Shelby Bates
Annalisa Day
Chelsi Delgado
Jessica Denis
Sarah Hart
Tye Jones
Travis Marlar
Zach Williams

Chapter 11
◦ The Danish Christmas Luncheon

Chapter 12
◦ The German Symphony

Chapter 13
◦ Irish Conversations
◦ 5.4 population
◦ Highly educated
◦ GDP per person $44,710
 Ranks 7th among nations
◦ Composed of 406 islands
◦ Equality matching culture

All organizations in Denmark host a luncheon
◦ Employee and employer responsibility

Occurs on one of three Fridays in December

Begins at 1pm

Controlled culture
◦ Inappropriate thoughts, emotions, and actions

Queen Margrethe of Denmark united
Denmark, Norway, and Sweden in 1397
◦ Norway belonged to Denmark until 1814
◦ Gradually diminished because of periodic wars

WWII
◦ Germany invaded Norway and Denmark
◦ Armbands
◦ Dangerously led Jewish Danes to neutral Sweden
 Saved 95% of 7,000 Jewish residents

Individualistic
◦ Ranked 9th of 53

Interdependent
◦ Geography, small size, and history

Both individuality and group norms are both
respected
◦ Wealthy residence

Tendency toward conformity
◦ Christmas luncheon provides an escape from that
◦ Allowed to express forbidden thoughts and emotions

Easily could have ended up a part of Germany
after Germany became a nation in 1870
◦ Faced this threat again in WWII

Military virtually non-existent
◦ Large medical corps set up for national emergency

Relaxed approach to life; more than
neighbors
◦ Study of international happiness involving 80,000
respondents, Denmark won first-place
◦ Very modest expectations
◦ Relaxed sexual relations: nude bathing, escorts

Shortage of labor
◦ Young Danes take advantage of the great
education, then move to other countries with lower
taxes
 63%: free health care, child care, and elder care

Low-skilled immigrants

Elaborate
◦ Home-cooked dishes, candles, fireplace

Most employees work for the same
organization all their lives
◦ Enhance a sense of coziness and commonality

Luncheon started in homes and communities,
but is now a norm for Danish businesses



It is difficult to understand Germans at times
from an American point of view
Even though 30% of Americans are from
German descent
German stereotype: Emphasis on rules and
order

Germany is relatively young compared to its
European neighbors
◦ Becomes a nation in 1871

Ancestors of the Germans led by Hermann
the Great defeated the Romans in 109BCE

The word “German” was a derogatory term

German mercenaries that fought in the
American revolution were ridiculed

Fredrick the Great and his Father
◦ Produced a strong Prussia
◦ Fredrick the Great was interested in music and
philosophy
◦ He also wrote flute music
◦ All these characteristics would foreshadow the
Germany to come


Through leadership in government and
military smaller kingdoms integrated into
what we now know as Germany
These kingdoms kept their individuality
because of diverse historic backgrounds
◦ Because of this Germany operates a federal
confederation of 16 independent states

Germans romanticize Charlemagne’s Roman
rule as the first Reich
◦ Reich: German word which designates “realm” or
“commonwealth” translated to English means “rich”
◦ This lavish tale was due to the lack of illustrious
history of their own
◦
◦ Germany bordered Eastern and Western Europe this
resulted in a great diversity of ethnic groups

Began in 1871
◦ Militarism and rapid economic growth
◦ Education, culture, and the arts (especially the
symphony)

Otto Von Bismarck
◦ Iron Chancellor
◦ First social welfare system
 Required age of 65 to receive government pension

World War I
◦ Versailles Peace Treaty of 1918
 Germany had to pay reparations to certain countries it
caused damage to in the war
 Damages were valued at 132 million Marks
 $442 billion in 2012’s money
 Economists, especially Maynard Keynes, saw this as
excessive and knew it would doom Germany’s
economy

The Depression of 1930 only worsened
Germany’s economic situation
◦ Political turmoil occurred, groups vied for power
◦ National Socialist Party came to power
◦ Chancellor Hindenburg asks their leader to create
minority government
◦ Hitler creates minority government and Germans see him
as a source of stability
◦ Hitler ushers in the Third Reich (1000 year)

Modern Germany began after the Allies took
control in 1945
◦ Democratic government
◦ Labor unions

Marshall Plan
◦ Aided war ravaged Europe rebuild their economies
◦ First time in history this occurred

Germany’s economy strengthens
◦ More exports per capita than U.S. and Japan
◦ Extensive regulations have pushed German
companies into other nations (small and medium
size firms)
◦ Germany scored 15 on individualism
 This is very high much like America


Germans Love symphonic music
Germans believe the symphony is symbolic of
their culture
◦ Individuals likes and dislikes are subordinated for the
greater good


