International
Telecommunication
Union
Regional Office for
Asia and Pacific
Bangkok, Thailand
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Creating Universal Access to
ICT
Joint Asia-Pacific Regional Conference
“E-commerce Strategies for Development”
UNCC, Bangkok, 20-22 Nov. 2002
Dr.Eun-Ju Kim, Ph.D.
Senior Advisor for Asia and Pacific, ITU
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Agenda
What is E-Commerce (EC) ?
Results of a survey on EC
What are ICT & its trends: pros & cons ?
Access to converged ICTs as a prerequisite of
EC: ICT indicators & statistics
 An issue of access to ICT: gender digital




divide
 ITU’s activities on EC
 Mechanism for creating universal access
 Let’s work together for the better world !
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What is E-Commerce ?
Commercial activities*
using a data message generated, sent, received or stored
by electronic, optical or similar means including,
but not limited to, electronic data interchange (EDI),
e-mail, telegram, telex or telecopy’
By UNCITRAL Model Law on E-Commerce
*
These include, but not limited to, such transaction as any trade transaction for
the supply or exchange of goods or services; distribution agreement;
commercial representation or agency; factoring; leasing; construction of works;
consulting; engineering; licensing; investment; financing; banking; insurance;
exploitation agreement or concession; joint venture and other forms of
industrial or business cooperation; carriage of goods or passengers by air, sea,
rail or road.
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Results of a survey on E-Commerce
OECD
established
four main
categories of
regulatory &
policy
objectives
• Enhancing
Infrastructure
• Building Trust
• Establishing
Ground Rules &
• Maximizing
Benefits
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Enhancing infrastructure ?
• Access to Information & Communication
Technology (ICT)* infrastructure & EC
services required to be a top level priority
for national development goals;
• Regulations & policies on international
interconnection & pricing* required to
revise for affordable EC services;
• Banking & financial services are identified
as equally critical elements for seamless
links with businesses, consumers, & the
international financial community to allow
efficient transactions and to participate in
the digital economy.
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Building trust ?
Security of data transmissions: the need for
- treatment of cryptography in both domestic law
& international agreements;
- government access to public key codes of private
cryptography; &
- mutual recognition of cryptography standards
Privacy protection: the need for
explicit privacy protection laws &
regulations or policies to govern the
use of personal data by on-line services
Digital signatures & electronic contracts:
the need for revising / new legislation on
electronic transactions
Certification & Certification Authorities:
the need for credibility & security for EC
transactions both domestic &
international
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Establishing ground rules ?
The success of worldwide E-Commerce
depends on a worldwide
harmonization of basic policies such as
taxation, duties, treatment of
intellectual property right (IPR),
domain name etc.
especially through
• Creating culture with stable social,
economic and political environment for
maximizing benefits of E-Commerce.
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What is ICT* ?
Technologies
Legislations
Telecommunications
(fixed & mobile)
INTERNET
Computer
Regulations
Mass Coms
Administrations
* Refer to Table 1 in hand-out
Policies
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ICT Trends: pros
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Internet as the fastest-growing medium: e.g., global
accesses in 205 countries;
Absence of centralized control or authority over the use
of Internet developed at markets without or least
regulations;
ICT as great potentials for small & large enterprises with
more employment opportunities;
ICT with great potentials and numerous possibilities of
applications from e-commerce, e-government, to emedicine;
Estimated e-commerce sales in 2003/5 are US$ 1,000
billion compared to US$26 billion in 1996/7;
Transactions (e.g., e-payment) across-borders especially
via e-commerce; and
Many others.
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ICT Trends: cons
• Transactions across national jurisdictions especially
via e-commerce;
• Lack of harmonization in national & international
laws;
• Ever fast increasing number of reported cybercrimes;
• 1,500% increase in new viruses reported in the 2
days around New Years of 2000 alone;
• Security (e.g., e-payment), fraud, privacy, Spam etc.
are growing concerns, if not threats;
• Digital divide between haves & have-nots, knows &
know-nots and even men & women;
• Any others.
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Access to converged ICTs:
As a prerequisite of E-Commerce
ICT indicators* & statistics: Digital Divide !
