seed Production ($2,500,000)
Procuring, storing
and furnishing seeds
Food Production Act Provisions
Crop Production ($441,000)
Prevention, control and eradication of insects
and plant diseases
Food Production Act Provisions
Extension ($4,348,400)
Increase food production
and eliminate waste
through educational
and demonstration
methods through county,
district and urban
agents and others
Impact on Extension
By the end of October 1,600 emergency
demonstration agents were hired
Act was to terminate at the end of the War
Increase in Extension Agents
1917 to 1918
3000
2500
2000
1917
1918
1500
1000
500
0
Agriculture
Home Economics
4-H
Extension Staff 1918
Emergency
71%
Regular
29%
Yearbook of Agriculture, 1918
Report of the Secretary of Agriculture
“The emergency through which the Nation has passed
only served to emphasize the supreme importance of
the Cooperative Agricultural Extension Service. It has
become increasingly clear that no more important piece
of education extension machinery has ever been
created. It has been amply demonstrated that the most
effective means of getting information to the farmers
and their families is through the direct touch of welltrained men and women.”
Vocational Rehabilitation Act
of 1918
What had just happened to prompt this
legislation?
The Roaring 20s (for whom?)
The Roaring 20s??
Agricultural Prices
dropped 33% from
1919 to 1920
Agricultural Prices
dropped 54% from
1920 to 1921
Plumbing in the 1920s
1 out of 10 farm homes had water indoors
1 out of 2 farm homes had sinks
1 out of 64 farm homes had a water closet,
the rest had outhouses
Most laundry
was done outside
Identifying the Problem
Joint Commission of Agricultural Inquiry 1921
National Agricultural Conference -1922
Agricultural Conference of 1925
Nothing much was accomplished by any of the
conferences
The Farm Bloc
A group of 12 senators who organized
themselves in 1921 to promote and support
agricultural legislation; ranks eventually
grew to include 22 senators
Non-partisan
Similar group, though less effective, was
formed in the House
Capper-Volstead Act - 1922
Enabled the development of agricultural
cooperatives
Clark-McNary Act - 1924
Section 5 of the act
provided for cooperative
farm-forestry work
Purnell Act - 1925
Authorized funds for economic research in
agricultural experiment stations (this has
implications down the road for extension)
Capper-Ketchum Act - 1928
Providing additional funding for extension
Specified 80% of the funds were to be used
for salaries of extension agents
Identified youth activities as being part of
extension
Equal number of men and women to be
appointed as agents
Money could support agriculture trains
Capper-Ketchum Act
Gladys Bull, a 4-H member who was
attending the national 4-H camp, testified
before Congress in support
of the Capper-Ketchum bill.
Her testimony was powerful
and showed the value of
4-H club work.
Subsequent
Vocational Education Acts
George-Reed Act --1929-1934
George-Ellzey Act --1934 -1937
George-Deen Act -- 1936 (1938)
increased $ ($14.5 million total)
also funded distributive education ($1.2 million)
1st to U.S. Territories
Distributive Education funded
George-Barden Act (1946)
increased $ ($28.8 mil)
provided for veteran’s training
George-Reed Act - 1929
Provide additional financial support for
vocational education
Money was equally divided between agriculture
and home economics
Ag money based on farm population
Home economics money based on rural population
Funds were used to hire subject matter specialists
in agriculture at the federal level
The Great Depression - 1930s
The Great Depression
Gross Farm Income in 1932
was 1/2 of that of 1929
Net income per farm in 1932
was estimated by USDA at $230
Between 1920-1933 15,000 banks suspended
operation
(The NC FFA lost $350 in a bank closure in 1931)
4,000 banks alone closed in 1933
Era of Farm Legislation
Agricultural Adjustment Act - 1933
Farmers agreed to reduce acreage in surplus
crops in return for benefit payments
Farm Credit Administration - 1933
Soil Conservation Act - 1935
Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment
Act - 1936
Rural Electrification Act - 1936
Electricity in the 1930s
13%
87%
With Electricity
Without Electricity
George-Elzy Act (1934)
Provided additional funding for vocational
education
Money was evenly divided between
agriculture
home economics
trade and industrial education (amount
determined by non-farm population)
Bankhead-Jones Act -1935
Title 1 - More money for basic agricultural
research
Title 2 - Further Development of
Cooperative Extension
$8 million the first year
$2 million each year until $12 million is
reached
George-Deen Act (1936)
More $$$$ for vocational education.