West Germany has a population of 66 million and
has more than 80 orchestras
Some of the world’s greatest composers are
German
◦ Haydn, Mozart, Schubert, Bach, Beethoven

Many Germans play musical instruments as a
hobby

Music is an integral and a serious part of life

Collective experience that enriches life

Characteristic feature of the Germans = multiplicity Prince Metternich

Many different ethnic and religious groups

Most diverse city: Frankfurt

Different ethnicities

◦ Germany rarely united, marked by division
◦ East and West Germany united on October 3, 1990
Both people of Germany and musical instruments of the
symphonic orchestra come from many different
countries and cultures

Primary force

Many foreigners moved into Germany:
◦ After the first unification in 1871
◦ After the construction of the Berlin Wall
◦ With the end of the Cold War in Europe

Immigrant Percentages:
◦ Germany: 8%
◦ United States: 12%
◦ South Africa: 2.3%



The area of the former East Germany now
accounts for around 30% of Germany
Around the size of Montana
Integration of East and West Germany has
been challenging
◦ High costs
◦ High unemployment

South
◦ Sunny, warmer climate
◦ Mostly Protestant

North
◦ Colder climate
◦ Mostly Catholic

Creation of complexity
◦ Incorporating more diversity into the new nation
◦ Adding musical instruments in the symphonic
orchestra

4 sections:
◦
◦
◦
◦


Strings
Woodwinds
Brass
Percussion
Maximize the musical instrumentation
Improve the quality of the sound

Very crowded
◦ Germany: 230.5 residents/sq. km.
◦ United States: 31.7 residents/sq. km.
◦ South Africa: 41 residents/sq. km.

Compartmentalized
◦ Affection for privacy and respect for others

The home separates one from the outside
world

Germany
◦ The privacy and security of the home is valued
especially during this time
◦ Gemutlichkeit strongly prevails
 Translation: “as ‘comfort’ or ‘coziness,’ but it has
wider connotations – of the hearthside and deep
content, of home cooking and family security”

South Africa
◦ An “out-of-door” day
◦ Most time spent on the beaches, rivers, and
mountain slopes

A getaway from the stress of work

Personal status is less threatened

Homes are very protected
◦ Fences, walls, hedges, solid doors, blinds, shutters

Front yard rarely used

Homes are kept very clean

Doors are kept closed

Germans prefer to keep more distance

South Africans aren’t as distant
◦ Several greeting styles
◦ Most common: shake hands, maintain eye contact,
and smile

Formal behavior at home
◦ Value privacy/distance

Formal behavior at work
◦ Family names rather than first names when meeting
new people
◦ “Du” (familiar “you”): family/close friends only
◦ Coworkers are colleagues, not friends (vs. U.S.)
◦ Distinct line between close friends & acquaintances

“Dr.” title limited to PhD/medical degree
holders
◦ Nazi-era law, “title abuse” illegal

Politeness to strangers/acquaintances
◦ Restrained gestures/no smiling
◦ Maintained eye contact to show paying attention
◦ Distant/stiff appearance, but friendlier later

Life/Business Compartmentalization

Value of Hierarchies
◦ “Ladder of Success”
◦ Importance of Executive offices
 Status markers: office size, personal secretary outside
 Office inseparable from/extension of personality
 Importance of closed doors

Physical Space Norms
◦ Germans stand farther apart than North Americans
◦ Insulting to move chairs closer to manager’s desk

Germans More Risk-Averse
◦ Less comfortable with strange situations
◦ Doing job properly takes time, planning
◦ Analyze projects/business opportunities deeply
before committing

Formality/ Physical Distance
◦ Younger Germans less formal in interactions
◦ They revert to formal behavior once they begin
working full-time

Historically, charismatic leaders not effective
◦ Exception: Adolf Hitler

Germans respond to visionary leaders
◦ Delegate responsibility in hierarchy
◦ Frederick the Great
 German culture still idealizes his leadership style

Low Power Distance, High Uncertainty
Avoidance

Pros
◦ Subordinate participation
◦ Fewer organizational levels in companies

Cons
◦
◦
◦
◦
Difficult for executives to make decisions
Rigid hierarchy
E.g. Daimler-Chrysler merger, 1997
Board of directors law

Perhaps the most critical feature of the symphony
◦ Everything must be done perfectly
◦ Everyone must be willing to participate within the
boundaries of the performance

Solo time is very short for the greater good of the
orchestra
◦ Symphonic performers must willingly subordinate their
individual selves to the greater good

Germans tend to be individualistic
◦ Individualism in Germany vs. individualism in the US or
Sweden

Conscious of time and how to allocate it
efficiently
◦ No such thing as “free time”

Sharp distinction between work and leisure

Tardiness is frowned on

Meetings and negotiations are long and tend to
have well-marked stages

Precision and synchronicity also tend to influence
communication
◦ Prefer for time to be used rationally and efficiently

