Natalie Czech
Charlie Borak
Rita Skolasinski
The Big Five
 Phonemic
 Alphabetic
 Fluency with Text
 Vocabulary
 Comprehension
Phonemic Awareness
 Sound Isolation: Example – The first sound in sun is
/ssss/. Give multiple words that start with m:
mountain, mop, Miranda
 Blending: Example – /fff/ - /uuu/ - /nnn/ is fun.
Using short words and pictures is a great help.
 Segmenting: Example – The sounds in fun are /fff/ /uuu/ - /nnn/. The only difference between blending
and segmenting is weather children can produce or
hear a segmented word, as blending is much easier.
Phonemic Awareness
Alphabetic Principal
 Letter-Sound Correspondence: Example – (Teacher
points to letter m on board). "The sound of this letter
is /mmm/. Tell me the sound of this letter." –Use
consistent and brief wording
 Sounding Out Words: Example: (Teacher points to
the word map on the board, touches under each
sound as the students sound it out, and slashes finger
under the word as students say it fast.) "Sound it out."
(/mmm aaa p/) "Say it fast." (map) –start by having
students sound letters/words out in their heads, then
as a class produce the word orally
Alphabetic Principal Cont.
 Reading Connected Text:
Once students have mastered
CVC (mom) and VC (at) words,
short controlled sentences
(mom is at home) should be
introduced. Prompts and
procedures should be used for
this, as it is sometimes difficult
for students to move quickly
from lists of words to passages.
CVC Chart
Alphabetic Principal
Fluency with Text
 Letter-Sound Fluency: Example: Given a set of letters,
the student can produce the associated sound within
one second. Target goal = 50 letter sounds per minute
by mid first grade
 Irregular Word Fluency: Example: Given a set of
irregular words in a set or in a passage, can identify
words in 1 second or less.
 Oral Reading Fluency: Example: By the end of grade 2,
students should read 90-100 words per minute
Fluency with Text
1. Provide students with skills/opportunities to
learn words independently
 Vocabulary LiteratureContextual Analysis: A strategy readers use to infer or
predict a word from the context in which it appears.
Morphemic Analysis: A strategy in which the meanings
of words can be determined or inferred by examining
their meaningful parts (i.e., prefixes, suffixes, roots,
etc.) Root Ex. Cap (take, seize): capture, captivate,
 Storybook Literature - oral language experiences
(listening to books
Vocabulary Cont.
2. Teach students the meanings of specific words
Select words that are important for text comprehension
and choose words that functionally important (words
that students will encounter often)
Use both context and definitions to teach words
Encourage “deep” processing of word meanings (i.e.,
synonym, antonym, make up a new sentence with a
word, group words, relate definitions to personal
Vocabulary Cont.
3. Nurture a love and appreciation
of words and their use
 Vocabulary Literature –
"Word Awareness" - Good vocabulary
teaching makes students excited
about words and leads them to
attend more closely to them (ex.
Science and Math)
 Storybook Literature It is important to choose stories that
attract and hold children's attention.
Vocabulary Activity
Before Reading  Set comprehension objectives (Identify the main
character and setting)
 Preteach difficult to read words
 Preview text and prime background knowledge
(predict after reading a short passage, think about
what you know and what you want to learn from
story/topic – KWL charts)
 Chunk text into manageable segments (appropriate
stopping points for asking questions, vocab review,
point out text structure elements, summarize main
Comprehension Cont.
During Reading –
 Identify text structure elements
(characters, settings, problems/solutions,
theme, include narrative and
informational books) infer
 Answer literal, inferential, and evaluative
questions (factual, assumed/deduced,
opinion based)
 Retell stories or main ideas of
informational text (summarize, retell
using illustrations)
Comprehension Cont.
After Reading –
 Strategic Integration (use read text to teach new concepts,
increase difficulty of questions asked, go from retelling
paragraphs to whole chapters orally and written)
 Judicious Review (prepare numerous activates for practice
of newly learned concepts, teach structure maps for
planning writing assignments)
 Formal and Informal Assessment
(discussions/conversations about text that includes openended more complex questions, observe as students read
and respond, monitor retelling of stories for accuracy and
completeness of responses.
Comprehension Activity
Extras from Chapter 8
Phonics Instruction (pg 285)
 From the National Reading Panel – six phonics
instructional approaches:
Analogy Based Phonics – (jump = stump)
Analytic Phonics – (build = guild)
Embedded Phonics
Phonics though Spelling
Onset-rime phonics instruction
Synthetic Phonics
Fluency/Stages of Reading
Devlopment (pg 287)
1. Prereading (Emergent Literacy) – Kindergarten
2. Decoding – Grades 1-2
3. Confirmation of Fluency – Grade 3
4. Reading to Learn – Grades 4-8
5. Reading for Multiple Viewpoints – Grades 9-12
6. Reading to Construct New Knowledge
Vocabulary Instruction (pg 288)
 Oral Vocabulary vs. Reading
- Oral: auditory processing of
spoken words
Listening Vocabulary
Speaking Vocabulary
- Reading: visual processing of
printed words
Reading Vocabulary
Writing Vocabulary

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