Recognized Distributive Education as a part
of vocational education.
Federal funds could be used to support
travel of vocational teachers.
President Roosevelt was reluctant to sign
the bill because general education needed
help also.
During the Depression
Extension affected the most
Agents typically held 1-3
educational meetings in each
township to explain AAA rules
and regulations
Depression years
Extension:
Assisted in making Federal Emergency
Relief Administration feed and seed loans
Tried to convince farmers to reduce
acreage (buy into the government
programs)
Convinced farmers that electricity would
not make the cows go dry
Depression Years
Lost employees (in 1938)
SCS - 159
Farm Security Administration
- 154
AAA - 97
Ag Ed Enrollments
350000
300000
250000
Day
Part-Time
Evening
200000
150000
100000
50000
0
1918
1923
1928
1933
1938
1943
1948
Homemaking Enrollments
600000
500000
400000
Day
Part-Time
Evening
300000
200000
100000
0
1918
1923
1928
1933
1938
1943
1948
Agricultural and Vocational
Education
From the Depression to Sputnik
The 1940s
World War II
4-H and FFA
Collected scrap metal, rubber, burlap, rags and paper
Sold war bonds
Grew victory gardens
(Feed a Fighter was the
1943 4-H theme)
Repaired and built farm
machinery in the Ag Shop.
Tractor and farm implement
manufacturers were
concentrating on war equipment.
Virginia
FFA
Activities
4-Hers sold old phonograph records in order
to buy ambulances for the war effort.
4-H Victory Pins
WW II Posters
FFA Chapters sold War Bonds
WWII
Many high school agricultural programs
established food preservation centers
They still exist in Georgia and Louisiana
Primary emphasis was canning vegetables
Some had slaughtering facilities also
A number of schools in NC had these food
preservation centers
WWII
Served as Victory Farm Volunteers
FFA considered buying a bomber but
eventually decided not to
National FFA Convention limited
attendance to official delegates and award
winners because of war time travel
restrictions
A metal
won by a
4-H
member
Four-H
4-H members across the nation gathered
scrap metal to build ships to transport war
supplies and food to Europe. If members in
a state raised enough funds, they could
name the ship (called liberty ships)
NC 4-H christens two liberty ships – USS
Tyrrell and the USS Cassius Hudson
4-H Scrap Drive
WWII
After the war vocational agriculture launched
major educational programs for servicemen under
the provisions of the GI Bill of Rights
Most agriculture teachers taught 3-4 night classes
on farming to returning veterans to help them get
back into farming and to learn shop skills.
Teachers received extra pay and schools received
substantial funds to buy equipment for classes.
GI Bill of Rights
The benefits of this act were later extended
to:
Korean conflict veterans
Viet Nam Vets
Agricultural teachers conducted night
classes for these vets also
Bankhead-Flannigan Act - 1945
Increase funding for extension
No more than 2% could be
spent in the USDA
George-Barden Act (1946)
Increased funding for vocational education
Indicated federal funds could be used to support
travel associated with the Future Farmers of
America and the New Farmers of America (this
provides the legal basis for the position that FFA
is an integral part of agricultural education)
Money could be used on vocational guidance
Agricultural
Marketing Act (1946)
Authorized extension programs in
marketing, transportation, and distribution
of agricultural products (starting to move
outside of the just farming and farm
homemaker mentality for extension).
