International Telecommunication Union
ICT Security - The Need
for International
Standards
[email protected]
Deputy to the Director
Telecommunication Standardization Bureau
International Telecommunication Union
www.itu.int/ITU-T
Confidence & security in the use of ICT
Malaysia, 21 August 2003
Outline
1. Why ICT security is becoming important
2. The complex world of ICT Security
3. Security standards
[ICT = Information & Communication Technology]
Confidence & security in the use of ICT - Malaysia, 21 August 2003
2
1. Why ICT security is
becoming important
Confidence & security in the use of ICT - Malaysia, 21 August 2003
3
Security: Telephony vs.
Internet
o
Telephone network: Control
•
•
•
Offers basically one service
Network operators control if new service offered
Clear distinction:
•
•
o
Interface user – network
Interface network – network
Internet: “Anarchy” (no negative
meaning here)
•
•
•
•
Lots of services (many of them not yet imagined …)
Everyone can set up a new services
All links network – network
Many protocols
Confidence & security in the use of ICT - Malaysia, 21 August 2003
4
A Fundamental Shift is
Happening
o
o
o
o
Computers & networks are becoming
a utility (like water, electricity, gas,
telephone)
Business and personal life are more
and more dependent on computers
Prerequisite: adequate security.
[9/11 terrorist attack confirmed the
already existing trend of emphasizing
security]
Confidence & security in the use of ICT - Malaysia, 21 August 2003
5
Basic Security Services
o
Privacy / Confidentiality:
• To know that no 3rd party can read a
message exchanged between 2 people
o
Authentication:
• To know that someone is who he/she
says he/she is
o
Integrity:
• To know that a message has not been
modified in transit
o
Non-repudiation:
• To know that someone is not able to
deny later that she/he sent a message
Confidence & security in the use of ICT - Malaysia, 21 August 2003
6
Security Applications
o
The previous basic security services
can be used to build many security
applications:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Digital Signature
Anonymous e-cash
Certified e-mail
Secure elections
Simultaneous contract signing
[add your ideas …]
Confidence & security in the use of ICT - Malaysia, 21 August 2003
7
2. The complex world of ICT
security
Confidence & security in the use of ICT - Malaysia, 21 August 2003
8
Some Security Risks
o
“Social engineering” attack:
•
•
“Amateurs hack systems, professionals hack
people” (Bruce Schneier)
An organizations’ own employees may pose
largest risk:
•
o
o
o
o
o
o
Incompetence, indifference, misconduct
New technologies bring new security
problems (e.g., WiFi)
Buggy software
Viruses
Malicious hackers braking into systems
Denial of Service attacks
…
Confidence & security in the use of ICT - Malaysia, 21 August 2003
9
Non-trivial Insights
o
o
o
o
Technology alone can not fix security
problems – Technology is necessary
but not sufficient
Security is everyone’s business, not
just the business of security experts
Security decisions must be taken by
Management, not by technical staff
Security is risk management – the art
to worry about the right things
Confidence & security in the use of ICT - Malaysia, 21 August 2003
10
Cryptography- the Beauty
of Mathematics
o
o
Cryptographic algorithms are
“building blocks” to construct secure
system
Dramatic advances in cryptography in
the last 30 years:
•
•
•
o
Public Key Cryptography (1976)
Microprocessor: cheap computing power
Quantum cryptography (future)
Reminder: security is more a “people problem”
than a technical problem
Confidence & security in the use of ICT - Malaysia, 21 August 2003
11
Secret Key Encryption
Plain text

encrypt message with
secret key

o
o
o
Plain text

decrypt message with
same secret key

cipher text
Both parties share a single, secret key
Problem: exchanging keys in complete secrecy is
difficult
Best-known example: DES (Data Encryption
Standard)
Confidence & security in the use of ICT - Malaysia, 21 August 2003
12
Public Key Encryption
Plain text

encrypt message with
public (!) key of receiver (!)