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Fixed line by income (1995&2001)
70
1995
67
2001
60
52
50
40
30
27
20
15
10
5
13
14
7
0
Low
Lower Middle
Upper Middle
High
{Source: ITU’s various publications} & * Refer to Tables 2&3 in hard-out13
Fixed line by region (1995&2001)
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40
1995
38
37
2001
35
32
30
27
31
28
25
20
15
10
5
2
1
2
2
0
Oceania
Africa
Asia
Americas
Europe
{Source: ITU's various publications}
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Mobile subscribers by income (1995&2001)
1995
90
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84
2001
80
70
58
60
50
40
30
21
18
20
10
7
1
8
3
0
Low
Lower Middle
Upper Middle
High
{Source: ITU's various publications}
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Mobile subscribers by region (1995&2001)
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45
1995
44
2001
40
37
35
35
30
27
25
25
24
20
15
10
5
2
3
1
1
0
Oceania
Africa
Asia
Americas
Europe
{Source: ITU’s various publications}
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Internet users by income (1995&2001)
1995
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100
93
2001
90
80
73
70
60
50
40
30
20
13
11
10
1
3
5
1
0
Low
Lower Middle
Upper Middle
High
{Source: ITU’s various publications}
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Internet users by region (1995&2001)
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70
1995
68
2001
60
50
40
37
31
29
30
20
20
9
10
2
2
1
1
0
Oceania
Africa
Asia
Americas
Europe
{Source: ITU’s various publications}
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Internet users,top 10 total users,millions,2001
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Brazil
Canada
France
Italy
United Kingdom
Korea(Rep.)
Germany
China
Japan
8
13.5
15.7
Brazil
Canada
France
Italy
United Kingdom
Korea(Rep.)
Germany
China
Japan
United States
16
24
24.4
30
33.7
57.9
142.8
United States
{Source: ITU’s various publications}
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Combined density: Asia / Pacific, per 100 inhab., 2001
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Macao,China
New Zealand
UAE
Australia
Fixed
Israel
Mobile
Korea(Rep.)
Internet
Japan
Singapore
Taiwan,China
HK,China
0
50
100
150
{Source: ITU’s various publications}
200
20
Combined density between haves & have-nots in Asia & Pacific, 2001
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Myanmar
Bangladesh
Lao
Solomon Islands
Cambodia
Fixed
Average
Mobile
Internet
Korea(Rep.)
Japan
Singapore
Taiwan,China
HK,China
0
50
100
150
{Source: ITU’s various publications}
200
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Transform from just ‘access’ to ‘quality’
Countries with highest DSL penetration rates,January 2002
(in DSL lines per 100 persons)
10.95
South Korea
5.56
Hong Kong
4.83
Taiwan
3.73
Canada
2.85
Denmark
2.76
Belgium
Germany
2.23
Sweden
2.18
Finland
1.66
USA
1.59
South Korea
Hong Kong
Taiwan
Canada
Denmark
Belgium
Germany
Sweden
Finland
USA
* S.Korea reached its penetration rate of 17.16% by the end of Oct. 200222
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‘Access with quality’ vs. ‘investments’
Telecom expenditure of countries in Asia & the Pacific,
(2001-2002)
Australia
Hong Kong
India
South Korea
Malaysia
Philippines
China
Singapore
Taiwan
Thai
-60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
{Source: Asia Pacific Development, 2002}
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An issue of access to ICT:
gender digital divide
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Requirements for gender balance
•
•
•
•
Awareness of ICT & EC;
Accessibility to ICT;
Affordability of ICT services (e.g., EC); &
Bridging gender digital divide through:e.g.
– Adopting & implementing gender-sensitive policies &
legislations on ICT;
– Coordinating various institutions dealing ICT & gender
issues separately;
– Creating social, cultural and economic environments
etc.
so that men & women alike equally access to
and benefit from ICT & its various potentials &
applications like E-Commerce.
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Some examples for both ICT & gender
•
•
•
Specific gender-aware policy guidelines
on ICT developed by ITU and other
organizations;
A planed joint seminar on ‘ICT &
Gender preparing for inputs to the
WSIS’ in Malaysia, 2003; and
Various projects such as ‘telecenters
managed by women in communities’ as
a way to reach universal access.
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ITU’S ACTIVITIES
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Relating to E-Commerce
Technical &
Standards
ITU-T standards for
global connectivity &
operability with
security;
Hands-on
Assistance
E-Commerce for the
developing countries
Policy &
Regulatory
High Level Experts
(HLE) Meeting in Dec.
1999;
E-Commerce Seminar
on World Telecom Day,
May 17 1999; &
National survey on E28
Commerce etc.