Joint Committee Report on
Extension Programs, Policies, &
Goals (1948)
During the 1930s and 40s the extension
service was called on to perform various
duties for the national interest.
During the depression extension was charged
with teaching people about the various
government programs and encouraging
farmers to participate.
In the 40s the mission changed to winning the
war.
Joint Committee Report
Now that peace was at hand and there was no
longer a depression, what should the extension
service do?
Another factor was that many of the extension
employees were new.
There was also some questions about the
relationship of the extension service and farm
organizations.
(in some states extension was working out of the Farm
Bureau office. In some states each was viewed as
competition )
Joint Committee Report
A joint committee appointed by the Secretary of
Agriculture and the National Association of State
Universities and Land Grant Colleges was
appointed to study the mission of the extension
service.
The 10 person panel examined the mission and
goals of the extension service.
No public hearings were held but the committee
consulted with government agency heads and
leaders of farm organization.
Joint Committee Report
Their report is sometimes called the Kepner
report because P. V. Kepner of the Federal
Extension Service was assigned to assist the
committee and compiled the final report.
Joint Committee Report
Some of the key points/impacts of the report were:
Agriculture, home economics and 4-H groups are the
primary audience for extension. However, it was noted
that urban audiences could not be ignored.
Continued emphasis on the importance of one-on-one
contacts, meetings, and demonstrations.
Changed/improved relationships with farm
organizations
Established stronger tie between CES to academic base
(specialists assigned to academic department instead of
being housed in extension administration)
Clarke-McNary
Amendment (1949)
Authorized USDA to cooperate with landgrant colleges in aiding farmers through
advice, education, demonstration, etc. in
establishing, renewing, protecting and
managing wood lots and in harvesting,
utilizing, and marketing the products
thereof.
Smith-Lever Act
Amendment (1953)
Consolidated all the previous extension
legislation
Inserted the words “and subjects relating
thereto” after agriculture and home
economics
What are the implications of this?
Established a new funding formula based on
rural/urban population
A Look Back
In 1892 the Supreme Court established the
doctrine that "separate but equal" was a valid way
to handle race relationships (Plessy vs. Ferguson).
The court case involving railroad cars in
Louisiana. The races could be segregated as long
as each race was treated equally.
This decision impacted the operation of schools
and the extension service until the 1960s.
Brown vs. Board of Education Topeka (1954)
This Supreme Court ruling overturned Plessy vs.
Ferguson. "Separate but equal" was ruled
unconstitutional.
The case dealt with equal access to educational
opportunities.
Over the next few years, this would have
implications for extension and vocational
education.
Smith-Lever Amendment (1955)
Authorized work with disadvantaged farms
and farm families
Russians launch Sputnik (1957)
In 1957 the Russians launched Sputnik.
This event sent shock waves through out
America. Perhaps American education was
falling behind.
We needed to put more emphasis on
science, mathematics, foreign language and
technology in order to catch up.
National Defense
Education Act (1958)
This act was passed because of Sputnik
“The Congress finds that an educational emergency
exists and requires action by the federal government.
Assistance will come from Washington to help develop
as rapidly as possible those skills essential to the
national defense.”
A major purpose of the act was strengthen the
teaching of mathematics, sciences and modern
foreign languages
National Defense
Education Act (1958)
Established a student loan
program for college
The George-Barden Act of
1946 was amended
Link to a
Summary
of the
NDEA Act
Area Vocational Schools were to be built to train
“technicians” skilled in math and science
• Many of these schools offered agricultural programs
$15 million dollars for the next five years was
authorized for this purpose
Health Occupations Education was recognized as a part
of vocational education
A Statement of Scope and Responsibility
(A Guide to Extension Programs in the
Future) (1958)
The Russians had launched Sputnik.
There were farm surpluses and low prices
It had been 10 years since the last study of
extension.
