The Legacy of GrecoRoman Civilization Rome became a legacy Art Architecture Language Literature Engineering Law Greek influence By the 2nd century, Rome conquered Greece and admired the Greek culture. Educated Romans learned the Greek language. The two cultures mixed into what became known as Greco-Roman culture, also known as classical civilization. Roman Art Learned the art of sculpture from the Greeks – Greeks were known for beauty and idealization of their sculpture – Romans created realistic portraits in stone Roman art was practical Intended for public education Bas-Relief Bas-Relief artwork developed during the reign of Augustus. Artwork that projects images from a flat background. These images tell stories and represent crowds of people, soldiers in battle, and landscapes. Bas-Relief Roman Art Mosaics Pictures or designs made by small pieces of stone, glass, or tile onto a surface. Most Roman villas, the country houses of the wealthy, had at least one colored mosaic. Having mosaics demonstrated wealth and importance, especially mosaics built into the floors. Roman Mosaic Art Used scenes of everyday life Paintings Romans also excelled in paintings. Most wealthy Romans had bright, large murals, called frescoes, painted directly on their walls. The best examples are those found in the Roman city, Pompeii, and date back to the 2nd century. Mount Vesuvius erupted, covering Pompeii with a thick layer of ash and killed 2,000 people. This ash preserved the artwork. http://www.youtube.com/user/historyteachers#p/u/36/1E9A L0r-uY4 Mount Vesuvius Mount Vesuvius Eruption Mount Vesuvius is most known for its eruption in 79 AD, which led to the destruction of Pompeii and Herculaneum. The cities were never rebuilt The towns were forgotten and rediscovered in the 18th century. 1944 It has erupted at least 50 times since then, 1944 being the last. This is a picture of an American B-25 during WWII. The crew member is sweeping the ashes off its wings. Ruins of Pompeii Notice Vesuvius in the background Skeleton called the Ring Lady found in Herculaneum Back to the artwork! Frescoes and murals Roman Bath mural Fresco in Pompeii Philosophy Romans borrowed Stoicism from the Greeks. – Stoicism came from the Greek teacher, Zeno. Stoicism encouraged virtue, duty, moderation, and endurance. Marcus Aurelius was a noted stoic. Literature Writers used Roman themes and ideas while following Greek forms and models. The poet, Virgil, spent 10 years writing the most famous work of Latin literature, Aeneid, the epic of legendary Aeneas. It was modeled after the Greek epics of Homer. Ovid The poet Ovid wrote light, witty poetry for enjoyment. In the Amores, Ovid relates that he can only compose when he is in love. Livy Completed a volume history of Rome from its origins to 9 B.C. He used legends and myth more than a true history. Tacitus Ancient Roman historian Notable because he presented the facts accurately. Showed concern for Rome’s lack of morality. In his Annals and Histories, he wrote about the good and bad of Imperial Rome. Tacitus Roman Achievements Latin, the Language of Rome Architecture, Engineering, and Technology Roman System of Law Language Latin remained the language of learning in the West long after the fall of Rome. It was the official language of the Roman Catholic Church into the 20th century. Latin became the foundation for French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, and Romanian. These languages are called the Romance languages because of their ‘Roman’ heritage. More than half of the words in the English language are Latin based. For example Baptism - English Bapteme – French Bautismo – Spanish Batismo – Portuguese Battesimo – Italian Botez – Romanian Debt slip written in Latin used during the Greco-Roman times Roman Architecture Arches, domes, and concrete were combined to build spectacular structures like the Roman Colosseum. Arches also supported bridges and aqueducts. Many large public buildings in the US include Roman architectural features, like arches and columns. Aqueducts Designed by roman engineers to bring water into cities and towns. When the water spanned across a river, the aqueduct was lifted high up on arches. Technology Besides the aqueducts, roads were also technological marvels. The army built a vast network of roads constructed of stone, concrete, and sand that connected Rome to all parts of the empire. Many lasted into the Middle Ages. Some roads are still used. Law Rome’s most lasting and widespread contribution. Believed that the law should be fair and apply equally to all people, rich and poor. Principles of Roman law All persons had the right to equal treatment under the law. A person was considered innocent until proven guilty. The burden of proof rested with the accuser rather than the accused. A person should be punished only for actions, not thoughts. Any law that seemed unreasonable could be set aside. These principles formed the basis of legal systems in many European countries and in the United States. Immortal Some people say that Rome is immortal because Rome lived forever through its influence in architecture, art, law, literature, language, and philosophy. Almost everywhere we look we can find something that can be traced back to the ancient Roman empire.