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ITU: Technical Activities
 Strengthen the standard activities
of ITU on E-Commerce:e.g.,
•
ITU-T X.509: a joint text with ISO/IEC 9594-8:
– applications related to Public Key Infrastructure
(PKI) as a tool for authentication - to form
security policy;
– better support services and protocols in resource
constrained (e.g., wireless) and business-tobusiness (B2B & web-based e-commerce)
environment [under the development]
•
ITU-T X.841-3: new Recommendations for
approval in 10/2000 to develop Security
Techniques - e.g.,
– security information objects for access control;
– guidelines on the use and management of trusted
third party services;
– specification of TTP to support the application of
digital signature
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ITU: Hands-on Activities - E-Strategy
• Launched at the ITU WDTC-98, Malta;
• Aimed at establish the infrastructure &
services necessary to provide secure
e-payment, transaction & trust
services;
• Assists DCs to acquire and use ECommerce technologies in such areas
as:
–
–
–
–
infrastructure development;
capacity building & technology transfer;
national policies and raising awareness;
collaboration with the public & private
sectors
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ITU: Policy & Regulatory Activities
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.
 Reviewed policy & regulatory issues on ECommerce through organizing a meeting of HLE,
which largely recommended the ITU:
•
•
•
•
•
•
enable & facilitate reasonable & appropriate authentication
measures (e.g., e-signature) to create legal certainty in
cross-border transactions;
encourage ‘voluntary’ rather than mandatory approaches
and promote effective competition;
not engage in activities that constrain the development &
implementation of market-based initiatives & standards or
private arrangements;
be technology-neutral;
be attentive to the needs of developing countries and
cultural differences;
facilitate authentication across borders, and so on
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MECHANISM FOR CREATING
UNIVERSAL ACCESS
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Policy* & Regulatory Frameworks
• Competition for a choice of services &
suppliers as well as for competitive – if not,
affordable - prices;
• Universal Service Obligation & its funds
from the incumbents &/or various PTOs for
access to even rural & underprivileged groups;
• Pricing & Rebalancing to reduce/update
tariffs for affordability; etc.
because of
correlation between ‘policy/regulation’ & ‘access’
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Internet Access ( 2001 )
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Countries
South Korea
Sri Lanka
Singapore
China
Australia
Japan
Cambodia
Marshall I.
Maldives
PNG
Tuvalu
Kiribati
ISP
Users
Tariffs
C= competition
M = monopoly
(number of ISP)
(Per 100 habitants)
(Off-peak:
30 hrs/month)
C ( 270 )
C ( 12 )
C ( 47 )
C ( 59 )
C ( 235 )
C ( 234 )
51.07
0.79
60.52
2.60
37.23
45.47
10.15
11.97
12.17
18.24
23.32
58.36
C(2)
C(2)
M(1)
M(1)
M(1)
-
0.07
1.29
3.70
2.81
1.02
2.50
129.56
159.00
168.22
185.97
212.73
222.09
{Source: ITU’s various publications} & Refer to Tables 2 & 3
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Prerequisites for access to ICT

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
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





Mechanisms to raise capital or funds (e.g., USO Funds),
Development of infrastructure (e.g., electricity, road, transportation),
Payment mechanisms (e.g., banking, exchange with goods etc.),
Education and training for human resources
Socio-cultural awareness (e.g. for poverty eradication, equality of
genders, access from the underprivileged groups including the
disabled),
Economic empowerment (e.g., for new business and employment
opportunities),
Local languages and contents (e.g., multi-lingual software, local
contents),
Technical and legal measures for security and confidence (e.g.,
standards, cyber laws),
Research, development, transfer, and implementation of new
technologies
Political wills with transparency and commitment, &
Stable social, economic and political environment
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Implementation through partnerships
• Policy-makers & Regulators
– Policy & regulatory tools with political wills
• Industries
– Operators/suppliers with their own interests or as
an obligation of universal service
– Various SMEs with more creative entrepreneurship
• Communities
– Various initiatives like telecenters
• Users
– Demands for ICTs at affordable prices with
choices and quality of services
• International & Regional Organizations
– Harmonizing rules to deal with trans-border issues
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Let’s work together !
To maximize benefits of ICT
Through universal access to ICT
Regardless gender, age, disabilities …..
In both have & have-not countries
For the world better place !
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Thank You
for
Your Kind Attention
For further information:
Mr.Georges Sebek for ITU-T SG7 standard activities;
Mr.Arthur Levin for HLE activities;
Mr.Alexander Ntoko for E-strategy
at the ITU, Geneva Tel) +41 22 730 5111
Web: http://www.itu.int
Dr.Eun-Ju Kim
Senior Adviser for Asia & the Pacific
ITU Regional Office, Bangkok, Thailand
Tel) +662 574 9326 Fax) +662 574 9328
e-mail) [email protected]
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