A committee of ECOP (Extension
Committee on Organization and Policy) was
appointed to study the future of extension
(ECOP is a committee within NASULGC).
A Statement of Scope and
Responsibility
This group appointed nine task forces in the
following areas:
Production
Marketing
Resources
Management
Family
Youth
Leadership
Community
Public Affairs
A Statement of Scope and
Responsibility
The task forces were composed of various
leaders in extension. The report, commonly
called the Scope Report, "represents the
best thinking of leading Extension workers
on how, where, what and with whom the
Cooperative Extension Service will be
working for many years to come."
The Scope Report
The primary outcome of the report was to
broaden the scope of extension by
emphasizing management, marketing and
public policy. Each task force had specific
suggestions about subject matter, clientele,
methodology, training, and relationships.
Several broad recommendations/
observations were found in the report.
Selected Scope Report
Recommendations:
There will be new programs which cannot be
handled by traditional methods of staffing and
organization.
There will be programs for new "publics"
There will be programs that cross departmental or
organizational lines
The extension staff of the future will have more
specialized personnel at every level.
Regular training at the post-graduate level will be
expected of virtually all Extension workers.
Selected Scope Report
Recommendations:
Training must go beyond technical subject matter
for the expanded job of adult education that
Extension must be prepared to do.
Training must be continuous.
Some "re-training" will be needed to give certain
Extension workers new skills or knowledge to
handle specific changes in their job.
Selected Scope Report
Recommendations:
One goal of every training program must be to get
the individual Extension worker to re-examine and
re-define frequently his own job the scope of his
responsibilities, and relationship to others.
Sound program planning procedures will
strengthen every aspect of Extension work.
Research has been, is, and will continue to be the
basic resource on which all our programs draw.
Selected Scope Report
Recommendations:
The teaching methods used will need to be
tailored to specific jobs to be done.
All teaching procedures must be
continuously evaluated and improvements
made in light of the evaluations.
In its work with mass media, Extension will
need to maintain a highly competitive level
of professional performance.
Selected Scope Report
Recommendations:
With the growing complexity of problems
with which it deals, Extension must provide
adequate materials and support for local
leaders.
The Scope Report
This report is often referred to by the oldtimers in extension as a major report.
It clearly showed that extension was in an
era of change.
High school agriculture would soon change
also.
Panel of Consultants on
Vocational Education (1962)
After John Kennedy became president,
he requested that a special panel be
convened to study vocational education.
Vocational education was still operating
under the provisions of the Smith-Hughes
Act but America had changed considerably.
Panel of Consultants
The panel was composed of people from the
education profession, labor, industry, agriculture
as well as the lay public and representatives from
the Departments of Agriculture and Labor.
The panel was appointed in 1961 and issued their
report, "Education for a Changing World of Work"
in 1962.
The panel recommended that vocational offerings
be expanded, updated, and be made available to all
people. (more later when we look at the Vocational
Education Act of 1963)
End of an Era
The launching of the Sputnik by the
Russians and the ensuing events of the
1960s heralded a new era in agricultural
education and extension legislation.
The times, they are changing.
We are about ready to leave the sow, cow,
plow and the stitching and stirring era.
We will see what happened in future lessons
The County Agent Will Change!
4-H work will change!
So will FFA and Ag. Ed.
Federal Legislation
Impacting Vocational
Education: 1950 - on
Post Sputnik Legislation
Legislation affecting Vo. Ed. After the
1950s was more complex and convoluted
than earlier legislation.
We will discuss only the parts of the acts
impacting Vo. Ed., even though the act may
have numerous other components.
National Defense
Education Act (1958)
This act was passed because of Sputnik
“The Congress finds that an educational emergency
exists and requires action
by the federal government. Assistance
will come from Washington to help
develop as rapidly as possible those skills essential to
the national defense.”
