France Switzerland Belgium Netherlands Germany Austria Luxemburg CHAPTER 13: WEST-CENTRAL EUROPE Section 1: Physical Geography *Read the first section and fill in the notes as you read. (pgs. 310-313) * When you are finished you can grab the homework sheet on West-Central Europe and start working on it. Section 1: Physical Geography Physical Geography Plains Northern European Plain: broad costal plain that stretches from the Atlantic Coast into Eastern Europe Best farmland in this region Many people live in the plain Largest cities are located here Uplands Rounded hills Small plateaus Valleys Good for mining and industry Mountains Alps and the Pyrenees Rivers For centuries people and goods have traveled these rivers Danbue Rhine Navigable River- A river that is deep and wide enough for ships to use. Rivers and a system of channels link the regions interior to the seas. Seas North sea English channel Climate and Resources Climate: Marine West Coast Climate Winters can be cold Summers are mild Rain and storms occur often Resources: Mineral resources: France- coal and iron ore Germany-coal Netherlands-natural gas Hydroelectric power from the rivers Mild climate is a valuable natural resource Mild temperatures, plentiful rains and rich soil give this region great farmland Grapes/ grains/vegetables Section 2: France and the Benelux Countries History of France Revolution and Empire In the 1500’s France begins to build a colonial empire. In 1789 the people rise up in the French Revolution. In 1799 Napoleon takes control. He soon conquers much of Europe. European powers unit to defeat Napoleon in 1815. Early History Early Celtic peoples settle in Gaul. The Romans conquer Gaul and rule the region for hundreds of years. (AD 400’s) The Franks conquer Gaul. The ruler Charlemagne builds a powerful empire. Normans settle in northwestern France. In 1066 they conquer England and take the throne. France and England fight the Hundred Years War (1337-1453)…..The French eventually drove out the English. History of France contiued Modern History German forces invade France during WWI and WWII. Many French colonies declare independence in the 1950’s and 1960’s. Today France is a Republic with a president and a democratic government. Culture of France Language and Religion Most people throughout France speak French and are catholic. There are many immigrants that have settled in France and bring with them their own languages and religions. Customs Phrase that they live by “Joie de vivre” (zhwah duh veev-ruh) meaning enjoyment of life. The French enjoy good food, company and conversation. Festivals Bastille Day July 14th – which celebrates when a mob in 1789 destroyed a bastille, Paris prison, symbolizing the French king’s rule….this began the French Revolution. Food French chefs and French cooking has worldwide reputations. Café and cuisine come from France. Culture of France Ideas French Enlightenment: Ideas about government that inspired the American revolution and the development of modern democracy. Art Impressionism Literature “The Three musketeers” Architecture: Cathedrals in the gothic style from the Middle Ages Notre Dame Cathedral France Today Strong economy Exports of goods Perfume Wine Agriculture Wheat Grapes Paris: 75% of the population lives in Paris, the capital of France. Paris is the center of business/finance/learning/culture Famous museums/galleries/ Eiffel tower and Notre Dame cathedral Marseille: (Mar-say) Mediterranean seaport on the Rhone river The Benelux Countries Belgium Netherlands Luxemburg History: Many nations and empires dominated the Benelux region. Each country gained independence from foreign nations and empires: 1648 Netherlands 1830 Belgium 1867 Luxemburg The Benelux Countries The Netherlands Low and flat land Includes the region of Holland; people who live here are called the Dutch. This area also includes Amsterdam. Excellent harbors has made the Netherlands a center of International trade. Belgium Highly urban country, 95% of people live in cities. Language divides Belgium South: Wallonia ( Walloons) speak French North: Flanders, speak flemish Cultural differences have caused tensions Capital is Brussels and is the head quarter for many international organizations. Considered a highly cosmopolitan area, or an area characterized by many foreign influences . Known for its cheeses, chocolate and lace. The Benelux Countries Luxembourg Forested, hilly country Very small ( smaller then Rhode Island) Very high standard of living Roman Catholic Speak wither French or German Much it’s income comes from bank, steel or chemicals Section 3: Germany and The Alpine Countries Background Information on Germany Summary Since the Middle Ages, Germany and France have been the dominant countries in West-Central Europe. Both are large and prosperous with hardworking people and good farmland. The two countries have often been at war, but today they are partners in building a cooperative European Union. After a history of division and two world wars, Germany is now a unified country. German culture, known for its contributions to music, literature, and science, is growing more diverse. Germany today has Europe’s largest economy, but eastern Germany faces challenges. The Alpine Countries reflect German culture and have strong economies based on tourism and services. Germany & the Alpine countries Early History Tribes from northern Europe settled in the area. The Romans called this area Germania, after one of the tribes. In 1871, Prussia the strongest state, united Germany. War and Division War and Division Germany lost WWI. The payments for war damages and a major depression hurt the economy. Adolf Hitler became a leader with promises to restore Germany to its glory. WWII began At the end, Germany was divided between the Soviet Union in the East, and USA, Britain, and France in the West. Even the capital of Berlin was divided with the Berlin Wall. The walls purpose was to prevent East Germans from fleeing to West Berlin. Reunited Germany Reunited Germany US helped West Germany rebuild quickly. Soon it became an economic power. East Germany had slower growth and limited freedoms for its citizens. In the late 1980s, Communist governments began collapsing. 1989, Germans began tearing down the Berlin Wall. In 1990, East and West Germany reunited. Culture Culture Most people speak German and are ethnic Germans. Martin Luther, a German monk, helped start the Reformation in 1571 Religious reform movement away from the traditional Roman Catholic faith. Many Germans in north are Protestant. In the South, most are Catholic. In eastern Germany, fewer Germans have religious ties due Communist past. Religious festivals are still popular (Christmas, Lent) but local festivals are enjoyed, too. (Oktoberfest – celebrates food and drink in Munich) Culture Culture Famous contributions to arts and sciences: Johann Sebastian Bach Ludwig van Beethoven Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Contributions in chemistry, engineering, medicine and physics. The Alpine Countries Austria Once the center of one of the most powerful empires in Europe. The Habsburg family ruled the Netherlands, Spain and much of Germany, Italy and Eastern Europe. Habsburg’s were on the losing side of WWI, after WWI Austria became a Republic. Today it is a modern, industrialized nation. Vienna- capital and largest city Was once the center of the Habsburg’s rule but now is the center of music and fine arts. Prosperous economy Banking Tourism Switzerland Independent country since the 1600’s, today it is a Federal Republic. Located in the Alps, helped the country to stay neutral for centuries. Swiss speak many languages, main languages are French and German. Very high standard of living Famous for its banks, watches, chocolate and cheeses.