o
o
o
Plain text

decrypt message with
private key of receiver

cipher text
Each participant has
• A private key that is shared with no one else, plus
• A public key known to everyone
Problem: slower than Secret Key Encryption
Best-known example: RSA
Confidence & security in the use of ICT - Malaysia, 21 August 2003
13
Biometrics: your Body –
your Password?
o
Recognize a person upon physiological
or behavioral characteristics
•
•
•
•
o
Fingerprint
Face
Voice
Iris
Currently costs outweigh benefits
Confidence & security in the use of ICT - Malaysia, 21 August 2003
14
Economics & ICT Security
o
o
Perverse incentives explain a lot of current
information insecurity (Ross Anderson, Univ
of Cambridge, UK)
Distributed denial of service attack in 2000:
•
•
o
Vandals took over computers on low-security
University networks and shut down major
websites (e.g. Yahoo)
Shouldn’t Universities bear some liability for
the damages to 3rd parties
Solution: assign legal liabilities to the
parties best able to manage the risk (Hal
Varian, Univ of California, Berkeley)
Confidence & security in the use of ICT - Malaysia, 21 August 2003
15
Security is Risk
Management
o
o
How much money/time to spend on
ICT security?
Balance between cost and risk:
•
•
•
What are the potential security breaches?
What’s the associated loss in each case?
What does it cost to defend in each case?
•
•
•
o
Mitigation (e.g. buy technology)
Outsource (s.o. else takes over the risk)
Insurance (passing risk to insurance company)
Engineers, policymakers, economists,
lawyers to forge common approaches
Confidence & security in the use of ICT - Malaysia, 21 August 2003
16
3. Security standards
Confidence & security in the use of ICT - Malaysia, 21 August 2003
17
The Need for Int’l.
Security Standards
o
Technical standards should be international:
•
•
o
Best practice standards would be very
helpful to be international
•
o
Ensures interoperability - the whole point
of most of the standards
Economies of scale
Raises awareness
Regulatory issues & law enforcement is a
national (or regional, e.g. European Union)
matter
Confidence & security in the use of ICT - Malaysia, 21 August 2003
18
Security in International
Standards Organizations
o
ISO/IEC:
• 17799: “Information technology –
code of practice for information
security management” (71 pages;
year 2000)
• addresses organizations, companies
o
IETF:
• Protocols, e.g. IPsec, TLS, SMIME …
o
ITU: see next slides
Confidence & security in the use of ICT - Malaysia, 21 August 2003
19
ITU Plenipo & WSIS
o
ITU Plenipotentiary Conference 2002:
•
o
“Strengthening the role of ITU in information
and communication network security”
WSIS = World Summit on Information Society;
www.itu.int/wsis:
•
•
•
•
UN-event
1st phase: Geneva 10-12 Dec 03;
2nd phase: Tunis 16-18 Nov 05
Target audience: Heads of State + CEOs +
civil society
Topics include communication network
security
Confidence & security in the use of ICT - Malaysia, 21 August 2003
20
Security in ITU-T Study
Groups
o
SG 17 = Lead Study Group for
Communication System Security:
•
•
o
Coordination / prioritization of security
efforts
Development of core security Recs.
Existing Recommendations include:
•
•
•
Security architecture, model, frameworks,
and protocols for open systems (X.800series; X.270 series, jointly with ISO)
Trusted Third Party Services (X.842/X.843,
jointly with ISO)
Public-key and attribute certificate
frameworks (X.509, jointly with ISO)
Confidence & security in the use of ICT - Malaysia, 21 August 2003
21
ITU-T SG 17 Security Focus
o
Authentication (X.509, jointly with ISO):
•
o
Security Architecture for end-to-end
communications:
•
o
Model for security and public safety in telebiometrics
Security Management:
•
o
Security for management, control and use of network
infrastructure, services and applications
Telebiometrics: biometrics via distance
•
o
Ongoing enhancements as a result of more complex
uses
Risk assessment, identification of assets and
implementation characteristics
Mobile Security:
•
For low power, small memory size and small display
devices
Confidence & security in the use of ICT - Malaysia, 21 August 2003
22
ITU-T SG 17: Upcoming
Joint Work with ISO / IEC
o
“Information Technology – Security
techniques – IT network security”
•
•
•
•
•
Part 1: Network security management
Part 2: Network security architecture
Part 3: Securing communications between
networks using security gateways
Part 4: Remote access
Part 5: Securing communications between
networks using virtual private networks
Confidence & security in the use of ICT - Malaysia, 21 August 2003
23
Security Studies in other
ITU-T Study Groups
o
o
o
o
o
Security for multimedia systems and
services (SG 16)
Emergency Telecommunications
Services (SG 16)
IPCablecom project = interactive
services over cable TV networks (SG 9)
Telecommunication networks security
requirements (SG 2)
Framework to support emergency
communications (SG 13)
Confidence & security in the use of ICT - Malaysia, 21 August 2003
24
Strengths of ITU-T
o Unique mix of industry & government
o Truly global
o Consensus decisions guarantee wide
o
o
o
o
o
acceptance
Fast procedures
Brand name
IPR Policy