A major purpose of the act was strengthen the
teaching of mathematics, sciences and modern
foreign languages
National Defense
Education Act (1958)
Established a student loan
program for college
The George-Barden Act of
1946 was amended
Area Vocational Schools were to be built to
train “technicians” skilled in math and science
$15 million dollars for the next five
years was authorized for this purpose
Vocational Education
Act of 1963
This was a MAJOR piece of federal legislation. It
replaced the Smith-Hughes Act.
Categorical funding for specific vocational
disciplines such as agricultural education was
abolished.
Funding went to states on the basis of their population
in certain age categories
States decided how to spend the money
Vocational Education
Act of 1963
Expanded the scope of agricultural education to
include all areas of agriculture, not just farming.
No longer required “supervised practice on a farm”.
The idea was to expand the scope of SAE, not do away
with it, but that is what some states did.
Expanded the scope of home economics education
to include all areas of home economics, not just
homemaking.
Vocational Education
Act of 1963
Established work study programs for vocational
students to provide financial support
States had to submit plans for what they planned
to do
Eliminated federal supervision/control of
vocational programs
Funding for vocational education was
substantially increased
Educational Amendments (1968)
Amended the 1963 Vocational Education Act
Increased funding for vocational education
Funds could be used for high school programs, people
who have left school, retraining, special needs students,
construction of area vocational schools, vocational
guidance, contracting vocational education with private
institutions, ancillary services (research, teacher
training) and administering the state plan.
Educational Amendments (1968)
Did not categorically fund specific vocational
programs, with one exception
Specifically allocated money to Consumer and
Homemaking Education
Of the general appropriations to each state
• 25% had to be spent on disadvantaged populations
• 25% had to be spent on out-of-school
individuals seeking employment
• 10% had to be spent on handicapped
individuals
Educational Amendments (1968)
Authorized money for:
Curriculum development (this is the only place
agricultural education is mentioned in the act)
Residential vocational schools (schools with dorms)
Research (National Center for Vocational Education
Research was established)
Leadership development (selected vocational leaders
could get advanced degrees)
Educational Amendments (1976)
The Educational Amendments of 1976 have five
Titles, Title II is concerned with vocational
education
Authorized more money for vocational education
Purpose of the act was to
extend, improve and maintain programs
overcome come sex discrimination/bias
develop new programs
Educational Amendments (1976)
Monies could be spent on vocational education
programs, work study, energy education, area
school facilities, support sex equity positions,
placement services, Industrial Arts (now
Technology Education), support services for
females in non-traditional programs, day care
services, displaced homemakers,
residential vocational centers.
Educational Amendments (1976)
There were special appropriations for the
disadvantaged
Consumer and Homemaking received
special funding
Every vocational program had to be
evaluated every five years
Carl Perkins Act (1984)
This was the most significant rewrite of
vocational education legislation since 1963.
Two broad themes
Accessibility to all persons
Improve the quality
Carl Perkins Act (1984)
Fifty-seven (57) percent of state funds were allocated to
special populations - vocational education was to be
accessible to everyone
handicapped (10%)
disadvantaged (10%)
adult retraining (12%)
single parents & homemakers (8 1/2%)
sex bias & stereotyping (3 1/2%)
incarcerated (1%)
Carl Perkins Act (1984)
Forty-three (43) percent of state funds were
allocated for program improvement
funds were not to be used to maintain existing programs
Consumer and Homemaking received special
funding but 1/3 had to be spent in economically
depressed areas
There will be a full time sex equity coordinator
and $60,000 is allocated to that
Perkins II (1990)
The Carl Perkins Act is rewritten
Special populations is still a major focus,
Money can be used to support existing programs
Academic and vocational
education was to be integrated
Articulation between secondary and postsecondary institutions
School-to-Work
Opportunities Act (1994)
A variety of programs were established for
students to get them more involved with the
world of work and post-secondary
education
Grants were given to some states to develop
programs
This is for all students
Funding is temporary
Perkins III (1998)
This is the legislation vocational education is
currently operating under
The purpose of this Act is to develop more fully
the academic, vocational, and technical skills of
secondary students and post-secondary students
who elect to enroll in vocational and technical
education programs (little emphasis on
special populations)
Perkins
Perkins III (1998)
At the local levels funds can be spent on:
strengthening the academic, and vocational and
technical skills of students
providing students with strong experience in and
understanding of all aspects of an industry
developing, improving, or expanding the use of
technology in vocational and technical education
providing professional development programs to
teachers, counselors, and administrators
Perkins III (1998)
conducting evaluations of the vocational and
technical education programs ...including how the
needs of special populations are being met
initiating, improving, expanding, and modernizing
quality vocational and technical education programs
linking secondary vocational and technical education
and post-secondary vocational and technical
education, including implementing tech-prep
programs.
