Special Education Evaluation of English Language Learners (ELLs) Criselda Guajardo Alvarado Requisite Information and Considerations Before Special Education Referral Second Language Acquisition Process Alternative Language Programming Bilingual Education Transitional Bilingual Education Maintenance or Developmental Bilingual Educati Two-way Bilingual or Dual Language ESL pull-out/content Newcomer Institutes Legal Requirements JIM CUMMINS’ ICEBERG METAPHOR Conversational Language (1 to 3 years to acquire) L1 L2 Common Underlying Proficiency Academic Language (5 to 7, even up to 10 years to acquire) CONVERSATIONAL LANGUAGE language proficiency in everyday communication, acquired naturally without formal schooling; peer-appropriate conversation. ACADEMIC LANGUAGE language proficiency in academic situation, emerges & becomes distinctive with formal schooling; classroom-appropriate language. FACTORS INFLUENCING 2ND LANGUAGE LEARNING General Intellectual Ability Motivation Personality Auditory Memory Auditory Discrimination Opportunity Quality of Instruction First Language Skills Etc. SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION THEORIES TIME ON TASK THEORY The amount of exposure to the new language is directly related to the learning of that language. THE MORE ENGLISH, THE BETTER ENGLISH FACILITATION THEORY The level of development of the first language is directly related to the learning of the second language. THE MORE SPANISH, THE BETTER ENGLISH Bilingual Conditions ADDITIVE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT The second language is added, while first language is maintained or developed. Result: Student becomes literate in native language. Implication: native language has significant educational value. SUBTRACTIVE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT The first language is not actively maintained or developed while a second language is introduced. Result: Student is often not literate in native language. Implication: native language has little or no educational value. Alternative Language Programs Early-Exit/Transitional Bil. Ed. Late-Exit/Maintenance/Developmental Bil. Ed. Two-Way/Dual Language Bil. Ed. English as a Second Language (ESL) pull-out or content Newcomers Institutes A National Study of School Effectiveness for Language Minority Students. Long-Term Academic Achievement Funding from the Center for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence (CREDE) Principal Investigators: Wayne P. Thomas, George Mason University Virginia P. Collier, George Mason University CREDE Report Five-year research study (1996-2001) Focusing on English language learners. (ELLs/LEPs) long-term Academic achievement in Grades K-12 Includes qualitative and quantitative research Over 80 primary languages were represented in the student samples The total number of student records collected was 210,054. OCR v. Denver Public Schools LEP Students With Disabilities Language dominance was not established. Instead the determination of language dominance was based on subjective information regarding the student’s language use and background. Persons who determined language dominance were not necessarily qualified to administer special education instruments. Sometimes LEP students were evaluated in English only because school staff persons decided that the student was “fluent enough in English”. Diagnostic testing instruments that are published in English were often translated into other languages for students who speak another language Staff persons disregarded advice of evaluators that unknown effects of linguistic differences affect the reliability and validity of the results and should be considered when interpreting test scores. District failed to ensure that language-minority student were not assigned to special education programs on the basis of criteria that essentially measure and evaluate English-language skills. Schools lack special education staff persons who are qualified to deliver recognized alternative language services. The District does not pay special education teachers to receive training in alternative language service delivery, as they do alternative language program teachers in the regular education setting. Students who met the eligibility criteria to receive dual services (alternative language programs and special education programs) were not receiving both. Some LEP students receiving special education services do not also receive alternative language services at all schools. Some LEP students who did receive alternative language services, receive less service time when qualified for special education.