Communication

Words should mean exactly what they are intended to
mean
◦ Low context
◦ Tend to use a deductive way of thinking that relies on past
history and theory vs Anglo-American inductive styles that
tend to use cases and examples to back up an argument
◦ “I’ll call you for lunch.”
◦ “Let’s have dinner.”
◦ John Cage and his revolutionary production of 4’33’’

South Africa
◦ Prime vacation times
◦ Meetings begin with small talk; then move to business
◦ Agendas are not as rigid

Verb tends to be at the end of a sentence

Main point is made at the end

Like classical symphonies, meetings tend to start slow, can
last for hours, and build to a climax

In business, as in music, sound, tone, modulation, and
timing are key to a successful performance

Attire and dressing

South Africa
◦ More conservative than Americans
◦ Fashionable but don’t take away from the matter at hand
◦ Most common business language is English
◦ White South Africans prefer plain-speaking, while the black culture
stresses diplomacy


Begins with the grundschule or elementary
school
Students assigned to 3 different types of schools
◦ Gymnasium, or academic school, for those that want to
pursue a university education
◦ Realchule, or “real world” school; goes through grade 10
◦ Hauptshule; students free to leave after grade 9

Today, more than 50% of Germans graduate from
gymnasium


One of the highest rates of public investment
in education in the world
Three bands of education
◦ General education and training
◦ Further education and training
◦ Higher education and training

Germany maintains a military force structure

Service to the country is widely accepted

This service translates into a message of
unity

Old traditions unite German population

Thousands of festivals every year

Karneval aka “Mardi Gras”

Oktoberfest

Looking for a new identity

“Du bist Duetschland”

Changes in German Culture?

Germany will continue to emphasize the
characteristics of the symphony

Three Pillars of Irish Culture
1. Language
Irish language (Gaelic language) is increasing in importance

2. Rural Heritage


Declining Rural Heritage especially in and around Dublin
Crime, drug use, and other urban ailments are now prevalent
3. Catholic Church

“The Catholic Church no longer has the power and prestige
that it flaunted and exercised for generations.”

Identifying Links:
◦ Ireland culture still reflects village-like
perspective
◦ Four Major Cities: Dublin, Cork, Limerick, Galway
◦ 1970: 60% of workforce was employed in
agriculture
 Today = 7%

Intersection of Gaelic and English
Languages
◦ Intense love for conversation and storytelling
◦ English Language
 Used in ways not found in any other culture
 Creating a vivid mental picture, pleasing to the mind and
ear
 Originating from the imaginative story telling

Irish Writers
◦ Ireland has produced many prominent essayists,
novelists, and poets
◦ This prominence reflects the intersection of
Gaelic and English languages
◦ Creative and wildly imaginative styles of writing
 Pleasing to many different cultures and types of people

Irish Music
◦ Distinctive sound and approach to music
◦ Influenced by classical Irish dances and long
dialogues
◦ Irish music represents their style of living
 Relaxed and slow moving approach to life
 Fun loving environment sparks conversation and develops
friendships

One of the most important parts of Irish life

>90% Roman Catholic
◦ Regular Sunday Mass attendance 44%
◦ Most Irish hospitals are run through the church,
partially state-funded but often staffed with nuns
◦ State-funded school system but schools are usually
run by local clergy

Many Irish begin and end their day with
prayer

Irish are generally very friendly and trusting

National greeting translates to “one hundred
thousand welcomes”

Great love of conversation – long, spirited


◦ Follows tangents
Not satisfied with superficial conversations
◦
Love discussing religion and politics in public
Rural Irish usually leave doors unlocked
◦
Passers-by often invited in for meals

11 languages officially recognized by South
African government
◦ English is the language of commerce

Multiple cultures

Business communication is fairly informal

In general, South Africans enjoy conversation
◦ Avoid controversial topics
-- http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/etiquette/doing- businesssouth-africa.html

Family Dinners
◦ Kids share about school
 Education viewed as very important
◦ Extended family, friends, and neighbors

Weddings and Wakes
◦ Wakes: Parties held to say goodbye to the dead
◦ Weddings: Big church weddings followed by a huge
celebration

Pubs
◦ Popular gathering place for men, women and
children
◦ Young and old mingle
 Respect for elders
◦ Irish do not believe in drinking alone
◦ Good pub conversation viewed as more important
than a good drink
 Storytelling, recitation, public readings, heated
arguments

Irish tend to have the last word

Hofstede’s research
◦ Masculine-oriented
◦ Not acquisition-oriented
 Balance between “being” and “doing”
◦ Individualistic regarding conversation and opinions,
collectivist regarding family and religion

Creative and stubborn

Optimistic and challenge-accepting

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KkI4LDf6
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Understanding Global Cultures