Workforce Investment Act of
1998 (WIA– –P.L. 105–220)
Reforms Federal employment, adult education, and
vocational rehabilitation programs to create an integrated,
"one–stop" system of workforce investment and education
activities for adults and youth. Entities that carry out postsecondary vocational and technical education activities
assisted under the Perkins Vocational and Technical
Education Act are mandatory partners in this one–stop
delivery system.
Title I of WIA authorizes workforce investment programs
and activities that are administered by the Employment and
Training Administration of the U.S. Department of Labor.
Learn more about the
implementation of Title I
of WIA.
Conclusion
Legislation for Vocational Education during
the past 50 years has been influenced
greatly by changing societal and
environmental concerns.
Federal legislation has often mandated what
we are to do.
The focus has shifted to helping certain
groups of people.
Key Legislation
Vocational Education Act of 1963
Educational Amendments 1968 and 1976
Carl Perkins Act I (1984)
Carl Perkins Act II (1990)
School-to-Work, Opportunities Act (1994)
Carl Perkins Act III (1998)
The end…..
Legislative Mandates
for Extension
Natural-resourcebased economic
development
Legislative Mandates
for Extension
Agricultural
telecommunications
youth-at-risk
Renewable resources
Subsistence farming on
Native American
reservations
Establish and operate
centers of rural technology
Outreach and assistance
for socially disadvantaged
farmers
Rural health and safety
education
Nutrition education and
consumer education
1890 extension work
Food, Agriculture, Conservation
and Trade Act (1990)
Expanded EFNEP
Established five regional
aquaculture centers for
research and Extension activities
Repealed previous solar energy
provisions
Legislative Mandates
for Extension
Various minor amendments and laws have mandated that Extension
work in the following areas:
Nutrition and family
education
Urban gardening
Pest management
Farm safety and rural
health
Rural development
Pesticide impact
assessment
Groundwater quality
Financially stressed and/or
dislocated farmers
Food safety
Food and Agriculture Act (1977)
A Major Farm Bill
Authorized $260 million for Extension
Authorized agricultural and forestry extension
activities at 1890 institutions
4% of Smith-Lever Funds
must go to 1890 institutions
Extension leaders of 1862
and 1890 institutions are to
develop a comprehensive
state-wide plan for extension
Food and Agriculture Act (1977)
Added the use of solar energy
with respect to agriculture and
solar energy demonstration projects
Established a national food and human
nutrition research and education program
Required the secretary of agriculture to
evaluate the Extension Service by 1979
Food and Agriculture Act (1977)
Directed the secretary to
assist the Agency for
International Development
(AID) with agricultural
research and extension
in developing countries
Established a National Agricultural Research and
Extension Users Advisory Board
Tu n is
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Renewable Resources
Extension Act (1978)
Provided for educational programs concentrating
on renewable resources, which includes fish and
wildlife management, range management, timber
management, and watershed management, as well
as forest and rangebased outdoor recreation,
trees and forests in urban
areas, and trees and shrubs
in shelter belts.