World-class meeting facilities
Excellent Secretariat staff
Confidence & security in the use of ICT - Malaysia, 21 August 2003
25
Backup Slides on ITU-T
(not to be shown in talk)
Confidence & security in the use of ICT - Malaysia, 21 August 2003
26
ITU-T Structure
W O R L D T E L E C O M M U N IC A T IO N
S T A N D A R D IZ A T IO N A S S E M B L Y
T E L E C O M M U N IC A T IO N
S T A N D A R D IZ A T IO N
A D V IS O R Y G R O U P
STUDY GROUP
• Workshops
• Focus Group
• Joint Group
• Project Team
STUDY GROUP
W O R K IN G
PAR TY
STUDY GROUP
W O R K IN G
PAR TY
W O R K IN G
PAR TY
R
R
R
R
R = RAPPORTEUR GROUP
Confidence & security in the use of ICT - Malaysia, 21 August 2003
27
ITU-T Study Groups
o
o
SG 2
SG 3
o
o
o
o
SG
SG
SG
SG
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
SG 11
SG 12
SG 13
SG 15
SG 16
SG 17
SSG
TSAG
4
5
6
9
Operational aspects of service provision, networks and performance
Tariff and accounting principles including related
telecommunications economic and policy issues
Telecommunication management, including TMN
Protection against electromagnetic environment effects
Outside plant
Integrated broadband cable networks and television and sound
transmission
Signalling requirements and protocols
End-to-end transmission performance of networks and terminals
Multi-protocol and IP-based networks and their internetworking
Optical and other transport networks
Multimedia services, systems and terminals
Data networks and telecommunication software
Special Study Group "IMT-2000 and beyond"
Telecommunication Standardization Advisory Group
Confidence & security in the use of ICT - Malaysia, 21 August 2003
28
Lead Study Groups
o SG 2
o SG 4
o SG 9
o SG 11
o SG 12
o SG 13
o SG 15
o SG 16
o SG17
o SSG
service definition, numbering and routing
TMN
integrated broadband cable and television networks
intelligent networks
Quality of Service and performance
IP related matters, B-ISDN, Global Information
Infrastructure and satellite matters
access network transport and optical technology
multimedia services, systems and terminals and on
e-business and e-commerce
frame relay, communication system security,
languages and description techniques
IMT 2000 and beyond and for mobility
Confidence & security in the use of ICT - Malaysia, 21 August 2003
29
IP project study areas
o Integrated architecture
o Impact to telecommunications access infrastructures of
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
access to IP applications
Interworking between IP based network and switchedcircuit networks, including wireless based networks
Multimedia applications over IP
Numbering and addressing
Transport for IP-structured signals
Signalling support, IN and routing for services on IP-based
networks
Performance
Integrated management of telecom and IP-based networks
Security aspects
Confidence & security in the use of ICT - Malaysia, 21 August 2003
30
Other areas to consider
o IP-based networks and their interconnection with
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
telecommunication networks;
IP cablecom project;
establishment of GII;
IMT-2000 and mobility;
e-business and e-commerce;
reform of accounting rates and tariff studies;
MEDIACOM-2004 project and related multimedia
activities;
security aspects of networks and services;
optical transport network;
access networks enhancements with xDSL techniques;
numbering and routing;
network performances and quality of services;
protocols for new services and intelligent networks.
Confidence & security in the use of ICT - Malaysia, 21 August 2003
31
ITU-T Series (A-L)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Organization of the work of ITU-T
Means of expression: definitions, symbols, classification
General telecommunication statistics
General tariff principles
Overall network operation, telephone service, service
operation and human factors
F. Non-telephone telecommunication services
G. Transmission systems and media, digital systems and networks
H. Audiovisual and multimedia systems
I. Integrated services digital network
J. Transmission of television, sound programme and other
multimedia signals
K. Protection against interference
L. Construction, installation and protection of cables and other
elements of outside plant
Confidence & security in the use of ICT - Malaysia, 21 August 2003
32
ITU-T Series (M-Z)
M. TMN and network maintenance: international transmission
systems, telephone circuits, telegraphy, facsimile and leased
circuits
N. Maintenance: international sound programme and television
transmission circuits
O. Specifications of measuring equipment
P. Telephone transmission quality, telephone installations, local
line networks
Q. Switching and signalling
R. Telegraph transmission
S. Telegraph services terminal equipment
T. Terminals for telematic services
U. Telegraph switching
V. Data communication over the telephone network
X. Data networks and open system communications
Y. Global information infrastructure and Internet protocol aspects
Z. Languages and general software aspects for telecommunication
systems
Confidence & security in the use of ICT - Malaysia, 21 August 2003
33
Descargar

ITU-T: Strategies in Standardization