Food Security Act (1985)
A major farm bill
Provided grants to upgrade 1890
institutions’ extension facilities
Made several technical amendments to fine
tune past farm bills
Agriculture and Food Act (1981)
A Major Farm Bill
Authorized appropriations for Extension
programs (including 1890 programs)
Provided for the employment and
training of professionals and paraprofessional
aides to engage
in nutrition education of low-income families.
Agriculture and Food Act (1981)
Authorized aquaculture extension
work
Authorized rural development
programs and small farm
extension programs
Authorized the secretary of agriculture to
conduct an annual evaluation of agricultural
research, extension and teaching programs.
Sea Grant Program (1966)
The National Sea Grant College
and Program Act
Established a program (under the Dept. of
Commerce) to provide for applied research,
formal education and extension for
development of marine and Great Lake
resources. About 2/3 of the states involved have
incorporated these activities in the extension
service.
FAIR Act (1996)
Our current farm bill is titled the Federal Agriculture
Improvement and Reform Act.
Some people call it the Freedom to Farm Act.
Title VIII contains provisions for Research, Extension,
and Education
However, because other sections of the bill were so
controversial little attention was paid to this section of the bill.
Most extension related items were merely extended. However,
there were a few new twists.
It contains provisions for extension, but for the first
time has language for secondary agricultural
education.
FAIR Act (1996)
Authority for secondary and 2-year post secondary
education in agriscience and agribusiness are
added to the Secretary's food and agricultural
education authorities
This was an attempt to transfer national leadership for
secondary agricultural education to USDA from USDE
It partially succeeded, language is present in the bill
authorizing it--but there is no money to do it, so nothing
has happened
FAIR Act (1996)
Even though the national leadership for
agricultural education did not move (one
representative in the house effectively blocked the
move) a $500,000 challenge grant program to
improve secondary agricultural education has been
established under authority of the USDA.
USDE provides national leadership for agricultural
education but USDA is providing funds to improve the
program
FAIR Act (1996)
A National Research, Education, and
Economics Advisory Board is established.
(This 30-member advisory board replaces three
separate advisory committees)
FAIR Act (1996)
There were provisions in the act related to:
Native American extension programs
1890 extension programs
Appropriations for the Extension Service
Other provisions of the Act contain language
reducing price supports for many agricultural
commodities
The Fund for Rural America was created to
enhance community development
Smith-Lever Amendment (1980)
Inserted references to rural energy in
Section 2.
Smith-Lever Amendment (1985)
Added language that the Extension Service give
“…instruction and practical demonstrations of
existing or improved practices or technologies.”
Authorized Extension to enter into agreements
with private organizations and individuals. (in
other words extension could accept money from
the private sector)
Improve 1890s extension facilities
Food, Agriculture, Conservation
and Trade Act (1990)
A major farm bill
Directed the Extension Service to
catalogue the federal, state, and
local laws and regulations that
govern the handling of unused
or unwanted agricultural chemicals and
agricultural chemical containers.
Educational materials regarding this were to be
developed.
Food, Agriculture, Conservation
and Trade Act (1990)
Charged the Extension Service with
teaching composting
Expanded natural resources educational
programs
Established a water quality coordination
program
Provided for the assistance for the control of
weeds and pests
National Forest Dependent Rural
Communities Economic
Diversification Act (1990)
Directed the Extension Service to provide training
and educational programs in rural communities
that are
economically dependent upon
forest resources in an attempt to
diversify the economic base of
the community.
Rural Development Act (1972)
Title V impacted Extension
Authorized rural development
and small-farm extension
programs
Administration of programs to be part of
Extension
Established State Rural Development
Advisory Councils
National Agricultural Research,
Extension and Teaching Act (1994)
Established extension education programs
on Native American reservations
Provided technical assistance and training in
subsistence agriculture to Native Americans
and Alaskan natives
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Federal Legislation - Arkansas State University